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The Peshawar Army Public School Attack: From Nightmare to Greater Darkness?

18-12-2014

Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) terrorists killed at least 130 children, ostensibly in retaliation for a counter-terrorist military campaign that has targeted the war-struck region since June 2014. The TTP has clashed with the Pakistani army since 2002. Since October 2013, the group has declared war against the ‘un-Islamic’ Pakistani state. Operation Zarb-e-Azb – the military campaign in northwest Pakistan, was supposed to compensate for NATO’s drawdown in Afghanistan; yet it has fuelled the war ...

Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) terrorists killed at least 130 children, ostensibly in retaliation for a counter-terrorist military campaign that has targeted the war-struck region since June 2014. The TTP has clashed with the Pakistani army since 2002. Since October 2013, the group has declared war against the ‘un-Islamic’ Pakistani state. Operation Zarb-e-Azb – the military campaign in northwest Pakistan, was supposed to compensate for NATO’s drawdown in Afghanistan; yet it has fuelled the war in Pakistan. Pakistan is crucial for the US’s ‘war on terror’. The EU offers the country preferential trade conditions and substantial direct support. The EU may wish to emphasise the potentially counterproductive effect of Pakistani operations.

NATO after the Wales Summit: Back to Collective Defence

19-11-2014

At their September 2014 summit in Wales, the heads of state and government of the North Atlantic Council – the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – reaffirmed their commitment to fulfilling all three core tasks set out in their 'Strategic Concept': collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security – NATO's 'triple C'. For the first time since the end of the Cold War, NATO leaders confirmed that collective defence efforts should ...

At their September 2014 summit in Wales, the heads of state and government of the North Atlantic Council – the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – reaffirmed their commitment to fulfilling all three core tasks set out in their 'Strategic Concept': collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security – NATO's 'triple C'. For the first time since the end of the Cold War, NATO leaders confirmed that collective defence efforts should go beyond missile and cyber defence. The Ukraine crisis has imbued the conventional task of defending European territory with fresh verve. Reinvigorating European defence is first and foremost a task for Europeans – it is a task for the EU Member States, individually and jointly, and it is the duty of the EU institutions to support the Member States in their efforts. NATO-EU cooperation is essential for European security and defence. If this cooperation stumbles, substantial risks arise, for both organisations and for their members. A failure of the cooperation on collective defence, crisis management, and cooperative security will not serve European or transatlantic security interests.

The African Peace and Security Architecture: Still under Construction

14-03-2014

The African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) was established by the African Union in collaboration with Africa’s Regional Economic Communities with the goal of preventing, managing and resolving conflicts on the continent. The impetus for its creation in 2001, in parallel with the African Union, was the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The African Union's Constitutive Act allows it to intervene in a member state in grave circumstances, such as genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Yet ...

The African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) was established by the African Union in collaboration with Africa’s Regional Economic Communities with the goal of preventing, managing and resolving conflicts on the continent. The impetus for its creation in 2001, in parallel with the African Union, was the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The African Union's Constitutive Act allows it to intervene in a member state in grave circumstances, such as genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Yet building the APSA has been slower than expected, and to some extent the process remains incomplete. The African Standby Force, the APSA’s military and police arm, has yet to become fully operational, and the African Union’s Peace Fund remains under-funded. As a result, the EU has become a major investor in the project. To date, EUR 740 million have been earmarked by the EU to establish the African Peace and Security Architecture and to conduct peace support operations, such as the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) and the Mission to the Central African Republic.

Strasbourg-Lisbon-Chicago: NATO Quo Vadis?

19-08-2013

The past three summits of NATO in Strasbourg / Kehl (2009), Lisbon (2010) and Chicago (2012) have addressed rather turbulent developments in the alliance's strategic environment, requiring it to adapt to new situations faster than ever before. NATO's structures have been revised several times, and from the 16 headquarters with 20 000 staff in the 1990s only 7 will survive, with less than 9 000 staff. Territorial defence, once key element of NATO's defence posture, will mainly consist of missile and ...

The past three summits of NATO in Strasbourg / Kehl (2009), Lisbon (2010) and Chicago (2012) have addressed rather turbulent developments in the alliance's strategic environment, requiring it to adapt to new situations faster than ever before. NATO's structures have been revised several times, and from the 16 headquarters with 20 000 staff in the 1990s only 7 will survive, with less than 9 000 staff. Territorial defence, once key element of NATO's defence posture, will mainly consist of missile and cyber defence, and - perhaps - critical infrastructure protection. So far, NATO has become much more focused on sustainable high-end operations abroad, but the perspective of more such action is rather unlikely. With the financial crisis and the concentration of the US on its security interests on their pacific coast, the European allies are required to do more for European security. Previous such attempts in the 1990s 'drowned' during the war on terror; NATO and the EU now need to emerge in a true and mutually benefiting cooperation. With the arrival of the Lisbon treaty abolishing the pillar divides between the security and defence policy and the other Union policies, the EU can play its security role thoroughly. The Treaty on European Union requires the 'progressive framing of common Union defence policy'. This process, however, is all but well underway. It is unclear if the forthcoming European Council on defence matters in December 2013 will put this issue on its strategic agenda. The model of NATO, on which the EU treaties are based since Maastricht and Amsterdam, refers to a NATO that has significantly changed since. This is why reflecting on this matter becomes more important than ever before.

