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Publicēšanas datums 24-04-2018

China's Arctic policy: How China aligns rights and interests

24-04-2018

Unlike the Arctic states, China has no territorial sovereignty and related sovereign rights to resource extraction and fishing in the Arctic. Faced with very limited rights as a non-Arctic state, China has been eager to design strategies to bridge the widening gap between the legal and institutional constraints in the Arctic and its growing Arctic interests. It has developed a self-defined Arctic identity as a 'near-Arctic state' and sought – and in 2013 gained – observer status in the Arctic Council ...

Unlike the Arctic states, China has no territorial sovereignty and related sovereign rights to resource extraction and fishing in the Arctic. Faced with very limited rights as a non-Arctic state, China has been eager to design strategies to bridge the widening gap between the legal and institutional constraints in the Arctic and its growing Arctic interests. It has developed a self-defined Arctic identity as a 'near-Arctic state' and sought – and in 2013 gained – observer status in the Arctic Council, to prepare the ground for a future expanded foothold in the region. China's first-ever white paper on Arctic policy of 26 January 2018 seeks to justify the country's Arctic ambitions through its history of Arctic research and the challenges and opportunities that rapid climate change in the Arctic present the country. China acknowledges for the first time that its Arctic interests are no longer limited to scientific research but extend to a variety of commercial activities. These are embedded in a new China-led cooperation initiative which aims to build a 'Polar Silk Road' that connects China with Europe via the Arctic and corresponds to one of two new 'blue ocean passages' extending from China's 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, launched in 2013. The white paper stresses China's commitment to upholding the institutional and legal framework for Arctic governance and to respecting the sovereign rights of the Arctic states. On the other hand, it asserts China's right as a non-Arctic state to participate in Arctic affairs under international law. China's Arctic policy suggests a strong desire to push for the internationalisation of the Arctic's regional governance system. The white paper is not a strategy document, and is more interesting for what it omits, such as the national security dimension that is a major driver of China's Arctic ambitions.

Money laundering - Recent cases from a EU banking supervisory perspective

24-04-2018

This briefing (1) provides some insight into recent cases of breaches or alleged breaches of anti-money laundering (AML) rules by SSM supervised banks and (2) discusses which indicators may point to a potential money laundering problem. The briefing also outlines (3) the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying AML legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive adopted by the EP Plenary on 19 April.

This briefing (1) provides some insight into recent cases of breaches or alleged breaches of anti-money laundering (AML) rules by SSM supervised banks and (2) discusses which indicators may point to a potential money laundering problem. The briefing also outlines (3) the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying AML legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive adopted by the EP Plenary on 19 April.

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 on the Placing of Plant Protection Products on the Market

24-04-2018

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 lays down the main instruments for placing effective plant protection products (using pesticide substances) on the market that are safe for humans, animals and the environment, while at the same time ensuring effective functioning of the internal market and improved agricultural production. This European Implementation Assessment found that the above objectives, while largely relevant to real needs, are not being achieved in practice. In particular, implementation of the ...

Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 lays down the main instruments for placing effective plant protection products (using pesticide substances) on the market that are safe for humans, animals and the environment, while at the same time ensuring effective functioning of the internal market and improved agricultural production. This European Implementation Assessment found that the above objectives, while largely relevant to real needs, are not being achieved in practice. In particular, implementation of the main instruments of the regulation – substance approval, plant protection products authorisation and enforcement of the regulatory decisions taken in the frame of the approvals and authorisations, is problematic, which also affect other related EU policies. Nevertheless, despite the implementation challenges observed, stakeholders – including national competent authorities, health/environment NGOs, manufacturers of substances and plant protection products and their users (farmers) – agree that the EU is the appropriate level at which regulatory action in the field of pesticides (used in plant protection products) should continue to take place.

Ārējais autors

Annex I written by Florent PELSY and Lise OULÈS from Milieu Ltd (Belgium) and Evelyn UNDERWOOD (Institute for European Environmental Policy, IEEP). Annex II written by Dr Emanuela BOZZINI (University of Trento, Italy). Annex III written by Dr Olivia HAMLYN (University of Leicester, United Kingdom). Annex IV written by Dr Dovilė RIMKUTĖ (University of Leiden, The Netherlands)

Ratifikation völkerrechtlicher Verträge: eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Deutschland

24-04-2018

Diese Studie ist Teil eines umfassenderen Projekts zur Analyse der Ratifikation völkerrechtli-cher Verträge in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht. Gegenstand dieser Studie ist die Untersuchung der Ratifikation völkerrechtlicher Verträge im deutschen Recht, insbesondere der maßgebenden rechtlichen Bestimmungen und des Verfahrens, sowie eine Einschätzung des Zeitbedarfs für die Ratifikation. Hierfür werden nach einer allgemeinen Einführung die Rechts- und Verwaltungsvorschriften für ...

