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Road safety in the EU

26-02-2019

Between 1991 and 2017, and especially after 2000, the EU witnessed substantial improvements in terms of road safety, whether measured in terms of fatalities, accidents or injuries. Over a shorter period, between 2001 and 2010, the number of deaths on EU roads decreased by 43 %, and by around another 20 % since 2010. The most recent figures, however, show that progress in reducing the fatality rate is stagnating, and that specific road users or demographic groups are not witnessing the same improvements ...

Between 1991 and 2017, and especially after 2000, the EU witnessed substantial improvements in terms of road safety, whether measured in terms of fatalities, accidents or injuries. Over a shorter period, between 2001 and 2010, the number of deaths on EU roads decreased by 43 %, and by around another 20 % since 2010. The most recent figures, however, show that progress in reducing the fatality rate is stagnating, and that specific road users or demographic groups are not witnessing the same improvements as the rest of the population. Road safety is a shared competence, implying that many measures are primarily dealt with by Member States. However, the EU, in line with Article 91(c) TFEU, has significantly developed the acquis in this area, with the Commission adopting several policy frameworks on road safety. In 2003, the EU set itself a target in terms of reducing road fatalities, and regularly monitors progress towards this goal. In June 2017, the Council endorsed the Valletta Declaration, which reasserted commitments and targets in the area of road safety. In May 2018, within the context of the third and last 'mobility package', the Commission presented a common framework for road safety for the 2021-2030 period, recalling the EU’s long-term goal of moving as close as possible to zero fatalities in road transport by 2050 ('Vision Zero'). The European Parliament has adopted numerous resolutions regarding or covering road safety, calling notably for more detailed and measurable targets, more account taken of vulnerable users as well as of the safety challenges emerging from the development of connected and automated mobility. This is an updated edition of a Briefing published in November 2016: PE 593.542.

Gender Perspective on Access to Energy in the EU

18-12-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, presents an overview of the situation within the EU with regard to the way energy poverty is experienced by women and men and explores through a gender lens existing EU legislation and policy to address energy poverty. Interpretation and implementation of EU legislation at national level are also investigated. Possible opportunities to ensure that policies and interventions to address ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, presents an overview of the situation within the EU with regard to the way energy poverty is experienced by women and men and explores through a gender lens existing EU legislation and policy to address energy poverty. Interpretation and implementation of EU legislation at national level are also investigated. Possible opportunities to ensure that policies and interventions to address energy poverty are more gender aware are identified and discussed.

Ārējais autors

Joy CLANCY, Viktoria DASKALOVA, Mariëlle FEENSTRA (University of Twente, NL), Nicolò FRANCESCHELLI, Margarita SANZ (Blomeyer & Sanz)

Possible impacts of Brexit on EU development and humanitarian policies

05-04-2017

Brexit could have a major impact on EU development and humanitarian policies. However, although Brexit is highly likely to happen, there are still uncertainties about the UK’s new foreign policy approach and its repercussions on aid. The UK may act under three different scenarios (nationalist, realist, cosmopolitan) with different consequences for EU aid. The UK’s leaving would challenge the EU’s role as the world’s leading donor: EU aid may decrease by up to 3 % and it could lose between 10 % and ...

Brexit could have a major impact on EU development and humanitarian policies. However, although Brexit is highly likely to happen, there are still uncertainties about the UK’s new foreign policy approach and its repercussions on aid. The UK may act under three different scenarios (nationalist, realist, cosmopolitan) with different consequences for EU aid. The UK’s leaving would challenge the EU’s role as the world’s leading donor: EU aid may decrease by up to 3 % and it could lose between 10 % and 13 % of its world aid share. Its presence, through ODA, in neighbouring countries throughout Eastern Europe and North Africa could be particularly affected, with a cut of between 1 % and 4 %, depending on different scenarios. The EU could react to Brexit by adopting two distinct approaches to foreign policy and development cooperation: either limiting its role to that of a regional power or growing to become a global leader. In the first approach, Brexit would have a very mild effect and would lead to very few policy challenges. However, in the second, the EU would need to compensate for the loss of Britain’s contribution to EU aid, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

Ārējais autors

Iliana OLIVIÉ, senior analyst, and Aitor PÉREZ, senior research fellow, Elcano Royal Institute, Spain

Fiscal Compact Treaty: Scorecard for 2015

29-06-2016

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has undertaken a detailed analysis that seeks to assess how far participating EU Member States have met their commitments within the framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG). This intergovernmental treaty was agreed and signed by 25 Heads of State or Government in early 2012 and entered into force on 1 January 2013.  As part of a reformed ...

