27

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Safeguarding competition in air transport

20-05-2019

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, ...

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, the Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a regulation on safeguarding competition in air transport. The objective of the proposal is to provide effective legislation in order ‘to maintain conditions conducive to a high level of Union connectivity and to ensure fair competition with third countries’ air carriers’. Parliament and Council reached agreement on the text in November 2018. The text was formally adopted by Parliament on 14 March 2019 and by Council on 9 April. Signed on 17 April, the new regulation comes into force on 30 May 2019. Fifth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Access to the occupation of road transport operator and to the international road haulage market

08-04-2019

The regulations on admission to the occupation of road transport operator and on access to the international road transport market have been contributing to the functioning of EU road transport and fair competition between resident and non-resident hauliers since December 2011. Despite the improvements they have brought to the sector, however, persistent shortcomings such as diverging national application of the rules and uneven enforcement called for a revision of both acts. On 31 May 2017, as part ...

The regulations on admission to the occupation of road transport operator and on access to the international road transport market have been contributing to the functioning of EU road transport and fair competition between resident and non-resident hauliers since December 2011. Despite the improvements they have brought to the sector, however, persistent shortcomings such as diverging national application of the rules and uneven enforcement called for a revision of both acts. On 31 May 2017, as part of a 'mobility package', the European Commission adopted a new proposal to address the main shortcomings affecting the sector, and improve its competitiveness and efficiency. In June 2018, Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) adopted its report and a negotiating mandate for trilogue. However, Parliament did not endorse the mandate and in July 2018, rejected the report, referring it back to the committee. In the meantime, the Council reached a general approach on the three proposals in the package, in December 2018. On 10 January 2019, the TRAN committee adopted a compromise proposal but failed to reach an agreement on the two linked files on driving times and posting. In March, the Conference of Presidents decided to include this file on the agenda of the March II plenary session. After procedural complications, Parliament adopted its first-reading position during the subsequent plenary session, on 4 April 2019.

Empowering national competition authorities (NCAs)

18-02-2019

Since 2003, national competition authorities (NCAs) have boosted the enforcement of EU competition and antitrust rules significantly. However, each year losses of €181-320 billion accrue because of undiscovered cartels, which increase prices by between 17 % and 30 % on average. In March 2017, the Commission proposed a new directive to ensure that all NCAs have effective investigation and decision-making tools, could impose deterrent fines, and have well-designed leniency programmes and enough resources ...

Since 2003, national competition authorities (NCAs) have boosted the enforcement of EU competition and antitrust rules significantly. However, each year losses of €181-320 billion accrue because of undiscovered cartels, which increase prices by between 17 % and 30 % on average. In March 2017, the Commission proposed a new directive to ensure that all NCAs have effective investigation and decision-making tools, could impose deterrent fines, and have well-designed leniency programmes and enough resources to enforce EU competition rules independently. On 30 May 2018, Parliament and Council reached an agreement on the proposal in trilogue. It increases the independence, resources and powers of NCAs and envisages more harmonisation of the national leniency programmes and reduced burdens on undertakings. Parliament adopted the text on 14 November 2018, the final act was signed on 11 December 2018. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Study in focus - Competition in Air Transport

02-05-2018

This note summarises the main points presented in the study on Competition in Air Transport.

This note summarises the main points presented in the study on Competition in Air Transport.

Monetary policy implications of financial innovation

15-05-2017

In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regulators and policy makers need to closely monitor the potential effects of FinTech on monetary policy transmission and to adequately adjust financial sector regulation ...

In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regulators and policy makers need to closely monitor the potential effects of FinTech on monetary policy transmission and to adequately adjust financial sector regulation.

Külső szerző

Kerstin BERNOTH (DIW Berlin and Hertie School of Governance), Stefan GEBAUER, Dorothea SCHÄFER (DIW Berlin)

Access to the occupation of road transport operator and to the international road haulage market

15-03-2017

Regulation (EC) No 1071/2009 and Regulation (EC) No 1072/2009 set out a common legal framework to access road transport operator business and the road haulage market. The different analyses and studies carried out at European level show that the two regulations had positive effects on the internal market (such as harmonisation, introduction of quantitative criteria, clarification of terms, linking of the international cabotage to international carriage operations) and are an appropriate tool to deal ...

Regulation (EC) No 1071/2009 and Regulation (EC) No 1072/2009 set out a common legal framework to access road transport operator business and the road haulage market. The different analyses and studies carried out at European level show that the two regulations had positive effects on the internal market (such as harmonisation, introduction of quantitative criteria, clarification of terms, linking of the international cabotage to international carriage operations) and are an appropriate tool to deal with this issue. Nevertheless, several shortcomings were identified, considerably limiting the efficiency of the two legislative acts. Improvements are therefore needed, in particular regarding cabotage performance, rules enforcement, clarifying problematic terms, letterbox companies, and infringements. At the same time, harmonising the issues interpreted differently by Member States will benefit the market as a whole. The situations experienced by stakeholders, as well as best practices, could provide useful input for future approaches in this field. Beyond specific provisions and particular issues to be clarified and/or improved, the existing evaluations show that the most appropriate approach for the future would be a progressive opening of the haulage market and a deeper harmonisation at economic, legal and social level across the European Union.

Overview of the internal energy market design legislation

23-01-2017

The new proposals build on previous legislation and continue to gradually implement an internal energy market. In particular, they look to incorporate recent changes, such as the rapid increase in renewables and technological advances relating to the digitalisation of services. They also attempt to clarify previous legislation such as in the case of storage for Transmission System Operators (TSOs) for example. As with the recent proposals on security of gas supply, the Commission looks to incorporate ...

