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Anti-money laundering - reinforcing the supervisory and regulatory framework

02-09-2019

On the back of a number of high profile cases and alleged cases of money laundering, this briefing presents current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU. This briefing first outlines (1) the EU supervisory architecture and the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying anti-money laundering legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive and (2) ways that have been proposed ...

On the back of a number of high profile cases and alleged cases of money laundering, this briefing presents current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU. This briefing first outlines (1) the EU supervisory architecture and the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying anti-money laundering legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive and (2) ways that have been proposed to further improve the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory frameworks, including the 12 September 2018 Commission’s communication, the changes to the European Supervisory Authority (ESA) Regulation adopted by the co-legislators on the basis of a Commission proposal and the most recent Commission’s state of play of supervisory and regulatory landscapes on anti-money laundering. Some previous AML cases are presented in Annex. This briefing updates an EGOV briefing originally drafted in April 2018. On a more prospective note, this briefing also presents (3) some possible additional reforms to bring about a more integrated AML supervisory architecture in the EU. In that respect, President-elect U. von der Leyen’s political declaration stresses the need for further action without specifying at this stage possible additional supervisory and regulatory developments: “The complexity and sophistication of our financial system has opened the door to new risks of money laundering and terrorist financing. We need better supervision and a comprehensive policy to prevent loopholes.”

Latvia Cracks Down on Unscrupulous Banking

13-12-2018

This briefing, provided by Policy department A, discusses the Latvian banking system and its exposure to money laundering risks. It was prepared following the European Parliament’s Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Committee (TAX3) delegation visit to Latvia in August 2018.

This briefing, provided by Policy department A, discusses the Latvian banking system and its exposure to money laundering risks. It was prepared following the European Parliament’s Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Committee (TAX3) delegation visit to Latvia in August 2018.

Political and Electoral Rights of Non-citizen Residents in Latvia and Estonia: Current Situation and Perspectives

16-05-2018

Persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia (‘respective non-citizen populations’) do not have the right to take part in the elections to the European Parliament. The position of Estonia and Latvia is that their respective non-citizen populations have certain legal links with respective States but that these populations are not their nationals. There are certain differences between persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia, both regarding ...

Persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia (‘respective non-citizen populations’) do not have the right to take part in the elections to the European Parliament. The position of Estonia and Latvia is that their respective non-citizen populations have certain legal links with respective States but that these populations are not their nationals. There are certain differences between persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia, both regarding the formal title of the status and the content of the rights (for example, Estonian non-citizen population can vote in municipal elections). The background to the status of respective non-citizen populations is set by public international law rules on the statehood of Baltic States. The mainstream position is that Baltic States were unlawfully controlled by the Soviet Union until the early 1990s, therefore Soviet-era settlers and their descendants did not have an automatic right to their nationality. There are three ways of conceptualising the legal status of the respective non-citizen populations. The Estonian and Latvian position that they have a special status has been accepted by some States and, by necessary implication, by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. Some UN human rights institutions characterise these peoples as stateless. The third reading, suggested by certain legal writers, is that respective non-citizen populations are nationals with limited political rights.

Autore esterno

Martins Paparinskis

Naturalization and Citizenship in Latvia and Estonia

16-05-2018

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to ...

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to their holders while staying short of citizenship. Moreover, the author suggests that debates about the status of non-citizens in Latvia and Aliens in Estonia need to be read against the background of the two states’ history as Soviet republics and political and legal decisions that were taken in the 1990s. She supports that Citizenship has become a very emotional and contested issue in Latvia and Estonia. She goes on to say that Latvia and Estonia bring a key question regarding citizenship to light i.e. the question of the agent of citizenship : who needs to act in issues regarding citizenship and whether it is the state´s task to confer citizenship or is it an individuals’ task to claim it.

Autore esterno

Susanne Tonsmann

Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia

16-05-2018

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the ...

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the two countries and justifies the type of relationship existing with the majority of nation holder. He also suggests that from one side, full integration is the goal that needs to be pursued, while at the same time it's important to ensure the cultural and national values of Latvians and Estonians.

Autore esterno

Angela DI GREGORIO

THE INSTRUMENTS PROVIDING MACRO-FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO EU MEMBER STATES

12-01-2017

This paper revises the European instruments for macro-financial stability providing financial support to member states. Three instruments, created on an ad-hoc basis during the crisis, are temporary and should gradually disappear. One instrument reserved for non-euro area member states, and others targeted at euro area countries remain in place. In the long term, the European Stability Mechanism is likely to become the only instrument for macro-financial assistance, but its current standing outside ...

