ThinkTank logo Dokumenti, kas palīdz izstrādāt jaunus ES tiesību aktus
Publicēšanas datums 19-09-2019

EU guidelines on ethics in artificial intelligence: Context and implementation

19-09-2019

The discussion around artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and their impact on society is increasingly focused on the question of whether AI should be regulated. Following the call from the European Parliament to update and complement the existing Union legal framework with guiding ethical principles, the EU has carved out a 'human-centric' approach to AI that is respectful of European values and principles. As part of this approach, the EU published its guidelines on ethics in AI in April 2019 ...

The discussion around artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and their impact on society is increasingly focused on the question of whether AI should be regulated. Following the call from the European Parliament to update and complement the existing Union legal framework with guiding ethical principles, the EU has carved out a 'human-centric' approach to AI that is respectful of European values and principles. As part of this approach, the EU published its guidelines on ethics in AI in April 2019, and European Commission President-elect, Ursula von der Leyen, has announced that the Commission will soon put forward further legislative proposals for a coordinated European approach to the human and ethical implications of AI. Against this background, this paper aims to shed some light on the ethical rules that are now recommended when designing, developing, deploying, implementing or using AI products and services in the EU. Moreover, it identifies some implementation challenges and presents possible further EU action ranging from soft law guidance to standardisation to legislation in the field of ethics and AI. There are calls for clarifying the EU guidelines, fostering the adoption of ethical standards and adopting legally binding instruments to, inter alia, set common rules on transparency and common requirements for fundamental rights impact assessments, and to provide an adequate legal framework for face recognition technology. Finally, the paper gives an overview of the main ethical frameworks for AI under development in countries such as the United States and China.

Publicēšanas datums 17-09-2019

Consumers and repair of products

17-09-2019

Repairing broken or damaged products can save consumers money by helping them postpone making replacement purchases, while also bringing benefits to the environment through lower waste production and use of resources. The EU's circular economy strategy considers maintenance and repair to be important ways of both keeping resources from being thrown away and of prolonging the lifespan of products. A 2018 European Commission behavioural study on consumer engagement in the circular economy showed that ...

Repairing broken or damaged products can save consumers money by helping them postpone making replacement purchases, while also bringing benefits to the environment through lower waste production and use of resources. The EU's circular economy strategy considers maintenance and repair to be important ways of both keeping resources from being thrown away and of prolonging the lifespan of products. A 2018 European Commission behavioural study on consumer engagement in the circular economy showed that 64 % of consumers always repair broken or damaged products. The top reason for not repairing products was the high price of repair, followed by the preference to get a new product and the feeling that the old product was obsolete or out of fashion. As for repairers, especially independent ones, they often complain about having no access to original spare parts, technical information, diagnostic software and training, as manufacturers sometimes limit these to their own after-sales services or to recognised repairers of a specific brand. EU consumer legislation regulates the right of consumers to have products repaired within the legal guarantee period, but not beyond its expiry or for defects not covered by the guarantee. Efforts to ensure access to repair are also included in EU environmental and product legislation. The upcoming ecodesign requirements for TV screens, refrigerators, lighting, household washing machines and dishwashers are expected to ensure that independent repairers have access to spare parts and repair information. The European Parliament has called for extending the ecodesign requirements to non-energy related products, including the reparability of products, more systematically in ecodesign legislation, and extending the duration of legal guarantees. Similar calls have come from a range of stakeholders.

Women in foreign affairs and international security: Contours of a timely debate

17-09-2019

The debate on the participation and role of women in foreign affairs and international security is a timely and relevant one, and is being raised with increasing frequency at both national and international levels. In particular, there is growing attention to the imbalances in the representation of women in leadership and other key positions in the area of foreign and security policy, as well as to the growing body of evidence regarding the positive effect of including women in several key areas ...