Diese Studie ist Teil eines umfassenderen Projekts zur Analyse der Ratifikation völkerrechtli-cher Verträge in verschiedenen Staaten aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht. Gegenstand dieser Studie ist die Untersuchung der Ratifikation völkerrechtlicher Verträge im deutschen Recht, insbesondere der maßgebenden rechtlichen Bestimmungen und des Verfahrens, sowie eine Einschätzung des Zeitbedarfs für die Ratifikation. Hierfür werden nach einer allgemeinen Einführung die Rechts- und Verwaltungsvorschriften für den Abschluss völkerrechtlicher Verträge, die Verteilung der Zuständigkeiten zwischen den beteiligten Akteuren sowie die wesentlichen Etappen des Vertragsabschlussverfahrens betrachtet. Im Falle Deutschlands geht es dabei vor allem um die Kompetenzverteilung zwischen Bundesregierung, Bundespräsident und Parlament, dem das Grundgesetz bei bestimmten Verträgen ein Zustimmungsrecht zugesteht. Dieses Zustimmungsgesetz bewirkt zugleich die Inkorporation des Vertrages in den nationalen Rechtsraum. Daneben spielt auch die föderale Dimension eine Rolle, weil die Bundesländer eigene Vertragsschlusskompetenzen haben und ihnen in vielen Fällen die innerstaatliche Umsetzung obliegt. Diese Studie soll den verschiedenen Organen des Europäischen Parlaments eine umfassende Sicht auf den Ratifikationsprozess der jeweils anderen Vertragspartei ermöglichen (im vorliegenden Falle Deutschlands). Dies erlaubt den Organen des Parlaments beispielsweise, den Zeitbedarf des Vertragspartners für die Ratifikation des künftigen Vertrags einzuschätzen und ihr Arbeitsprogramm dementsprechend auszurichten.

Ārējais autors

Prof. Dr. Sebastian Graf von Kielmansegg, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

The employment and social situation in Canada

15-03-2018

Commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the EMPL Committee, this paper provides an overview of Canada's economy, labour market and social policies, as well as the functioning of related institutions, and takes a closer look at the impact of digitalisation on Canada's world of work.

Commissioned by Policy Department A at the request of the EMPL Committee, this paper provides an overview of Canada's economy, labour market and social policies, as well as the functioning of related institutions, and takes a closer look at the impact of digitalisation on Canada's world of work.

Ārējais autors

Lynn Gambin, Terence Hogarth, Liga Baltina

Publicēšanas datums 23-04-2018

Online disinformation and the EU's response

23-04-2018

The proliferation of disinformation – including false news posing as factual stories – became increasingly visible in the context of the crisis in Ukraine, gaining notoriety as a global challenge during the 2016 United States presidential election campaign. While the EU is stepping up its efforts to tackle online disinformation ahead of the European elections in 2019, the EU's myth-busting team is facing criticism.

The proliferation of disinformation – including false news posing as factual stories – became increasingly visible in the context of the crisis in Ukraine, gaining notoriety as a global challenge during the 2016 United States presidential election campaign. While the EU is stepping up its efforts to tackle online disinformation ahead of the European elections in 2019, the EU's myth-busting team is facing criticism.

Rules for EU institutions' processing of personal data

23-04-2018

In the context of the comprehensive reform of the EU's legal framework for data protection, the Commission tabled a proposal in January 2017 for a 'regulation on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and the free movement of such data' and repealing the existing one (Regulation No 45/2001). The aim is to align it to the 2016 General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that will be fully applicable from 25 ...

In the context of the comprehensive reform of the EU's legal framework for data protection, the Commission tabled a proposal in January 2017 for a 'regulation on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and the free movement of such data' and repealing the existing one (Regulation No 45/2001). The aim is to align it to the 2016 General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that will be fully applicable from 25 May 2018. Interinstitutional trilogues are now under way, with the Council having agreed on its general approach in June 2017 and the European Parliament's LIBE committee adopting its report as well as a mandate to enter into negotiations in October 2017. However, divergences persist on the scope of the regulation, with the negotiations still far from concluded. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Cross-border distribution of investment funds

23-04-2018

The Directive on Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS) provides for strong investor protection and creates a label for European retail investment funds. The Directive on Alternative Investment Fund Managers (AIFM) lays down rules for the authorisation, supervision and oversight of managers of non-UCITS funds, i.e. alternative investment funds (AIFs). Facilitating cross-border investment remains an essential part of the European Commission's action plan on building ...

