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Consumer Choice and Fair Competition on the Digital Single Market in the Areas of Air Transportation and Accommodation

16-10-2018

This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on the Internal Market. Through a series of case studies it provides an overview of measures implemented by states and firms that may harm competition and consumer choice. It explores the extent to which EU Law may apply to prevent such restrictive practices.

This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on the Internal Market. Through a series of case studies it provides an overview of measures implemented by states and firms that may harm competition and consumer choice. It explores the extent to which EU Law may apply to prevent such restrictive practices.

Išorės autorius

Giorgio Monti

Research for TRAN Committee - Overtourism: impact and possible policy responses

15-10-2018

This study addresses the complex phenomenon of overtourism in the EU. By focusing on a set of case studies, the study reports on overtourism indicators, discusses management approaches implemented within different destinations and assesses policy responses. It concludes that a common set of indicators cannot be defined because of the complex causes and effects of overtourism. Avoiding overtourism requires custom-made policies in cooperation between destinations' stakeholders and policymakers.

This study addresses the complex phenomenon of overtourism in the EU. By focusing on a set of case studies, the study reports on overtourism indicators, discusses management approaches implemented within different destinations and assesses policy responses. It concludes that a common set of indicators cannot be defined because of the complex causes and effects of overtourism. Avoiding overtourism requires custom-made policies in cooperation between destinations' stakeholders and policymakers.

Išorės autorius

Paul PEETERS, Stefan GÖSSLING, Jeroen KLIJS, Claudio MILANO, Marina NOVELLI, Corné DIJKMANS, Eke EIJGELAAR, Stefan HARTMAN, Jasper HESLINGA, Rami ISAAC, Ondrej MITAS, Simone MORETTI, Jeroen NAWIJN, Bernadett PAPP and Albert POSTMA

Turizmas

01-06-2017

Nuo 2009 m. gruodžio mėn. turizmo politikai taikomas atskiras teisinis pagrindas. Tačiau nei 2014–2020 m. daugiametėje finansinėje programoje (DFP), nei naujausiame pasiūlyme dėl 2021–2027 m. DFP jai nenumatytas atskiras biudžetas.

Nuo 2009 m. gruodžio mėn. turizmo politikai taikomas atskiras teisinis pagrindas. Tačiau nei 2014–2020 m. daugiametėje finansinėje programoje (DFP), nei naujausiame pasiūlyme dėl 2021–2027 m. DFP jai nenumatytas atskiras biudžetas.

Tourism and the sharing economy

23-01-2017

Tourism services have traditionally been provided by businesses such as hotels, taxis or tour operators. Recently, a growing number of individuals are proposing to share temporarily with tourists what they own (for example their house or car) or what they do (for example meals or excursions). This type of sharing is referred to as the 'sharing economy'. It is not limited to tourism and can be found in many areas of social and economic activity, although tourism has been one of the sectors most impacted ...

Tourism services have traditionally been provided by businesses such as hotels, taxis or tour operators. Recently, a growing number of individuals are proposing to share temporarily with tourists what they own (for example their house or car) or what they do (for example meals or excursions). This type of sharing is referred to as the 'sharing economy'. It is not limited to tourism and can be found in many areas of social and economic activity, although tourism has been one of the sectors most impacted. Sharing goods and services between individuals is nothing new in itself. However, the development of the internet and, as a consequence, the creation of online platforms have made sharing easier than ever. In the past decade, many companies managing such platforms have emerged on the market. A well-known example is a platform on which people can book accommodation (Airbnb). The sharing economy has had a positive impact on tourism as well as a negative one. Its advocates think that it provides easy access to a wide range of services that are often of higher quality and more affordable than those provided by traditional business counterparts. Critics, on the other hand, claim that the sharing economy provides unfair competition, reduces job security, avoids taxes and poses a threat to safety, health and disability compliance standards. The response to the sharing economy remains fragmented in the EU. Some activities or aspects have been regulated at national, regional or local level. In June 2016, the European Commission published a communication on a European agenda for the collaborative economy, to offer some clarification on relevant EU rules and provide public authorities with policy guidance. The European Parliament and advisory committees have also touched upon the issue in various resolutions and opinions. This is an updated edition of a briefing from September 2015.

Research for TRAN Committee - Tourism and the Sharing Economy: Challenges and Opportunities for the EU

15-10-2015

The impacts, challenges and opportunities caused by the fast-growing sharing economy in tourism are assessed. The report describes the definition, size, and development of the sharing (or collaborative) economy, assessing the (dis-)advantages for the tourism sector, concluding with policy analysis and recommendations. Large parts of the sharing economy are affecting the tourism sector, although its share is very small. The main challenges are taxation and regulation; main opportunities are the innovative ...

The impacts, challenges and opportunities caused by the fast-growing sharing economy in tourism are assessed. The report describes the definition, size, and development of the sharing (or collaborative) economy, assessing the (dis-)advantages for the tourism sector, concluding with policy analysis and recommendations. Large parts of the sharing economy are affecting the tourism sector, although its share is very small. The main challenges are taxation and regulation; main opportunities are the innovative power and enhanced competition.

