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Jewish communities in the European Union

23-01-2020

The Jewish population in the EU has been diminishing in recent decades, and has witnessed an increase in acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish violence in recent years. In defence of its values, including respect for minorities, the EU undertakes and funds actions to counter anti-Semitism. This is a further updated version of an 'at a glance' note published in January 2019.

The Jewish population in the EU has been diminishing in recent decades, and has witnessed an increase in acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish violence in recent years. In defence of its values, including respect for minorities, the EU undertakes and funds actions to counter anti-Semitism. This is a further updated version of an 'at a glance' note published in January 2019.

The European Union and Holocaust remembrance

23-01-2020

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary ...

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary executions ('Holocaust by Bullets') and extermination in death camps. The perpetrators were prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials in 1945-1946; however, the tribunal preferred to indict them on charges of crimes against humanity rather than genocide. It was not until 2005, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz that a United Nations resolution designated 27 January the day for international commemoration of the Holocaust, to be known as 'International Holocaust Remembrance Day'. In the European Union, numerous programmes seek to preserve the memory of these tragic events in the history of the continent. Since 1995, the European Parliament has adopted resolutions drawing attention to the obligation to remember not only through commemorations but also through education. In November 2018, the EU became a permanent international partner of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA). This is a further updated version of a briefing from January 2018.

Ten issues to watch in 2020

06-01-2020

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are biodiversity, EU policies for children, the 5G era, the price for energy transition, 'gamification' of EU democracy, finding solutions for asylum policy, the EU's long-term budget, climate action, the US elections, and the Arctic.

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are biodiversity, EU policies for children, the 5G era, the price for energy transition, 'gamification' of EU democracy, finding solutions for asylum policy, the EU's long-term budget, climate action, the US elections, and the Arctic.

The European Commission package of ETIAS consequential amendments: Substitute impact assessment

20-12-2019

On 7 January 2019, the European Commission presented two proposals for amendments to the legal instruments of the EU information systems following the adoption of Regulation 2018/1240 on the establishment of a European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS). The ETIAS Regulation requires all visa-exempt non-EU nationals to apply online for travel authorisation prior to the date of their departure. Neither the original Commission proposal for ETIAS, nor the two subsequent proposals (‘ ...

On 7 January 2019, the European Commission presented two proposals for amendments to the legal instruments of the EU information systems following the adoption of Regulation 2018/1240 on the establishment of a European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS). The ETIAS Regulation requires all visa-exempt non-EU nationals to apply online for travel authorisation prior to the date of their departure. Neither the original Commission proposal for ETIAS, nor the two subsequent proposals (‘the Commission package’) were accompanied by Commission impact assessments. The European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) therefore requested a targeted substitute impact assessment of the expected fundamental rights impacts of specific elements of the Commission package. In particular, this study assesses: 1) whether the amendments to the ECRIS-TCN Regulation provided for in the Commission package extend the scope of that information system and, if so, whether such an extension is necessary and proportionate in accordance with Article 52(1) of the EU Charter; and 2) whether the amendments regarding the automated processing of ETIAS application files through comparisons against data present in EU information systems raise concerns in relation to the rights to respect for private life and protection of personal data.

Údar seachtarach

This study has been written by Dr Niovi Vavoula from Queen Mary University of London at the request of the Ex-ante Impact Assessment Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Global Trendometer 2019

18-12-2019

The new Global Trendometer examines topics ranging from deliberative democracy and the future of social policy in Europe, to scenarios for Northern Africa, China's social credit system, the auditing of algorithms and space as a new frontier.

The new Global Trendometer examines topics ranging from deliberative democracy and the future of social policy in Europe, to scenarios for Northern Africa, China's social credit system, the auditing of algorithms and space as a new frontier.

Election of the European Ombudsman

10-12-2019

In December, the European Parliament is set to elect the European Ombudsman for the new parliamentary term following a public hearing of the candidates by the Committee on Petitions (PETI). Five candidates are running: Giuseppe Fortunato (Italy), Ombudsman of the Campania Region; Julia Laffranque (Estonia), judge at the European Court of Human Rights; Nils Muižnieks (Latvia), former Commissioner for Human Rights at the Council of Europe; Emily O'Reilly (Ireland), the incumbent Ombudsman (since 2014 ...

In December, the European Parliament is set to elect the European Ombudsman for the new parliamentary term following a public hearing of the candidates by the Committee on Petitions (PETI). Five candidates are running: Giuseppe Fortunato (Italy), Ombudsman of the Campania Region; Julia Laffranque (Estonia), judge at the European Court of Human Rights; Nils Muižnieks (Latvia), former Commissioner for Human Rights at the Council of Europe; Emily O'Reilly (Ireland), the incumbent Ombudsman (since 2014); and Cecilia Wikström (Sweden), former MEP and Chair of the PETI committee.

