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The meaning of 'association' under EU law - A study on the law and practice of EU association agreements

18-02-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the law and practice of EU association agreements. It maps out different types of association agreements concluded on the legal basis of Article 217 TFEU and identifies the key features characterising the nature of association under EU law.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the law and practice of EU association agreements. It maps out different types of association agreements concluded on the legal basis of Article 217 TFEU and identifies the key features characterising the nature of association under EU law.

Külső szerző

Peter VAN ELSUWEGE,Merijn CHAMON

La ratification des traités internationaux, une perspective de droit comparé: Canada

11-02-2019

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit canadien, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires ...

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit canadien, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires régissant la procédure d’adoption des traités, la répartition des compétences entre les différents acteurs impliqués, ainsi que les étapes principales de la procédure de conclusion des traités. Le Canada, comme beaucoup de autres pays, réserve un rôle central au pouvoir exécutif dans le processus de conclusion des traités (c’est-à-dire la négociation, la signature et la ratification des traités). Le Canada étant un pays de tradition dualiste, la mise en œuvre des traités est toutefois du ressort du Parlement et des assemblées législatives provinciales. Cette dichotomie, qui met à risque l’observation par l’exécutif des obligations internationales du Canada, explique notamment l’accroissement récent du rôle du Parlement et des gouvernements provinciaux dans le processus de ratification. Cette étude prétend être utile aux différents organes du Parlement européen, afin de dévoiler une vision complète du processus de ratification par la contrepartie de l’Union européenne (en le cas d’espèce le Canada). Cela permettra par exemple aux organes du Parlement de fixer leurs calendriers de travaux, en tenant compte d’une estimation du temps dont la contrepartie aura besoin pour compléter la ratification d’un futur traité.

Külső szerző

Ce document a été rédigé par Prof. Dr. René Provost Ad.E., professeur titulaire, de la Faculté de droit de l’Université McGill, avec l’aide de Vincent Marquis, à la demande de l’Unité Bibliothèque de droit comparée, Direction générale des services de recherche parlementaire (DG EPRS), Secrétariat général du Parlement européen.

European policies on climate and energy towards 2020, 2030 and 2050

05-02-2019

The European Union (EU) has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020 and aims to reduce GHG emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. In order to achieve these targets, a large number of legislative actions were approved at EU level. This document, prepared by Policy Department A, gives an overview of European policies on climate and energy towards 2020, 2030 and 2050.

The European Union (EU) has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020 and aims to reduce GHG emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. In order to achieve these targets, a large number of legislative actions were approved at EU level. This document, prepared by Policy Department A, gives an overview of European policies on climate and energy towards 2020, 2030 and 2050.

Happy birthday? The euro at 20

31-01-2019

We analyse the first twenty years of the euro both from an economic and an institutional perspective. We find that in particular during the period since the financial crisis, convergence as measured by a variety of indicators has not improved. Design flaws in the Eurozone institutional architecture have contributed importantly to this lack of convergence. This is why further reforms are urgently needed. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic ...

We analyse the first twenty years of the euro both from an economic and an institutional perspective. We find that in particular during the period since the financial crisis, convergence as measured by a variety of indicators has not improved. Design flaws in the Eurozone institutional architecture have contributed importantly to this lack of convergence. This is why further reforms are urgently needed. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

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K. BERNOTH, F. BREMUS, G. DANY-KNEDLIK, H. ENDERLEIN, M. FRATZSCHER, L. GUTTENBERG, A. KRIWOLUZKY, R. LASTRA

The Economic and Monetary Union: Past, Present and Future

31-01-2019

Twenty years of euro history confirms the euro’s stability and position as the second global currency. It also enjoys the support of majority of the euro area population and is seen as a good thing for the European Union. The European Central Bank has been successful in keeping inflation at a low level. However, the European debt and financial crisis in the 2010s created a need for deep institutional reform and this task remains unfinished. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the ...

Twenty years of euro history confirms the euro’s stability and position as the second global currency. It also enjoys the support of majority of the euro area population and is seen as a good thing for the European Union. The European Central Bank has been successful in keeping inflation at a low level. However, the European debt and financial crisis in the 2010s created a need for deep institutional reform and this task remains unfinished. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Külső szerző

Marek Dabrowski

The Euro@20: A critical assessment

30-01-2019

To review the strengths, weaknesses and robustness of the Euro system after 20 years is an enormous project. This paper picks out three of the less usually discussed themes, at least in this context. It focuses on the policy lessons and where design improvements are needed. It makes three points. i) the achievements in the single market are palpable and substantial, but they derive more from investment and productivity growth than they do from trade as such. This carries its own dangers: if the markets ...

