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Export Taxes and Other Restrictions on Raw Materials and their Limitation through Free Trade Agreements: Impact on Developing Countries

28-04-2016

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff ...

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff escalation. Multilateral trade rules do not forbid the use of export taxes, but they do apply to export restrictions. The treatment of these instruments in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) negotiated by the EU varies, even between the different Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The EU should be flexible when it comes to the treatment of these instruments in trade agreements involving LDCs and small developing countries. In some cases, the EU should consider renegotiating existing agreements to remove strict prohibitions that can hamper development.

Autore esterno

Maximiliano Mendez Parra (Overseas Development Institute), Samuel R. Schubert (Webster University) and Elina Brutschin (Webster University)

Low oil prices: A double-edged sword in the fight against ISIL/Da'esh

07-03-2016

Since its establishment in 2014, ISIL/Da'esh has become one of the most dangerous terrorist organisations in history, due to its ideological appeal, territorial expansion, and diverse sources of revenue, including from oil sales. As plunging oil prices reduce the 'caliphate's' profits, they may also bear a negative impact on the capacities of the anti-ISIL/Da'esh coalition.

Since its establishment in 2014, ISIL/Da'esh has become one of the most dangerous terrorist organisations in history, due to its ideological appeal, territorial expansion, and diverse sources of revenue, including from oil sales. As plunging oil prices reduce the 'caliphate's' profits, they may also bear a negative impact on the capacities of the anti-ISIL/Da'esh coalition.

Recent Trends in Energy Prices

15-12-2015

After a dramatic fall in 2014, oil and fuel prices in euro terms increased in the first part of 2015, before decreasing again and since mid-2015 to record low levels, similar to early 2015. However, retail gas and electricity prices - which traditionally follow similar trends with some delay stabilized or in some cases even increased, in large part due to higher taxes. Large differences persist amongst EU Member States and commodities. Conversely, most experts claim that fossil fuel prices can be ...

After a dramatic fall in 2014, oil and fuel prices in euro terms increased in the first part of 2015, before decreasing again and since mid-2015 to record low levels, similar to early 2015. However, retail gas and electricity prices - which traditionally follow similar trends with some delay stabilized or in some cases even increased, in large part due to higher taxes. Large differences persist amongst EU Member States and commodities. Conversely, most experts claim that fossil fuel prices can be expected to stay “low for long.” Notwithstanding important recent progress in developing renewable fuel sources, low fossil fuel prices could discourage innovation in and adoption of cleaner energy technologies. This paper was prepared by Policy Department A for the Industry, Research and Energy Committee (ITRE).

Research on: Regulating Agricultural Derivatives Markets

15-11-2013

After years of financial deregulation, the agricultural commodity price shocks of 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 acted as a catalyst for governments to strengthen the regulation of derivatives markets. It is increasingly recognised, at national and international levels, that financial players influence the volatility of commodity prices on exchanges and in spot markets. Reforms of the legal framework of futures markets are being carried out to: - Provide additional transparency requirements in agriculture ...

After years of financial deregulation, the agricultural commodity price shocks of 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 acted as a catalyst for governments to strengthen the regulation of derivatives markets. It is increasingly recognised, at national and international levels, that financial players influence the volatility of commodity prices on exchanges and in spot markets. Reforms of the legal framework of futures markets are being carried out to: - Provide additional transparency requirements in agriculture derivatives market - Guarantee broad market information on the physical (spot) markets - Impose position limits on several agricultural commodities - Reinforce regulators' powers

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