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The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy

07-12-2017

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders ...

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders in eight European countries and from an original survey of 1,200 platform workers. It dissects the different normative layers that need to be considered when looking at the challenges of social protection of platform workers from a legal perspective. Finally, the report draws conclusions and makes recommendations concerning arrangements for the provision of social protection for workers in this growing sector of the economy.

Ārējais autors

Chris FORDE, Mark STUART, Simon JOYCE, Liz OLIVER, Danat VALIZADE, Gabriella ALBERTI, Kate HARDY, Vera TRAPPMANN, Charles UMNEY, Calum CARSON, Centre for Employment Relations Innovation and Change (CERIC), University of Leeds, UK; Justyna KATJA, Gabriela YORDANOVA

Temporary contracts, precarious employment, employees’ fundamental rights and EU employment law

15-11-2017

This study, commissioned by the the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions, was prepared to assess the nature and extent of employment precariousness in the framework of EU’s fundamental rights and EU employment law. The analysis focuses on two broad areas, namely atypical forms of employment and franchising. The report identifies a number of ‘protective gaps’ at various levels of regulation and puts forward ...

This study, commissioned by the the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Petitions, was prepared to assess the nature and extent of employment precariousness in the framework of EU’s fundamental rights and EU employment law. The analysis focuses on two broad areas, namely atypical forms of employment and franchising. The report identifies a number of ‘protective gaps’ at various levels of regulation and puts forward policy recommendations that are informed by the need to adopt holistic and comprehensive action for addressing what emerges as a constantly moving target.

Ārējais autors

Aristea KOUKIADAKI, Senior Lecturer in Employment Law, Work and Equalities Institute, University of Manchester, UK Ioannis KATSAROUMPAS, Lecturer in Employment Law, University of Sussex, UK

De jure versus de facto labour rights in China

20-06-2017

For China, striking the right balance between using its abundant, cheap workforce as a competitive advantage and protecting labour rights has been a major challenge. Although China has developed a considerable body of law governing labour relations, there is still a huge gap between the labour rights on the statute books and those enjoyed by workers in practice. Over-riding economic interests to attract foreign investors and to boost economic growth have seriously undermined effective labour rights ...

For China, striking the right balance between using its abundant, cheap workforce as a competitive advantage and protecting labour rights has been a major challenge. Although China has developed a considerable body of law governing labour relations, there is still a huge gap between the labour rights on the statute books and those enjoyed by workers in practice. Over-riding economic interests to attract foreign investors and to boost economic growth have seriously undermined effective labour rights enforcement. China's vanishing demographic dividend may require a new balance.

Labour rights in Export Processing Zones with a focus on GSP+ beneficiary countries

15-06-2017

The European Union’s GSP+ scheme provides trade concessions to beneficiary countries and obliges them to ratify and effectively implement key international conventions on human rights and labour rights. The sectoral gains of GSP+ have thus far been concentrated on exports of apparel, textiles and processed fish. Such sectors are often located in Export Processing Zones (EPZs) where the governance of labour rights may differ from the rest of the country and fall below international legal standards ...

The European Union’s GSP+ scheme provides trade concessions to beneficiary countries and obliges them to ratify and effectively implement key international conventions on human rights and labour rights. The sectoral gains of GSP+ have thus far been concentrated on exports of apparel, textiles and processed fish. Such sectors are often located in Export Processing Zones (EPZs) where the governance of labour rights may differ from the rest of the country and fall below international legal standards. This study examines the apparel sectors of Pakistan, Mongolia and Sri Lanka and the processed fish sector of the Philippines. The importance of EPZs to exports under the GSP+ varies by country and sector. Only in Pakistan are EPZs legally exempt from rights relating to freedom of association and collective bargaining. But restrictions on these and other rights in practice remain widespread, and are not confined to EPZs. Efforts to promote labour rights through the GSP+ should focus on key export sectors benefitting from the scheme and consider EPZs alongside other sites of the supply chain where exploited workers are based.

Economic Inequality

15-07-2016

This leaflet provides the main points on economic inequality and the take-home messages from the ECON/EMPL hearing on 21 June 2016 in an easy-to-read Q&A format, to make this topic more easily accessible to a wider audience. It has been prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department A on Economic and Scientific Policy.

This leaflet provides the main points on economic inequality and the take-home messages from the ECON/EMPL hearing on 21 June 2016 in an easy-to-read Q&A format, to make this topic more easily accessible to a wider audience. It has been prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department A on Economic and Scientific Policy.

Employment and working conditions in EU civil aviation

15-04-2016

Aviation is a strategically important sector of the EU economy, contributing €110 billion directly and €300 billion indirectly to EU GDP, and employing around 1.9 million persons directly. If impacts on other industries such as tourism are taken into account, then it can be said that aviation supports up to 9 million jobs. These jobs are not evenly spread across the EU: three quarters of air transport employment is centred in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. ...