The new proposals build on previous legislation and continue to gradually implement an internal energy market. In particular, they look to incorporate recent changes, such as the rapid increase in renewables and technological advances relating to the digitalisation of services. They also attempt to clarify previous legislation such as in the case of storage for Transmission System Operators (TSOs) for example. As with the recent proposals on security of gas supply, the Commission looks to incorporate a regional approach as the default option for assessing needs and mitigating risks. The Commission's evaluation, as well as the review of the implementation process, have shown that, while progress has been made, challenges to create a properly functioning internal market remain. The challenges identified by the evaluation, such as price controls, insufficient cross-border trade, uncoordinated national interventions and issues around regulatory independence, are addressed by the current proposals. However, it is also clear from the evaluation that progress towards a well-functioning and competitive energy market has not been consistent across the EU. Where progress has been made, the effects have been positive, although the evaluation does not look at examples of best practice to assess the best way forward. The EU- wide oversight of national regulators and TSOs is seen as positive, but question marks remain in terms of whether the suggested changes will be sufficient. Several reviews on the topic have noted that the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) lack sufficient powers to be effective and it is unclear whether the current proposals will properly address this issue. The public consultations also pointed to the dual role of the European Network for Transmission System Operators for electricity (ENTSO-E), as both a lobby organisation and a representative of public interest,  as potentially problematic. The creation of a European Distribution System Operator (DSO) could possibly duplicate this issue. The evaluation does not include any assessment around infrastructure legislation or the EU's role in this area; however, it notes that the incentives for private investments have been insufficient so far. It is hoped that the proposed moves to a more flexible and price-driven market should improve investment conditions. As reforms in this area have been ongoing since the 1990s, it will be particularly important to continue to monitor progress and to what extent the new proposals increase competition and a well-functioning, price-led market. In terms of the Parliament's demands, many of its requests are reflected in the proposals, such as calls for more regional cooperation, for example. They do not, however, include a review of the gas market or interconnectivity objectives differentiated by regions; nor do they look to address to any great extent the issue of external import. In the case of the ACER, Parliament had asked for a substantial increase in resources. While the proposals strengthen the agency's position, the Commission decided not to propose making the ACER into a pan-European regulator, with the increase in budget and staff that such a move would have entailed.

Economic and Monetary Policy

15-09-2015

This briefing, prepared by the Policy Department A: Economy and Scientific Policy, provides a quick overview of the most recent publications grouped in the sections of Financial services, Monetary policy and Competition topics that are currently discussed in the ECON committee.

This briefing, prepared by the Policy Department A: Economy and Scientific Policy, provides a quick overview of the most recent publications grouped in the sections of Financial services, Monetary policy and Competition topics that are currently discussed in the ECON committee.

The Cost of Non-Europe in the Single Market for Energy (+ Annexes I-IV + Booklet)

14-06-2013

On 23 January 2013, the Coordinators of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) requested a Cost of Non-Europe report with regard to the Single Market for Energy to support the preparation of an own-initiative report entitled ‘Making the internal energy market work’ (2013/2005(INI) – Rapporteur: Jerzy Buzek). This paper has been drawn up by the European Added Value Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the European Parliament’s Directorate-General ...

On 23 January 2013, the Coordinators of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) requested a Cost of Non-Europe report with regard to the Single Market for Energy to support the preparation of an own-initiative report entitled ‘Making the internal energy market work’ (2013/2005(INI) – Rapporteur: Jerzy Buzek). This paper has been drawn up by the European Added Value Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the European Parliament’s Directorate-General for Internal Policies (DG IPOL). Its aim is to help improve understanding about the subject matter by providing evidence of the specific costs to economic operators and individual citizens of failing to move towards a more efficient and effective internal energy market. This assessment builds on expert research commissioned specifically for the purpose and presented in the following annexes: ANNEX I: Quantification of the costs of the existing gaps and barriers in the energy internal market (by Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)) ; ANNEX II: Effectiveness of the Energy Internal Market (by D. Buchan from the Oxford Institute for Energy) ; ANNEX III: Infrastructure for the Energy Internal Market (by G. Zachmann from Bruegel Think Tank) ; ANNEX IV: Role of competition in the Energy Internal Market (by Dr. Professor J. Haucap, Dr U. Heimeshoff and V. Böckers from Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE))

Külső szerző

Timme van Melle, Raphael Sauter, Axel Volkery and Christina Beestermoeller of Ecofys and the Institute for European Environmental Policy (Annex I), D. Buchan (Annex II), G. Zachmann (Annex III), J. Haucap (Annex IV)

Proceedings of the Workshop on "The Award of Concession Contracts"

15-06-2012

The workshop set out to clarify questions and problems pertaining to the award of concessions contracts. For this purpose it focused on four main topics: the characteristics and problems of the award of concessions contracts from an economic perspective, the legal perspective on the Commission's proposal, the risks of corruption and collusion related to concessions contracts, and legal definitions of concessions in the Member States.

The workshop set out to clarify questions and problems pertaining to the award of concessions contracts. For this purpose it focused on four main topics: the characteristics and problems of the award of concessions contracts from an economic perspective, the legal perspective on the Commission's proposal, the risks of corruption and collusion related to concessions contracts, and legal definitions of concessions in the Member States.

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