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The European Council under the Lisbon Treaty: How has the institution evolved since 2009?

04-12-2019

On 1 December 2009, with the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council became a formal EU institution. Ten years later, the European Council is seen by many as representing the centre of gravity of the EU's institutional framework. However, was this development purely the result of the changes to the Treaties made with Lisbon or did it happen naturally over time? This study analyses both the formal changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty and the incremental evolution resulting ...

On 1 December 2009, with the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Council became a formal EU institution. Ten years later, the European Council is seen by many as representing the centre of gravity of the EU's institutional framework. However, was this development purely the result of the changes to the Treaties made with Lisbon or did it happen naturally over time? This study analyses both the formal changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty and the incremental evolution resulting from the institution's day-to-day practice, including the European Council's behaviour during the various crises of the last decade. It outlines the responsibilities envisaged for the European Council in the Treaty and the informal roles it has taken on over time. It explores the extent to which the Lisbon Treaty changed the functioning of the European Council, and how EU leaders themselves tried to optimise the working methods of their institution. Special attention is to the new position of full-time European Council President and the way in which the first two incumbents have interpreted their office. The analysis concludes that, while the EU’s various crises strongly contributed to the rise of the European Council, the Lisbon Treaty united two previously separate dimensions – the political and the legal, formally adding new competences to the role already performed by the EU Heads of State or Government. Many of these competences have yet to be fully exploited and represent a rich seam of unused Treaty potential for the future.

The European Council in 2018

27-11-2019

Two issues preoccupied the European Council in 2018: Brexit and migration. Whereas Brexit was an issue on which leaders of the EU27 could agree, migration was extremely divisive. Other issues of concern to the European Council included reform of Economic and Monetary Union, relations with the United States, and possible EU enlargement in the Western Balkans.

Two issues preoccupied the European Council in 2018: Brexit and migration. Whereas Brexit was an issue on which leaders of the EU27 could agree, migration was extremely divisive. Other issues of concern to the European Council included reform of Economic and Monetary Union, relations with the United States, and possible EU enlargement in the Western Balkans.

Vanjski autor

Dinan, Desmond

Cultural heritage in EU discourse and in the Horizon 2020 programme

22-11-2019

The EU recognises its Member States' collective cultural heritage both as a European legacy and as a contributor to EU growth and development. That is why, the Horizon 2020 programme was singled out as one of the 'new generation of EU instruments' to safeguard and enhance the EU's cultural heritage. Between 2014 and early 2019, €495 million was invested in Horizon 2020 research actions related to the EU's cultural heritage to achieve this goal, and experts recognise programme’s achievements. The ...

The EU recognises its Member States' collective cultural heritage both as a European legacy and as a contributor to EU growth and development. That is why, the Horizon 2020 programme was singled out as one of the 'new generation of EU instruments' to safeguard and enhance the EU's cultural heritage. Between 2014 and early 2019, €495 million was invested in Horizon 2020 research actions related to the EU's cultural heritage to achieve this goal, and experts recognise programme’s achievements. The new 2021-2027 Horizon Europe programme should continue and enhance its support as well as contribute to keeping the legacy of the 2018 European Year of Cultural Heritage.

Payment service providers and the fight against e-commerce VAT fraud

24-10-2019

This briefing analyses the quality of the IA accompanying the Commission’s proposal to transmit payment service providers’ data to the national tax authorities of the EU Member States in order to combat cross-border e-commerce VAT fraud. The IA focuses on the economic impacts, namely the potential recovery of VAT loss by Member States, which is expected to outweigh the costs of the initiative (even though benefits and costs could not be quantified with certainty). Regional divergences are acknowledged ...

This briefing analyses the quality of the IA accompanying the Commission’s proposal to transmit payment service providers’ data to the national tax authorities of the EU Member States in order to combat cross-border e-commerce VAT fraud. The IA focuses on the economic impacts, namely the potential recovery of VAT loss by Member States, which is expected to outweigh the costs of the initiative (even though benefits and costs could not be quantified with certainty). Regional divergences are acknowledged in the IA, but not assessed. The IA also admits that a key assumption, the improved cooperation with third countries, remains uncertain (it could imply counterproductive trade diversion towards extra-EU areas).

International Agreements – Review and Monitoring Clauses - A Rolling Check-List

24-10-2019

This study provides an analysis and overview of the review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses, consultation clauses and management and implementation clauses contained in bilateral and multilateral international agreements concluded between the EU and other countries, and in force as of 1 September 2019.

This study provides an analysis and overview of the review and monitoring clauses, sunset clauses, consultation clauses and management and implementation clauses contained in bilateral and multilateral international agreements concluded between the EU and other countries, and in force as of 1 September 2019.

The EU strategy for international cooperation in research and innovation

22-10-2019

In 2012, the Commission announced the EU's strategic approach to enhancing EU international cooperation in research and innovation, and in this it underlined the role for the EU that derives from being a global leader in research and innovation. It also pinpointed the Horizon 2020 programme (2014-2020) and science diplomacy as the main tools for implementing the strategy. This Implementation Appraisal presents and evaluates the implementation of the strategy after a number of years in force, examining ...