The European Council under the Lisbon Treaty: How has the institution evolved since 2009?

04-12-2019

On 1 December 2009, with the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council became a formal EU institution. Ten years later, the European Council is seen by many as representing the centre of gravity of the EU's institutional framework. However, was this development purely the result of the changes to the Treaties made with Lisbon or did it happen naturally over time? This study analyses both the formal changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty and the incremental evolution resulting ...

On 1 December 2009, with the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council became a formal EU institution. Ten years later, the European Council is seen by many as representing the centre of gravity of the EU's institutional framework. However, was this development purely the result of the changes to the Treaties made with Lisbon or did it happen naturally over time? This study analyses both the formal changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty and the incremental evolution resulting from the institution's day-to-day practice, including the European Council's behaviour during the various crises of the last decade. It outlines the responsibilities envisaged for the European Council in the Treaty and the informal roles it has taken on over time. It explores the extent to which the Lisbon Treaty changed the functioning of the European Council, and how EU leaders themselves tried to optimise the working methods of their institution. Special attention is to the new position of full-time European Council President and the way in which the first two incumbents have interpreted their office. The analysis concludes that, while the EU’s various crises strongly contributed to the rise of the European Council, the Lisbon Treaty united two previously separate dimensions – the political and the legal, formally adding new competences to the role already performed by the EU Heads of State or Government. Many of these competences have yet to be fully exploited and represent a rich seam of unused Treaty potential for the future.

Common minimum standards of civil procedure: European Added Value Assessment

28-11-2019

The European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) estimates whether and to what extent adoption of EU minimum standards of civil procedure could generate European added value. The European added value is quantified as a percentage reduction of the total cost of civil procedure. The total cost of civil procedure is estimated based on data on the number of civil and commercial proceedings in the EU-28 and the cost of litigation in the Member States. Based on this analysis, the EAVA estimates that introducing ...

The European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) estimates whether and to what extent adoption of EU minimum standards of civil procedure could generate European added value. The European added value is quantified as a percentage reduction of the total cost of civil procedure. The total cost of civil procedure is estimated based on data on the number of civil and commercial proceedings in the EU-28 and the cost of litigation in the Member States. Based on this analysis, the EAVA estimates that introducing EU common minimum standards of civil procedure could reduce annual costs for citizens and businesses in the European Union by as much as €4.7 to 7.9 billion per annum. The European added value could be potentially generated through reduction of fragmentation, simplification and filling gaps in the current EU procedural rules. Furthermore, EU common minimum standards would contribute towards building mutual trust between judicial authorities of different Member States. Increasing trust has the potential to enhance legal certainty and stability for citizens and businesses, further reduce uncertainty and delay costs.

The European Council in 2018

27-11-2019

Two issues preoccupied the European Council in 2018: Brexit and migration. Whereas Brexit was an issue on which leaders of the EU27 could agree, migration was extremely divisive. Other issues of concern to the European Council included reform of Economic and Monetary Union, relations with the United States, and possible EU enlargement in the Western Balkans.

Two issues preoccupied the European Council in 2018: Brexit and migration. Whereas Brexit was an issue on which leaders of the EU27 could agree, migration was extremely divisive. Other issues of concern to the European Council included reform of Economic and Monetary Union, relations with the United States, and possible EU enlargement in the Western Balkans.

Údar seachtarach

Dinan, Desmond

European borders [What Think Tanks are thinking]

22-11-2019

The European Union helps its Member States to secure their external borders, whilst ensuring an area of free movement without internal borders. Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, inter alia, coordinates and organises joint operations with Member States, provides surveillance and risk analysis, and supports cooperation between law enforcement authorities. The EU also helps Member States to fight crimes such as human trafficking, child abuse and smuggling of illegal goods. The issue ...

The European Union helps its Member States to secure their external borders, whilst ensuring an area of free movement without internal borders. Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, inter alia, coordinates and organises joint operations with Member States, provides surveillance and risk analysis, and supports cooperation between law enforcement authorities. The EU also helps Member States to fight crimes such as human trafficking, child abuse and smuggling of illegal goods. The issue of borders is closely linked to EU migration policy, which is being debated with a view to its reform, following the 2015 migration crisis. This note offers links to commentaries and studies by major international think tanks on the issue of borders and some related reports on migration. More papers specifically on migration can be found in earlier items from the same series, published in October and December 2018.

Imeachtaí atá ar na bacáin

28-01-2020
Western Balkans: A rocky road to enlargement
Imeacht eile -
EPRS
29-01-2020
Where all students can succeed: Analysing the latest OECD PISA results
Imeacht eile -
EPRS
29-01-2020
The Future of Artificial Intelligence for Europe
Ceardlann -
STOA

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