To review the strengths, weaknesses and robustness of the Euro system after 20 years is an enormous project. This paper picks out three of the less usually discussed themes, at least in this context. It focuses on the policy lessons and where design improvements are needed. It makes three points. i) the achievements in the single market are palpable and substantial, but they derive more from investment and productivity growth than they do from trade as such. This carries its own dangers: if the markets are allowed to use low real wages to substitute cheap labour for more expensive capital, these gains will be lost. ii) The Euro area needs to reassess its use of monetary policy, and the need to introduce an explicit financial stability mandate. We find that financial stability and traditional monetary objectives can be achieved without one limiting the achievement of the other because the ECB has new policy tools derived from the regulatory metrics introduced to handle the expanded balance sheets of the post-crisis macro-prudential framework. iii) Fiscal governance remains a crucial issue. The North remains divided from the South over how much coordination (possibly loans or transfers) to allow. But, despite the Euro system being based on the separation of monetary and fiscal powers, the economic consequences of using those powers cannot be separated in practice. More active debt management policies offer a better and more robust way to deal with this difficulty. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

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Professor Andrew Hughes Hallett

The euro at 20: A concise critical assessment

30-01-2019

Eurozone monetary governance was framed for a stable macroeconomic environment. While the ECB policy framework changed much after the global financial crisis, this did not prevent important nominal divergences. These ones prove the importance of non-monetary factors affecting relative nominal prices, such as fiscal policy and labor market institutions. New tools are necessary to limit these nominal divergences, otherwise real divergence will continue to weaken the euro. This document was provided ...

Eurozone monetary governance was framed for a stable macroeconomic environment. While the ECB policy framework changed much after the global financial crisis, this did not prevent important nominal divergences. These ones prove the importance of non-monetary factors affecting relative nominal prices, such as fiscal policy and labor market institutions. New tools are necessary to limit these nominal divergences, otherwise real divergence will continue to weaken the euro. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Külső szerző

Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL and Xavier RAGOT

Twenty years of the euro: Resilience in the face of unexpected challenges

30-01-2019

The first 20 years of the euro were very different from what had been anticipated. Deflation, rather than inflation became a problem. Financial markets, which had been neglected, became a major source of instability. However, the euro area proved resilient and support for the euro is at historic highs. Looking to the future, the greatest danger might not be another financial crisis, but sluggish growth and an increasing gulf between countries that have successfully adjusted their public finances ...

The first 20 years of the euro were very different from what had been anticipated. Deflation, rather than inflation became a problem. Financial markets, which had been neglected, became a major source of instability. However, the euro area proved resilient and support for the euro is at historic highs. Looking to the future, the greatest danger might not be another financial crisis, but sluggish growth and an increasing gulf between countries that have successfully adjusted their public finances and those where this goal remains increasingly distant. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Külső szerző

Daniel GROS, Cinzia ALCIDI

EURO project, 20 years on: A critical assessment and the road ahead

30-01-2019

20 years have passed since EURO was first introduced in 1999. Several restructurings and crises later, the Monetary Union remains, but in a different shape and size to when it was first introduced. Against this background, the current paper critically explores the following dimensions of the Euro Area project: Credibility and stability, economic performance, uneven developments, and the main avenues/challenges for the project in the years to come. The document includes two comparative aspects: a ...

20 years have passed since EURO was first introduced in 1999. Several restructurings and crises later, the Monetary Union remains, but in a different shape and size to when it was first introduced. Against this background, the current paper critically explores the following dimensions of the Euro Area project: Credibility and stability, economic performance, uneven developments, and the main avenues/challenges for the project in the years to come. The document includes two comparative aspects: a domestic dimension from a historical perspective and a global comparison in terms of economic and monetary performance to other advanced economies during the past two decades. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Külső szerző

Eddie Gerba

Euro at 20: The Monetary Union from a Bird’s-eye View

30-01-2019

20 years after the start of the monetary union, this briefing takes stock of accomplishments and challenges. In response to the sovereign debt crisis and in its attempts to support fiscal and structural reforms and later to lift inflation back to target, the Eurosystem has manoeuvred itself in a difficult position causing unintended side-effects. At the same time, broad consensus on reforming the institutional framework of monetary and fiscal affairs is still lacking among Eurozone members. This ...

20 years after the start of the monetary union, this briefing takes stock of accomplishments and challenges. In response to the sovereign debt crisis and in its attempts to support fiscal and structural reforms and later to lift inflation back to target, the Eurosystem has manoeuvred itself in a difficult position causing unintended side-effects. At the same time, broad consensus on reforming the institutional framework of monetary and fiscal affairs is still lacking among Eurozone members. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Külső szerző

Klaus-Jürgen GERN, Stefan KOOTHS , Ulrich STOLZENBURG

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