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Légi közlekedés: a polgári légi közlekedés védelme

01-02-2018

A légi közlekedés védelme (nem tévesztendő össze a légi közlekedés biztonságával[1]) a légi jármű és utasai, illetve személyzete ellen irányuló rosszindulatú cselekmények megelőzését szolgálja. A 2001-es borzasztó támadásokat követően az EU számos biztonsági szabályt fogadott el a polgári légi közlekedés védelme érdekében. Ezeket a szabályokat a kockázatok alakulása függvényében rendszeresen frissítik. A tagállamok fenntartják maguknak a jogot, hogy szigorúbb intézkedéseket vezessenek be.

A légi közlekedés védelme (nem tévesztendő össze a légi közlekedés biztonságával[1]) a légi jármű és utasai, illetve személyzete ellen irányuló rosszindulatú cselekmények megelőzését szolgálja. A 2001-es borzasztó támadásokat követően az EU számos biztonsági szabályt fogadott el a polgári légi közlekedés védelme érdekében. Ezeket a szabályokat a kockázatok alakulása függvényében rendszeresen frissítik. A tagállamok fenntartják maguknak a jogot, hogy szigorúbb intézkedéseket vezessenek be.

Court of Justice rules on passenger compensation for flight delays

02-12-2015

According to EU law, passengers have the right to a fixed level of compensation if their flight is cancelled or subject to a long delay. However, airlines can escape liability if they prove that 'extraordinary circumstances' caused the cancellation or delay. The Court of Justice of the EU has recently ruled that unexpected technical problems cannot count as 'extraordinary circumstances'.

According to EU law, passengers have the right to a fixed level of compensation if their flight is cancelled or subject to a long delay. However, airlines can escape liability if they prove that 'extraordinary circumstances' caused the cancellation or delay. The Court of Justice of the EU has recently ruled that unexpected technical problems cannot count as 'extraordinary circumstances'.

The proposed EU passenger name records (PNR) directive: Revived in the new security context

30-04-2015

After the Paris attacks of January 2015, the fight against terrorism and the phenomenon of foreign fighters is now higher than ever on the EU agenda, with a series of new measures being discussed, and existing ones refocused. In this context, the EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) proposal is once again in the spotlight. The current proposal dates back to 2011, but was rejected by the European Parliament's LIBE Committee in April 2013. However, given the new security context, and following numerous ...

After the Paris attacks of January 2015, the fight against terrorism and the phenomenon of foreign fighters is now higher than ever on the EU agenda, with a series of new measures being discussed, and existing ones refocused. In this context, the EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) proposal is once again in the spotlight. The current proposal dates back to 2011, but was rejected by the European Parliament's LIBE Committee in April 2013. However, given the new security context, and following numerous calls from EU Member States, the European Parliament committed to work towards the finalisation of an EU PNR directive by the end of 2015. Nevertheless, not everybody is convinced by the efficacy of the proposed measure, and many stakeholders question its necessity and proportionality, whilst highlighting the different fundamental-rights risks inherent in any PNR scheme. It is also argued that legislators should take into account the impact of the recent annulment of the Data Retention Directive by the Court of Justice of the EU. Privacy and civil liberties activists warn against the measure's intrusive nature, and see it as another step on the road to a surveillance society. On the other hand, air carriers advocate swift adoption of an EU PNR directive, providing harmonised legislation at EU level, rather than a set of diverging national rules. Indeed, more and more Member States are developing PNR data-collection systems, and the European Commission has made EU funding available for this purpose.

The Cost of Non-Europe in the Single Market for Transport and Tourism

28-10-2014

Significant progress has been achieved during the last 20 years in creating a Single Market for Transports. European tourism is and will remain a vital component of the economy, with enormous economic potential. Both sectors suffer however from remaining barriers, gaps and market inefficiencies that create substantial costs and that could be addressed through further action at EU level. The gains that could be achieved from addressing the identified issues have been estimated at 8.6 billion euro ...

Significant progress has been achieved during the last 20 years in creating a Single Market for Transports. European tourism is and will remain a vital component of the economy, with enormous economic potential. Both sectors suffer however from remaining barriers, gaps and market inefficiencies that create substantial costs and that could be addressed through further action at EU level. The gains that could be achieved from addressing the identified issues have been estimated at 8.6 billion euro annually for the transport sector and 6.2 billion euro annually for the tourism sector. Creating a fully integrated transport sector and a more efficient tourism sector will also mean improved mobility, better environmental sustainability, enhanced internal cohesion and international competitiveness of the EU. Action in these two sectors can be seen as a key driver of EU growth and as a response on how to face the globalisation challenges more efficiently.

Air passenger rights

30-01-2014

Updates to the EU rules on air passenger rights are currently under discussion. They are intended to clarify key principles and passenger rights that have given rise to disputes between airlines and travellers in the past.

Updates to the EU rules on air passenger rights are currently under discussion. They are intended to clarify key principles and passenger rights that have given rise to disputes between airlines and travellers in the past.

Passenger Name Records Agreement: EU agreements with the US and other third countries

01-07-2011

After the first PNR agreements concluded after 9/11 proved controversial and encountered legal difficulties, the Commission is now negotiating long-term PNR agreements with three key third countries: the US, Canada and Australia.