This paper revises the European instruments for macro-financial stability providing financial support to member states. Three instruments, created on an ad-hoc basis during the crisis, are temporary and should gradually disappear. One instrument reserved for non-euro area member states, and others targeted at euro area countries remain in place. In the long term, the European Stability Mechanism is likely to become the only instrument for macro-financial assistance, but its current standing outside the EU legal framework needs to be addressed.

Options of Handling Choke Species in the View of the EU Landing Obligation – The Baltic Plaice Example

15-12-2015

Under current fishing patterns, the Landing Obligation may result in plaice choking some Baltic Sea cod and mixed demersal fisheries. We propose a structured approach (decision tree) to identify solutions to the apparent problems, demonstrating how this problem can largely be mitigated by quota swaps, the use of more selective gear and spatio-temporal avoidance, for which the Landing Obligation will create incentives. As a last resort, short-term solutions are the provisions of flexibilities and ...

Under current fishing patterns, the Landing Obligation may result in plaice choking some Baltic Sea cod and mixed demersal fisheries. We propose a structured approach (decision tree) to identify solutions to the apparent problems, demonstrating how this problem can largely be mitigated by quota swaps, the use of more selective gear and spatio-temporal avoidance, for which the Landing Obligation will create incentives. As a last resort, short-term solutions are the provisions of flexibilities and exemptions in the CFP Basic Regulation.

Autore esterno

Christopher ZIMMERMANN, Sarah B. M. KRAAK, Uwe KRUMME, Juan SANTOS, Sven STÖTERA and Lena VON NORDHEIM (Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock)

Istruzione degli adulti e risorse didattiche aperte

15-09-2015

Il presente studio esamina l'uso attuale delle risorse didattiche aperte (OER) nell'istruzione degli adulti, ne valuta il potenziale e formula raccomandazioni per interventi politici sulla base dei quadri politici della Commissione europea. Integra nuove ricerche su oltre 12 Stati membri basandosi su una sintesi di ricerche esistenti a titolo di una serie di progetti fra cui POERUP (Policies for OER Uptake) e uno studio del 2014-15 sulla condivisione delle OER per il Centro comune di ricerca, completati ...

Il presente studio esamina l'uso attuale delle risorse didattiche aperte (OER) nell'istruzione degli adulti, ne valuta il potenziale e formula raccomandazioni per interventi politici sulla base dei quadri politici della Commissione europea. Integra nuove ricerche su oltre 12 Stati membri basandosi su una sintesi di ricerche esistenti a titolo di una serie di progetti fra cui POERUP (Policies for OER Uptake) e uno studio del 2014-15 sulla condivisione delle OER per il Centro comune di ricerca, completati da due studi più recenti realizzati per il CCR e il PAP.

Autore esterno

Paul Bacsich, with additional research from Giles Pepler, Sara Frank Bristow, Ebba Ossiannilsson, Alistair Creelman, Eva Szalma and Ilmars Slaidins (Sero Consulting Ltd, the UK)

Gender equality in employment and occupation. European Implementation Assessment

29-05-2015

The principle of equal pay is anchored in the EEC founding Treaty of 1957. Directive 2006/54/EC was a recast of secondary law dating back to 1975 pursuing gender equality in (access to) employment and it ‘consolidated’ case law in this area developed by the European Court of Justice. This European Implementation Assessment is based on input received from four independent groups of experts (included as annexes) on different aspects of the application of the Recast Directive: legal aspects and in ...

The principle of equal pay is anchored in the EEC founding Treaty of 1957. Directive 2006/54/EC was a recast of secondary law dating back to 1975 pursuing gender equality in (access to) employment and it ‘consolidated’ case law in this area developed by the European Court of Justice. This European Implementation Assessment is based on input received from four independent groups of experts (included as annexes) on different aspects of the application of the Recast Directive: legal aspects and in particular direct and indirect discrimination; proper consideration of the role of job evaluation and classification systems; necessary protection of pregnancy and the role of maternity leave and related schemes in view of gender equality at work and for careers. The assessment concludes that there is a very strong case for immediate and vigorous actions at EU level, going beyond voluntary measures, in line with EP resolutions.  

Eastern Partnership after five years [What Think Tanks are thinking]

26-05-2015

The European Union reaffirmed on 22 May its commitment to developing closer political and economic relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine under its Eastern Partnership programme. At a summit in Riga, Latvia, participants said in a declaration they would work together to strengthen democracy, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms. Facing continued confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, the EU confirmed its support to the territorial integrity, independence ...

The European Union reaffirmed on 22 May its commitment to developing closer political and economic relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine under its Eastern Partnership programme. At a summit in Riga, Latvia, participants said in a declaration they would work together to strengthen democracy, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms. Facing continued confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, the EU confirmed its support to the territorial integrity, independence and sovereignty of all its partners. A selection of commentaries and analyses by major international think tanks on Eastern Partnership and its future are listed below, with hyperlinks to the texts concerned:

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