Aviation is a strategically important sector of the EU economy, contributing €110 billion directly and €300 billion indirectly to EU GDP, and employing around 1.9 million persons directly. If impacts on other industries such as tourism are taken into account, then it can be said that aviation supports up to 9 million jobs. These jobs are not evenly spread across the EU: three quarters of air transport employment is centred in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. Since the EU liberalised the aviation market in the early 1990s, the industry has gone through notable changes which have also had an impact on employment and working conditions. For instance, outsourcing has increased; some workers have had to operate from airline bases where they do not live; income has become more variable; many have been laid off and those remaining in work have had to increase their productivity. Furthermore, next to full-time permanent contracts, atypical forms of employment such as agency work, self-employment, zero-hour contracts and pay-to-fly schemes have increasingly been used, especially for younger staff and new entrants to the workforce. Persons employed under such schemes often have more precarious working conditions and are generally less likely to be unionised. EU institutions have repeatedly examined working conditions in civil aviation. Some Members of the European Parliament, as well as of the European Economic and Social Committee, have expressed concerns about the use of atypical forms of employment and multiplication of airlines' home bases. Although the aviation strategy that the European Commission published at the end of 2015 deals with working conditions, it did not present any new legislative initiative on this issue.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Evolution of Collective Bargaining in Troika Programme and Post-Programme Member States

21-03-2016

The European Parliament's Committee on Employment and Social Affairs requested a workshop on "Evolution of Collective Bargaining in Troika Programme and Post-Programme Member States", which was held in the European Parliament in Brussels on 18 February 2016. The workshop is connected to the EMPL Committee's ongoing work on monitoring the implementation of labour market and social reforms foreseen by the Memorandum of Understanding with Greece and its interest in following up the findings of the EP ...

The European Parliament's Committee on Employment and Social Affairs requested a workshop on "Evolution of Collective Bargaining in Troika Programme and Post-Programme Member States", which was held in the European Parliament in Brussels on 18 February 2016. The workshop is connected to the EMPL Committee's ongoing work on monitoring the implementation of labour market and social reforms foreseen by the Memorandum of Understanding with Greece and its interest in following up the findings of the EP resolution of 13 March 2014 on Employment and social aspects of the role and operations of the Troika; it is also connected to the European Commission's intention to relaunch social dialogue. The workshop presentations trace the development of collective bargaining in the last decades and have a look at the state of play of collective bargaining in Portugal, Romania, Ireland and Greece. This Policy Department A publication contains the programme, a summary of discussions, background papers and the presentations of the workshop.

Ārējais autors

Ricardo RODRíGUEZ CONTRERAS, Maria DA PAZ CAMPOS LIMA, Aurora TRIF, Peter RIGNEY and Aristea KOUKIADAKI

EU Social and Labour Rights and EU Internal Market Law

18-01-2016

The study on EU Social and Labour rights and EU Internal Market Law, prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, assesses the tensions between EU social and labour rights and EU Internal Market law and explores responses by socio-economic and political actors at national and EU level to these tensions.. This leaflet presents the key findings of the study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/563457/IPOL_STU ...

The study on EU Social and Labour rights and EU Internal Market Law, prepared by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, assesses the tensions between EU social and labour rights and EU Internal Market law and explores responses by socio-economic and political actors at national and EU level to these tensions.. This leaflet presents the key findings of the study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/563457/IPOL_STU(2015)563457_EN.pdf

EU Social and Labour Rights and EU Internal Market Law

24-09-2015

EU Social and Labour Rights have developed incrementally, originally through a set of legislative initiatives creating selective employment rights, followed by a non-binding Charter of Social Rights. Only in 2009, social and labour rights became legally binding through the Charter of Fundamental Rights for the European Union (CFREU). By contrast, the EU Internal Market - an area without frontiers where goods, persons, services and capital can circulate freely – has been enshrined in legally enforceable ...

EU Social and Labour Rights have developed incrementally, originally through a set of legislative initiatives creating selective employment rights, followed by a non-binding Charter of Social Rights. Only in 2009, social and labour rights became legally binding through the Charter of Fundamental Rights for the European Union (CFREU). By contrast, the EU Internal Market - an area without frontiers where goods, persons, services and capital can circulate freely – has been enshrined in legally enforceable Treaty provisions from 1958. These comprise the economic freedoms guaranteeing said free circulation and a system ensuring that competition is not distorted within the Internal Market (Protocol 27 to the Treaty of Lisbon). Tensions between Internal Market law and social and labour rights have been observed in analyses of EU case law and legislation. This report, provided by Policy Department A to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, explores responses by socio-economic and political actors at national and EU levels to such tensions. On the basis of the current Treaties and the CFREU, the constitutionally conditioned Internal Market emerges as a way to overcome the perception that social and labour rights limit Internal Market law. On this basis, alternative responses to perceived tensions are proposed, focused on posting of workers, furthering fair employment conditions through public procurement and enabling effective collective bargaining and industrial action in the Internal Market.

Ārējais autors

Dagmar SCHIEK (Queen’s University Belfast, the UK) ; Liz Oliver, Christopher Forde and Gabriella Alberti (University of Leeds, the UK) ; Michael Doherty (University of Maynooth, Ireland) ; Joanna Unterschütz (University of Business Administration, Gdynia, Poland) ; Consuelo Chacartegui Jávega and Julia Lopez Lopez (University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain) ; Kerstin Ahlberg and Niklas Bruun (University of Stockholm, Sweden)

Wage and Income Inequality in the European Union

15-01-2015

This report, provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, summarises the results of the project “Wage Dispersion in the European Union”. It has three objectives: first, to describe the recent evolution of wage dispersion across EU member states using different definitions of labour earnings and inequality measures; second, to analyse the relationship between wage dispersion and labour market institutions related to collective bargaining and minimum wages taking ...

This report, provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, summarises the results of the project “Wage Dispersion in the European Union”. It has three objectives: first, to describe the recent evolution of wage dispersion across EU member states using different definitions of labour earnings and inequality measures; second, to analyse the relationship between wage dispersion and labour market institutions related to collective bargaining and minimum wages taking into account recent policy reforms; and, last, to evaluate the impact of changes in wage inequality on overall income distribution in the EU.

Ārējais autors

Christian DREGER (DIW Berlin) ; Enrique LÓPEZ-BAZO, Raul RAMOS, Vicente ROYUELA and Jordi SURIÑACH (Barcelona University)

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