After the first PNR agreements concluded after 9/11 proved controversial and encountered legal difficulties, the Commission is now negotiating long-term PNR agreements with three key third countries: the US, Canada and Australia.

Fogyasztói jogok a polgári repülés terén

15-11-2010

Ez a tanulmány általános áttekintést nyújt a légi utasok jogairól szóló uniós jogszabályok végrehajtásáról. A vonatkozó jogi keret rövid ismertetését követően a tanulmány beszámol a leginkább érintett uniós tagállamok nemzeti végrehajtó szervei és fogyasztóvédelmi szövetségei közötti, a 261/2004/EK, a 2111/2005/EK, az 1107/2006/EK rendelet és a 90/314/EGK irányelv végrehajtásáról folytatott konzultáció eredményéről. A cél az uniós intézmények további intézkedési körének meghatározása a fogyasztói ...

Ez a tanulmány általános áttekintést nyújt a légi utasok jogairól szóló uniós jogszabályok végrehajtásáról. A vonatkozó jogi keret rövid ismertetését követően a tanulmány beszámol a leginkább érintett uniós tagállamok nemzeti végrehajtó szervei és fogyasztóvédelmi szövetségei közötti, a 261/2004/EK, a 2111/2005/EK, az 1107/2006/EK rendelet és a 90/314/EGK irányelv végrehajtásáról folytatott konzultáció eredményéről. A cél az uniós intézmények további intézkedési körének meghatározása a fogyasztói jogok polgári repülés terén történő védelmének növelése érdekében.

Külső szerző

Giorgia Aresu, Diego Artuso and Pietro Crovato (PricewaterhouseCoopers Advisory SpA)

Towards a European PNR system ? Questions on the Added Value and the Protection of Fundamental Rights

15-01-2009

In November 2007, the European Commission published a proposal on the use of Passenger Name Record (PNR) data for law enforcement purposes. This proposal is closely related to other instruments obliging air carriers to transmit passenger data to national authorities, including Directive 2004/82/EC and various agreements that were signed with third countries. The establishment of an ‘EU PNR system’ is presented as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime, but will also be used to ...

In November 2007, the European Commission published a proposal on the use of Passenger Name Record (PNR) data for law enforcement purposes. This proposal is closely related to other instruments obliging air carriers to transmit passenger data to national authorities, including Directive 2004/82/EC and various agreements that were signed with third countries. The establishment of an ‘EU PNR system’ is presented as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime, but will also be used to investigate other crimes and to prevent illegal immigration. The European PNR system raises both practical as legal concerns. This study, taking into account the different comments of the organisations and institutions involved and the Resolution of the European Parliament of 20 November 2008, questions in the first place the efficiency and added value of the current proposal. To assess this question it takes into account existing measures on the largescale collection and storage of personal information (the Schengen Information System, Visa Information System and the EU proposals for automatic border control). The EU and its member states are bound by EU, international, and national standards on human rights. Therefore, the second part of this study describes the legal implications of an EU PNR system, focusing in particular on the right to data protection, the right to private life, the prohibition of discrimination and the issue of profiling. Finally, part three includes some final remarks and recommendations.

Külső szerző

Evelien Brouwer (Utrecht University, under the coordination of the Justice and Home Affairs Section of the Centre for European Policy Studies, CEPS)

Data Protection from a Transatlantic Perspective : the EU and US Move towards an International Data Protection Agreement ?

15-10-2008

Recent years have been marked by a growing demand of personal data for public security purposes. Access and protection of those data are climbing the transatlantic political agenda. They have raised tensions and fostered forms of cooperation. The possible conclusion of an international binding agreement on a common transatlantic framework on data protection would be a further and crucial step ahead. The scope of this study is to pave the way for launching a parliamentary debate on those issues. Therefore ...

Recent years have been marked by a growing demand of personal data for public security purposes. Access and protection of those data are climbing the transatlantic political agenda. They have raised tensions and fostered forms of cooperation. The possible conclusion of an international binding agreement on a common transatlantic framework on data protection would be a further and crucial step ahead. The scope of this study is to pave the way for launching a parliamentary debate on those issues. Therefore, it aims at providing a comparative analysis of the EU and US legislation concerning the protection of personal data collected for public security purposes. It also discusses some of the main challenges posed by new technologies as well as analyses the most relevant cases-studies of transatlantic data exchange. Finally, it takes into consideration the published outcomes of the work of the High Level Contact Group.

Külső szerző

Paul De Hert and Rocco Bellanova (CEPS, Bruxelles, Belgique)

The Revision of the Code of Conduct for Computerised Reservation Systems (CRS)

15-05-2008

This briefing note examines the issues arising from the proposed new Code of Conduct for Computerised Reservation Systems. Particular attention is given to competition impact among market players (and issues related to parent carriers), MIDT travel agents information withdrawal, third country violations, and possible safeguards.

This briefing note examines the issues arising from the proposed new Code of Conduct for Computerised Reservation Systems. Particular attention is given to competition impact among market players (and issues related to parent carriers), MIDT travel agents information withdrawal, third country violations, and possible safeguards.

Külső szerző

Mario Sebastiani, Giorgia Aresu (Project Manager), Claudio Ricciolio and Emiliano Lunadei (PricewaterhouseCoopers – Advisory Srl Italy)

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