The debate on the participation and role of women in foreign affairs and international security is a timely and relevant one, and is being raised with increasing frequency at both national and international levels. In particular, there is growing attention to the imbalances in the representation of women in leadership and other key positions in the area of foreign and security policy, as well as to the growing body of evidence regarding the positive effect of including women in several key areas of foreign and security policy. Among these issues, women's role in peacekeeping receives particular attention, as research has repeatedly shown that gender equality contributes to peace, and that peace negotiations involving women have a better chance of being sustainable and effective. Gender-equal societies enjoy better health, stronger economic growth and higher security. The United Nations and the EU have put pronounced emphasis on the issue in the past two decades. UN Security Council Resolution 1325 established the women, peace and security (WPS) agenda in 2000. Since then, more WPS-related resolutions have been adopted, widening the scope and breadth of gendered peace and security. These resolutions have been instrumental in changing the philosophy and rhetoric focused on conflict and gender equality, thereby challenging the international community to do more. Several initiatives are also being implemented at EU level, including through the 2018 EU Strategic Approach to WPS. However, critics posit that a lot remains to be done, as women continue to be under-represented in the field of foreign and security policy across the world.

Publicēšanas datums 13-09-2019

International trade [What Think Tanks are thinking]

13-09-2019

The escalating trade conflict between the United States (US) and China has dampened economic growth in the European Union and other regions of the world, analysts say, and poses a further question mark over the continuity of the post-Cold War rules-based order. The EU is seeking to position itself as a defender of the multilateral rules-based system in the context of growing economic nationalism. The EU will need to coordinate closely its trade and climate policies, and think clearly about how best ...

The escalating trade conflict between the United States (US) and China has dampened economic growth in the European Union and other regions of the world, analysts say, and poses a further question mark over the continuity of the post-Cold War rules-based order. The EU is seeking to position itself as a defender of the multilateral rules-based system in the context of growing economic nationalism. The EU will need to coordinate closely its trade and climate policies, and think clearly about how best to defend its economic interests in the challenging new geopolitical environment facing the incoming European Commission. This note offers links to a series of recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks and research institutes on international trade policy. More reports on trade can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking' published in June 2018.

The UN Sustainable Development Goals Summit and the Climate Action Summit, New York, 23-25 September 2019

12-09-2019

The United Nations (UN) High Level Political Forum (HLPF) in 24-25 September 2019 is a one-and-a-halfday event that for the first time since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes place under the auspices of the UN General Assembly (GA). This special event, called the SDG Summit, will be a litmus test for the 2030 Agenda. Ending a four-year review cycle of all 17 SDGs, the Summit will enable a first assessment of the progress achieved so far and the challenges ahead. So far ...

The United Nations (UN) High Level Political Forum (HLPF) in 24-25 September 2019 is a one-and-a-halfday event that for the first time since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes place under the auspices of the UN General Assembly (GA). This special event, called the SDG Summit, will be a litmus test for the 2030 Agenda. Ending a four-year review cycle of all 17 SDGs, the Summit will enable a first assessment of the progress achieved so far and the challenges ahead. So far, there has been a lack of political leadership and guidance at the international level.

Ārējais autors

Elisabeth HEGE, David LEVAÏ (IDDRI)

Publicēšanas datums 06-09-2019

EU challenges at a time of transition [What Think Tanks are thinking]

06-09-2019

The European Union faces numerous challenges, both short and long-term, as it prepares to choose the new executive, a European Commission for the next five years, following elections to the European Parliament in May 2019. The most immediate task is for European Commission President-elect, Ursula von der Leyen, to put together a college of Commissioners and secure its approval by the European Parliament. The EU is also engaged in difficult talks on the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from ...

The European Union faces numerous challenges, both short and long-term, as it prepares to choose the new executive, a European Commission for the next five years, following elections to the European Parliament in May 2019. The most immediate task is for European Commission President-elect, Ursula von der Leyen, to put together a college of Commissioners and secure its approval by the European Parliament. The EU is also engaged in difficult talks on the terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU, currently due on 31 October. On the economic front, the EU needs to deal with the fallout of a trade conflict between the United States and China, and to boost its competitiveness, as the two other global powerhouses swiftly pursue the digitalisation of their economies. In the face of political volatility in the US, Europe should also consider enhancing its defence capabilities. Last, but not least, the Union must deliver on its pledge to remain the world’s leader in efforts to fight climate change. This note brings together recent commentaries, analyses and studies by major international think tanks and research institutes on challenges facing the EU. More papers analysing the outcome of the European Elections can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’, published in July.