In 2012, the Commission announced the EU's strategic approach to enhancing EU international cooperation in research and innovation, and in this it underlined the role for the EU that derives from being a global leader in research and innovation. It also pinpointed the Horizon 2020 programme (2014-2020) and science diplomacy as the main tools for implementing the strategy. This Implementation Appraisal presents and evaluates the implementation of the strategy after a number of years in force, examining both successes and shortcomings. It also stresses the need to ensure the efficient use of means in the financial framework for 2021 to 2027.

Outcome of the European Council of 17-18 October 2019

22-10-2019

After endorsing the revised UK withdrawal agreement, and approving a revised political declaration, in the European Council (Article 50) format, EU Heads of State or Government had to tackle a range of divisive issues at their 17-18 October meeting, including the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework, enlargement, climate change and Turkey. EU leaders were not able to find common ground on key elements of the MFF, nor to reach consensus on the opening of accession negotiations with Albania and ...

After endorsing the revised UK withdrawal agreement, and approving a revised political declaration, in the European Council (Article 50) format, EU Heads of State or Government had to tackle a range of divisive issues at their 17-18 October meeting, including the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework, enlargement, climate change and Turkey. EU leaders were not able to find common ground on key elements of the MFF, nor to reach consensus on the opening of accession negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia. On climate, the European Council only reiterated its June 2019 conclusions considering persistent lack of agreement on raising climate targets. With respect to Turkey, EU leaders did not go beyond the Foreign Affairs Council conclusions, either in the area of sanctions or in the area of arms exports control. In the presence of the European Commission President-elect, Ursula von der Leyen, EU leaders also discussed the political priorities of the EU for the coming years and the follow-up to the Strategic Agenda 2019-24.

Outcome of the European Council (Article 50) meeting on 17 October 2019

22-10-2019

Leaders of the 27 EU Member States endorsed the agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union with a revised Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland, as well as a revised political declaration on the framework of the future EU-UK relationship. They invited the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council to take steps to ensure the entry into force of the withdrawal agreement by 1 November 2019. Following postponement of the House of Commons vote to approve the deal ...

Leaders of the 27 EU Member States endorsed the agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union with a revised Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland, as well as a revised political declaration on the framework of the future EU-UK relationship. They invited the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council to take steps to ensure the entry into force of the withdrawal agreement by 1 November 2019. Following postponement of the House of Commons vote to approve the deal, President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, will consult the EU-27 Heads of State or Government as to whether to agree to the request he received on 19 October for an extension of the Article 50 negotiation period to 31 January 2020.

Revision of the EU system for monitoring, reporting and verifying CO2 emissions from ships

18-10-2019

This initial appraisal assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment accompanying its proposals to revise the EU system to monitor, report, and verify CO2 emissions from ships, established by Regulation (EU) 2015/757. The proposal envisages aligning partially the EU system with the system adopted by the International Maritime Organization to monitor and report ship's fuel oil consumption. While the IA clearly identifies the problem – to facilitate the simultaneous ...

This initial appraisal assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment accompanying its proposals to revise the EU system to monitor, report, and verify CO2 emissions from ships, established by Regulation (EU) 2015/757. The proposal envisages aligning partially the EU system with the system adopted by the International Maritime Organization to monitor and report ship's fuel oil consumption. While the IA clearly identifies the problem – to facilitate the simultaneous application of the EU and IMO systems – its evolution could have been substantiated further. The general objectives identified by the IA are not entirely consistent with the manner in which the problem was defined; furthermore, there are no specific objectives, contrary to the requirements of the Better Regulation guidelines. The operational objective identified is not defined in operational terms. The only two options considered for further assessment, in addition to the baseline, do not appear to be substantially very different from each other, with the third option even being judged artificial by the Commission’s Regulatory Scrutiny Board. Moreover, the IA does not appear to have succeeded in structuring these two options convincingly. The analysis regarding the impacts of the identified options is very succinct. The Commission consulted a wide range of stakeholders, whose views were satisfactorily reported in the IA and were taken into account when considering the policy options. Overall, the IA appears to have taken on board most of the RSB's recommendations. However, the final revision of the IA report does not appear to have quantified the cost savings of the preferred option, as demanded by the RSB, and still contains Option 3, which the RSB had recommended to discard. As the IA does not explain how it has addressed the Board's suggestion regarding Option 3, it is unclear whether any changes were made to it or it was left untouched. Finally, the legislative proposal seems to be substantially consistent with the analysis carried out in the IA.

Western Balkans: State of play in the European Council

17-10-2019

The Western Balkans have regularly featured on the agenda of the European Council since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009. Three dimensions – enlargement, counter-terrorism and migration – have been at the centre of the EU leaders' discussion of the subject. The European Commission recommended twice in the last two years the opening of accession negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia. In the absence of an agreement at the 15 October 2019 General Affairs Council, the ...

The Western Balkans have regularly featured on the agenda of the European Council since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009. Three dimensions – enlargement, counter-terrorism and migration – have been at the centre of the EU leaders' discussion of the subject. The European Commission recommended twice in the last two years the opening of accession negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia. In the absence of an agreement at the 15 October 2019 General Affairs Council, the decision on whether to open accession negotiations with the two countries now lies with the European Council.

Buduća događanja

10-12-2019
EU institutional dynamics: Ten years after the Lisbon Treaty
Drugo događanje -
EPRS
11-12-2019
Take-aways from 2019 and outlook for 2020: What Think Tanks are Thinking
Drugo događanje -
EPRS

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