Išorės autorius

Paul Peeters, Corné Dijkmans, Ondrej Mitas, Boukje Strous and Jeroen Vinkensteijn

The sharing economy and tourism: Tourist accommodation

25-09-2015

Tourism services have traditionally been provided by businesses such as hotels, taxis or tour operators. Recently, a growing number of individuals are proposing to share temporarily with tourists what they own (for example their house or car) or what they do (for example meals or excursions). This type of sharing is referred to as the 'sharing economy'. It is not limited to tourism and can be found in many areas of social and economic activity, although tourism has been one of the sectors most impacted ...

Tourism services have traditionally been provided by businesses such as hotels, taxis or tour operators. Recently, a growing number of individuals are proposing to share temporarily with tourists what they own (for example their house or car) or what they do (for example meals or excursions). This type of sharing is referred to as the 'sharing economy'. It is not limited to tourism and can be found in many areas of social and economic activity, although tourism has been one of the sectors most impacted. Sharing goods and services between individuals is nothing new in itself. However, the development of the internet and, as a consequence, the creation of online platforms has made sharing easier than ever. In the past decade, many companies managing such platforms have emerged on the market. A well-known example of a platform is one on which people can book accommodation (Airbnb). The sharing economy has had a positive impact on tourism as well as a negative one. Its advocates think that it provides easy access to a wide range of services that are often of higher quality and more affordable than those provided by traditional business counterparts. Critics, on the other hand, claim that the sharing economy provides unfair competition, reduces job security, avoids taxes and poses a threat to safety, health and disability compliance standards. The response to the sharing economy remains fragmented in the EU. Some activities have been regulated at local level. Neither the European Commission nor the Parliament have taken an official position so far, though a recent report from the Transport and Tourism Committee touches upon the issue. The Commission has announced that it plans to assess the role of platforms in order to see if any changes or new legislation is needed.

Tourism in the EU economy

07-07-2014

Tourism plays a major role in the EU and global economies. The impact of tourism in the world economy is estimated as 9% of world GDP, while in the EU it is the third-largest socio-economic sector and has generally remained robust throughout the financial crisis. This spotlight presents some background data on selected aspects of tourism in the EU economy.

Tourism plays a major role in the EU and global economies. The impact of tourism in the world economy is estimated as 9% of world GDP, while in the EU it is the third-largest socio-economic sector and has generally remained robust throughout the financial crisis. This spotlight presents some background data on selected aspects of tourism in the EU economy.

Hotel Fire Safety: The Case for Legislation. European Added Value Briefing Paper

14-06-2013

The Coordinators of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection of the European Parliament requested a briefing paper on Hotel Fire Safety from the European Added Value Unit. This paper is intended to review the recent developments in hotel fire safety (from the Council Recommendation of 1986 to its possible revision and upgrading to a Directive) and to set out the arguments for and against legislation in this field.

The Coordinators of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection of the European Parliament requested a briefing paper on Hotel Fire Safety from the European Added Value Unit. This paper is intended to review the recent developments in hotel fire safety (from the Council Recommendation of 1986 to its possible revision and upgrading to a Directive) and to set out the arguments for and against legislation in this field.

Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

04-02-2009

Executive summary Online hotel reservation systems are increasing in importance and greatly facilitate cross-border consumer activity. The Internet has enabled hotels to contract directly with a huge number of potential customers. It has also revitalised the role of agents and lead to a new type of agent, the web agent or travel gate, selling a far wider range of accommodation on behalf of a far wider range of hotels. However, while online booking has increased the range of offers available, there ...

Executive summary Online hotel reservation systems are increasing in importance and greatly facilitate cross-border consumer activity. The Internet has enabled hotels to contract directly with a huge number of potential customers. It has also revitalised the role of agents and lead to a new type of agent, the web agent or travel gate, selling a far wider range of accommodation on behalf of a far wider range of hotels. However, while online booking has increased the range of offers available, there are also some emerging worries due to examples of unfair commercial practices and lack of transparency related to such reservations. This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. [...]

Išorės autorius

Frank Alleweldt (Project director), Klaus Tonner (First lead author), Marc McDonald (Second lead author), Senda Kara, Sara Buccino and Uta Stenzel (Civic Consulting, Berlin, Germany)

Hotel Safety

14-11-2008

Executive summary As it is now, no common minimum standards exist that define the safety of hotels in Europe. The 1986 Council Recommendation on fire safety in existing hotels provides a basis for creating common minimum standards for fire safety in European hotels, but a number of stakeholders have raised concerns about its limited effect on hotel safety in Europe. Moreover, the Recommendation only deals with fire safety and leaves out for example such safety questions as pool safety, food safety ...

Executive summary As it is now, no common minimum standards exist that define the safety of hotels in Europe. The 1986 Council Recommendation on fire safety in existing hotels provides a basis for creating common minimum standards for fire safety in European hotels, but a number of stakeholders have raised concerns about its limited effect on hotel safety in Europe. Moreover, the Recommendation only deals with fire safety and leaves out for example such safety questions as pool safety, food safety (hygiene), and carbon monoxide safety. While the 1986 Council Recommendation has to some extent been implemented in all EU Member States, differences exist between Member States for instance as to whether the provisions apply to all hotels, or only to new or newly renovated establishments. On the EU level, the 1986 Council Recommendation was followed in 2003 by a Commission report on the safety of services, which concludes that there is a need for systematic data collection on service related injuries and accidents before further measures can be taken. [...]

Išorės autorius

Janne Sylvest, Hanna-Maija Saarinen and Anders Olivarius (Ramboll Management, Copenhagen, Denmark)

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