Publicēšanas datums 05-09-2019

The EU cereals sector: Main features, challenges and prospects

05-09-2019

Food and agriculture systems are central to the well-being of humanity. When considering food security, these systems are needed not just to provide safe, healthy food but also livelihoods and incomes to a large number of farmers. These same systems are integral to rural and economic development. Core to the food security objective is the production of cereals across the globe to meet the increasing demands for food, animal feed and biofuels. In the EU, the cereals sector accounted for approximately ...

Food and agriculture systems are central to the well-being of humanity. When considering food security, these systems are needed not just to provide safe, healthy food but also livelihoods and incomes to a large number of farmers. These same systems are integral to rural and economic development. Core to the food security objective is the production of cereals across the globe to meet the increasing demands for food, animal feed and biofuels. In the EU, the cereals sector accounted for approximately 11 % of the total output value of agricultural production in 2016, third in line after the vegetable/horticultural and the dairy sectors. It is an important sector for many Member States, particularly the northern ones, where it is well developed. All Member States produce some combination of cereal crops. The EU cereals sector is facing challenges not only structurally but also financially and climatically. Developments in the policy framework as evidenced by the new common agricultural policy (CAP) proposals as well as advances in scientific and technological spheres, such as plant breeding and digitalisation, point the way to a more efficient sector. Yet, the sectoral challenges are many. The process of CAP reform for the post-2020 period promising a new delivery model and strategic plans is a departure from the known. World agricultural markets face new uncertainties that, on the supply side, include regulatory responses to new plant breeding techniques and responses to the increasing likelihood of extreme climatic events. The cereals sector is one operating in a farming environment trying to combat the loss of plant protection products previously relied upon, and in a world coming to terms with how to make the Paris Agreement a reality. These challenges will all influence the profitability and survivability of the sector.

Publicēšanas datums 03-09-2019

La mise en œuvre du nouveau cadre de partenariat avec les pays tiers: Le cas du Niger

03-09-2019

Le Niger, pays de croisement de nombreuses routes migratoires au Sahel, s'est montré le plus réactif, parmi ceux de l'Afrique subsaharienne, aux sollicitations européennes pour renforcer la lutte contre la migration irrégulière – un des objectifs clefs du nouveau cadre de partenariat de l'Union européenne (UE) avec les pays tiers. Ce cadre offre de nouvelles opportunités de coopération en contrepartie du durcissement de la politique migratoire. Le gouvernement nigérien a donc mis en œuvre une règlementation ...

Le Niger, pays de croisement de nombreuses routes migratoires au Sahel, s'est montré le plus réactif, parmi ceux de l'Afrique subsaharienne, aux sollicitations européennes pour renforcer la lutte contre la migration irrégulière – un des objectifs clefs du nouveau cadre de partenariat de l'Union européenne (UE) avec les pays tiers. Ce cadre offre de nouvelles opportunités de coopération en contrepartie du durcissement de la politique migratoire. Le gouvernement nigérien a donc mis en œuvre une règlementation stricte criminalisant toute assistance aux étrangers en transit. En matière de sécurité, le gouvernement de Niamey, qui doit faire face à l'instabilité régionale et la criminalité transfrontalière, et l'UE, qui gère une pression migratoire importante, ont des intérêts convergents, ce qui explique l'intensification de la coopération depuis 2015-2016. La diminution des flux migratoires qui en résulte, applaudie par les partenaires européens, a des conséquences néfastes sur l'économie locale centrée sur le fait migratoire. La crise économique menace les équilibres fragiles des ethnies du Sahara entre elles ainsi qu'avec le gouvernement central et renforce l'insécurité, tant pour les migrants victimes des abus que pour la population locale, encore plus fragilisée. Le Parlement européen a mis en garde dès 2017 contre une vision trop étroite et à court terme de la politique externe de l'UE et contre le risque de détourner les fonds de la politique du développement vers les objectifs purement sécuritaires, en plaidant pour une approche de la migration centrée sur les droits de l'homme. Il soutient également le plan d'investissement extérieur, un de bras financier du nouveau cadre de partenariat, qui doit encourager des investissements privés en faveur du développement.