The Directive on Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS) provides for strong investor protection and creates a label for European retail investment funds. The Directive on Alternative Investment Fund Managers (AIFM) lays down rules for the authorisation, supervision and oversight of managers of non-UCITS funds, i.e. alternative investment funds (AIFs). Facilitating cross-border investment remains an essential part of the European Commission's action plan on building a capital markets union (CMU); the current legislative initiative is limited to facilitating further the cross-border distribution and supervision of UCITS and AIFs, mainly by reducing national regulatory barriers. This briefing presents the rationale for both the existing legislation and the new legislative proposal, as well as the positions of the institutional bodies and stakeholders.

Towards a binding international treaty on business and human rights

23-04-2018

With its extended value chains, economic globalisation has provided numerous opportunities, while also creating specific challenges, including in the area of human rights protection. The recent history of transnational corporations contains numerous examples of human rights abuses occurring as a result of their operations. Such corporations are known to have taken advantage of loose regulatory frameworks in developing countries, corruption, or lack of accountability resulting from legal rules shielding ...

With its extended value chains, economic globalisation has provided numerous opportunities, while also creating specific challenges, including in the area of human rights protection. The recent history of transnational corporations contains numerous examples of human rights abuses occurring as a result of their operations. Such corporations are known to have taken advantage of loose regulatory frameworks in developing countries, corruption, or lack of accountability resulting from legal rules shielding corporate interests. This situation has created a pressing need to establish international norms regulating business operations in relation to human rights. So far, the preferred approach has been 'soft', consisting of the adoption of voluntary guidelines for businesses. Several sets of such norms exist at international level, the most notable being the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Nevertheless, while such voluntary commitments are clearly useful, they cannot entirely stop gross human rights violations (such as child labour, labour rights violations and land grabbing) committed by transnational corporations, their subsidiaries or suppliers. To address the shortcomings of the soft approach, an intergovernmental working group was established within the UN framework in June 2014, with the task of drafting a binding treaty on human rights and business. After being reluctant at the outset, the EU has become involved in the negotiations, but has insisted that the future treaty's scope should include all businesses, not only transnational ones. The EU's position on this issue has been disregarded by the UN intergovernmental working group until now, which raises some questions about the fairness of the process. The European Parliament is a staunch supporter of this initiative and has encouraged the EU to take a positive and constructive approach. This is an updated edition of a briefing published in July 2017: PE 608.636.

How could the Stability and Growth Pact be simplified?

23-04-2018

Past reforms of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) have improved its economic rationale, but this progress has come at the expense of simplicity, transparency and, possibly, enforceability. This study surveys and evaluates reform models that could reduce complexity without compromising the SGP’s indispensable flexibility. From a holistic perspective, the greatest potential for simplification will result from a shift of discretionary power to an independent fiscal institution. Independence is a substitute ...

Past reforms of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) have improved its economic rationale, but this progress has come at the expense of simplicity, transparency and, possibly, enforceability. This study surveys and evaluates reform models that could reduce complexity without compromising the SGP’s indispensable flexibility. From a holistic perspective, the greatest potential for simplification will result from a shift of discretionary power to an independent fiscal institution. Independence is a substitute for complexity. With a narrower focus on the potential streamlining of the SGP and a reduction of excess complexity, first, the preventive and corrective arms could be integrated into one procedure. Second, this integrated procedure should be centred on a net expenditure rule that is combined with a debt feedback mechanism and a memory for expenditure overruns. Third, further fiscal indicators that are currently treated as parallel targets (headline deficit rule and structural balance) could be downgraded to non-binding reference values. And fourth, the planned transposition of the Fiscal Compact into European law should follow SGP reforms in order to promote consistency between European and national fiscal rules.

Ārējais autors

Friedrich Heinemann

Gaidāmie notikumi

25-04-2018
Human rights and discriminatory legislation against women and girls
Uzklausīšana -
DROI
25-04-2018
The European Council: Developments since the Rome Declaration
Cits pasākums -
EPRS
25-04-2018
Tourism Task Force - Public hearing on the impact of Brexit on tourism
Uzklausīšana -
TRAN

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