Algeria’s Underused Potential in Security Cooperation in the Sahel Region

24-06-2013

Algeria is a regional power in both economic, political and military terms. Up to now, relations between the EU and Algeria have been mainly based on economic considerations. The crisis in Mali, the Franco-African military intervention (AFISMA) and the terrorist attacks at the gas facility In Amenas in eastern Algeria have opened a new window of opportunity for reinforced cooperation in the field of security between Algeria and the EU in order to combat common threats. Given its strong military power ...

Algeria is a regional power in both economic, political and military terms. Up to now, relations between the EU and Algeria have been mainly based on economic considerations. The crisis in Mali, the Franco-African military intervention (AFISMA) and the terrorist attacks at the gas facility In Amenas in eastern Algeria have opened a new window of opportunity for reinforced cooperation in the field of security between Algeria and the EU in order to combat common threats. Given its strong military power and political stature in the region, Algeria has the potential to develop into an important ally of the EU in the Sahel region. The probable transfer of presidential powers in Algeria will offer a chance for Algeria to reshape its policy in the region, as an assertive and constructive regional power not only in the Maghreb but also in West Africa.

Drones: Engaging in Debate and Accountability

25-04-2013

Remotely piloted vehicles or aircraft are not an invention of the late 20th or early 21st century. Adding weapons to UAVs was proposed as early as the late 1940s, although these armed UAVs only came into use decades later. Remotely-piloted systems are also used in science, agriculture, environmental protection, goods transport and border security. New opportunities, such the use of RPAS for regulating air traffic, reveal the challenges in cyber security, privacy protection, national and public security ...

Remotely piloted vehicles or aircraft are not an invention of the late 20th or early 21st century. Adding weapons to UAVs was proposed as early as the late 1940s, although these armed UAVs only came into use decades later. Remotely-piloted systems are also used in science, agriculture, environmental protection, goods transport and border security. New opportunities, such the use of RPAS for regulating air traffic, reveal the challenges in cyber security, privacy protection, national and public security, and structural changes. Shifting demands, new UAV market entrants and increasing competition in the global market will challenge traditional (combat) aircraft industry structures. Innovation requires political and societal debate. Innovation in defence requires even more of this debate. Drones do not alter what the military does. Debate, organised at the European level, could develop a set of rules regarding the use of RPAS.

Russia's New Aerospace Defence Forces: Keeping Up with the Neighbours

22-02-2013

The system should provide defence against all types of missiles. A missile early warning system is being developed across the country. The A-135 system is being upgraded and integrated into the VKO. Missile defence exercises have been intensified across the country, with numerous tests conducted in the last months of 2012 and more planned for 2013. If the organisational and budgetary challenges are met, the VKO will significantly boost Russia's military strength.

The system should provide defence against all types of missiles. A missile early warning system is being developed across the country. The A-135 system is being upgraded and integrated into the VKO. Missile defence exercises have been intensified across the country, with numerous tests conducted in the last months of 2012 and more planned for 2013. If the organisational and budgetary challenges are met, the VKO will significantly boost Russia's military strength.

Anatolian Protector : Missile Defence in Action

21-01-2013

Syrian short range ballistic missiles may reach major Turkish cities in the Anatolian province. Turkey has no own missile defence system. DE, NL and US are the three allies deploying missile defence systems to Turkey. Three major population centres and NATO installations will be under the missile defence shield. Russia, Syria and Iran see the missile deployment as a prelude to a NATO led intervention. NATO's theatre ballistic missile defence capability developed since 2005 is operational since early ...

Syrian short range ballistic missiles may reach major Turkish cities in the Anatolian province. Turkey has no own missile defence system. DE, NL and US are the three allies deploying missile defence systems to Turkey. Three major population centres and NATO installations will be under the missile defence shield. Russia, Syria and Iran see the missile deployment as a prelude to a NATO led intervention. NATO's theatre ballistic missile defence capability developed since 2005 is operational since early 2011. A system capable of protecting European population and territory. Europe is the junior partner in missile defence. Effective integration of Russia could reduce tensions and improve missile defence. Anatolian Protector has many advantages, little disadvantages. Engagement generates experience and helps justifying future capability improvements.

Pooling and Sharing Austerity ? The Defence Agency's 2013 Budget

26-11-2012

2013 budget is again fixed to EUR 30.5 million. Council to EDA: 'do more and better - but with less!' The Council did not manage to establish a long term financial perspective for EDA. The EDA's budget comes from participating Member States' contributions and its progress t is hindered by the unanimity requirement for adopting it. The Council could make EDA a true Union agency funded from the Union budget. The strong and direct command and control of the EDA through the Member States' meeting in ...

2013 budget is again fixed to EUR 30.5 million. Council to EDA: 'do more and better - but with less!' The Council did not manage to establish a long term financial perspective for EDA. The EDA's budget comes from participating Member States' contributions and its progress t is hindered by the unanimity requirement for adopting it. The Council could make EDA a true Union agency funded from the Union budget. The strong and direct command and control of the EDA through the Member States' meeting in the Steering Board would remain. To support EDA, EP could propose to earmark revenue in 2013 to beef up EDA's operational budget.

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