Publicēšanas datums 02-09-2019

Violence against women in the EU: State of play

02-09-2019

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe, including the latter’s 'Istanbul Convention', to which the EU plans to accede, are benchmarks in efforts to combat ...

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe, including the latter’s 'Istanbul Convention', to which the EU plans to accede, are benchmarks in efforts to combat violence against women. The EU is tackling the problem in various ways, but has no binding instrument designed specifically to protect women from violence. Although there are similarities between national policies to combat violence against women, the Member States have adopted different approaches to the problem. Parliament's efforts have focused on strengthening EU policy in the area. Parliament has repeatedly called for a European Union strategy to counter violence against women, including a legally binding instrument. Stakeholders have expressed a range of concerns, such as the impact of the current economic climate on the prevalence of violence and funding for prevention and support for victims, and have highlighted the need for a comprehensive EU political framework on eliminating violence against women. They have also launched new initiatives of their own. This is a further update of an earlier briefing by Anna Dimitrova-Stull, of February 2014. The most recent previous edition was from November 2017.

The European Council's role in the EU policy cycle

02-09-2019

Since its establishment in 1975, the European Council, which is made up of the Since its establishment in 1975, the European Council, which is made up of the Heads of State or Government of EU Member States, has wielded considerable influence over the development of the European Union. According to the Treaties, the European Council's primary role is to 'define the general political directions and priorities' (Article 15(1) of the Treaty on European Union). This role has rapidly evolved over the ...

Since its establishment in 1975, the European Council, which is made up of the Since its establishment in 1975, the European Council, which is made up of the Heads of State or Government of EU Member States, has wielded considerable influence over the development of the European Union. According to the Treaties, the European Council's primary role is to 'define the general political directions and priorities' (Article 15(1) of the Treaty on European Union). This role has rapidly evolved over the past decade, and today the European Council's involvement in the EU policy cycle is much broader, covering tasks from agenda-setting to exercising scrutiny. In practice, its activities often exceed the role envisaged in the Treaties. This level of involvement has a significant impact both on the role of the other EU institutions within the policy cycle and the functioning of the ordinary legislative procedure.

Gaidāmie notikumi

01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
Cits pasākums -
EPRS

Infografikas

Sekojiet jaunumiem!

email update imageE-pasta paziņojumu sistēma

Informēšanas sistēma pa e-pastu nosūta jaunāko informāciju uz jūsu e-pasta adresi un ļauj sekot visām ar Parlamentu saistītajām personām un notikumiem. Tā sniedz jaunāko informāciju no deputātiem, informācijas dienestiem un Ideju laboratorijas.

Sistēma ir pieejama no jebkuras Parlamenta vietnes lapas. Lai abonētu un saņemtu Ideju laboratorijas ziņojumus, pietiek norādīt e-pasta adresi, izvēlēties interesējošās tēmas, sūtīšanas biežumu (katru dienu, reizi nedēļā vai mēnesī) un apstiprināt reģistrāciju, uzklikšķinot uz e-pastā nosūtītās saites.

RSS imageRSS barotnes

Nepalaidiet garām informāciju vai jaunumus Eiropas Parlamenta vietnē, piesakoties uz RSS barotni.

Uzklikšķiniet uz zemāk redzamās saites, lai konfigurētu barotni.

Think Tank publikācijas

Par Think Tank tīmekļa vietnē iekļauto dokumentu saturu ir atbildīgi tikai un vienīgi to autori, un šajos dokumentos paustie viedokļi ne vienmēr atspoguļo Eiropas Parlamenta oficiālo nostāju. Tie ir paredzēti deputātiem un Eiropas Parlamenta darbiniekiem parlamentārajā darbā.

Ideju laboratorija ir atrodama...