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has undertaken a detailed analysis that seeks to assess how far participating EU Member States have met their commitments within the framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG). This intergovernmental treaty was agreed and signed by 25 Heads of State or Government in early 2012 and entered into force on 1 January 2013.  As part of a reformed economic governance framework, the TSCG has sought to introduce more effective and stricter fiscal rules, including further automaticity of sanctions and the transposition of a balanced budget rule into national legislation (under the 'Fiscal Compact'). It has also aimed to enhance economic policy coordination and convergence and improve the governance of the euro area. This study reviews the main elements of the Treaty and seeks to evaluate how far the Contracting Parties have met their commitments. It shows that, three years after its entry into force, against the backdrop of a modest economic recovery across the euro area and the EU, the implementation of the TSCG has delivered mixed results. Most notably, efforts to comply with the terms of the Fiscal Compact – including the set of rules aiming to strengthen budgetary discipline – varied from one country to another. Admittedly, the increasing complexity of the EU fiscal framework, following a series of reforms that took place after the onset of the sovereign debt crisis, did not help foster compliance and monitoring. In addition, the Contracting Parties made some progress on enhancing economic policy coordination and convergence; however, there is still room for improvement. Lastly, the analysis reveals that compliance with the TSCG provisions on the governance of the euro area has not been complete.

European Research Area

18-05-2016

This Cost of Non-Europe study examines the state of implementation of the current policy framework for the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA). The study combines a backward-looking (ex-post) and a forward-looking (ex-ante) evaluation. While the ex-post evaluation looks at the implementation of the ERA policy framework, the ex-ante assessment focuses on potential costs and benefits of possible further policy action. In doing so, it identifies shortcomings in the ERA policy framework and ...

This Cost of Non-Europe study examines the state of implementation of the current policy framework for the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA). The study combines a backward-looking (ex-post) and a forward-looking (ex-ante) evaluation. While the ex-post evaluation looks at the implementation of the ERA policy framework, the ex-ante assessment focuses on potential costs and benefits of possible further policy action. In doing so, it identifies shortcomings in the ERA policy framework and outlines costs due to the lack of further action on the issue. The study makes a cautious estimate that the costs linked with implementation shortcomings of the ERA policy framework could amount to €3 billion per year.  

Energy Union: Key Decisions for the Realisation of a Fully Integrated Energy Market

15-03-2016

This study, provided by the Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee gives an overview and analysis of the main EU policies, measures and instruments that contribute to the realisation of fully integrated and well-functioning electricity and gas markets in Europe. Detailed case studies explore capacity remuneration mechanisms, electricity market coupling, and cross-border gas trade between Hungary and its neighbours. Policy recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the integration ...

This study, provided by the Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee gives an overview and analysis of the main EU policies, measures and instruments that contribute to the realisation of fully integrated and well-functioning electricity and gas markets in Europe. Detailed case studies explore capacity remuneration mechanisms, electricity market coupling, and cross-border gas trade between Hungary and its neighbours. Policy recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the integration process are formulated based on the key findings.

Ārējais autors

Luc VAN NUFFEL (Trinomics), Koen RADEMAEKERS (Trinomics), Jessica YEARWOOD TRAVEZAN (Trinomics), Maaike POST (Trinomics), Onne HOOGLAND (Trinomics) and Pepa LOPEZ (Aether)

Implementation of the 2014 Country Specific Recommendations

12-08-2015

This paper prepared by Economic Governance Support Unit provides an overview of the 2014 Country Specific Recommendations.

This paper prepared by Economic Governance Support Unit provides an overview of the 2014 Country Specific Recommendations.

Institutional and Constitutional Aspects of Special Interest Representation

15-06-2015

The European Parliament is lobbied by growing numbers of special interests; their activity is greater in Committees dealing with issues on integration & regulation, and procedures under OLP, CNS and INI. Significantly, the density and diversity of accredited interests across committees mirrors patterns observed in registered groups across Commission DGs. Based on a survey of MEPs the report notes variation in the activity of interest groups across the policy cycle while influential groups are considered ...

The European Parliament is lobbied by growing numbers of special interests; their activity is greater in Committees dealing with issues on integration & regulation, and procedures under OLP, CNS and INI. Significantly, the density and diversity of accredited interests across committees mirrors patterns observed in registered groups across Commission DGs. Based on a survey of MEPs the report notes variation in the activity of interest groups across the policy cycle while influential groups are considered those that provide a mix of European level technical and political expertise; overall the Transparency Register is considered to improve the behaviour of interest representatives.

Ārējais autors

David Coen and Alexander Katsaitis (School of Public Policy, University College London, the UK)

The Cohesion Policy Dimension of the Implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy

15-06-2015

This analysis provides input to the own-initiative report on "Cohesion policy and the review of the Europe 2020 strategy". The analysis focuses on three key themes: the (reciprocal) relationship between cohesion policy and the Europe 2020 strategy in the present and the previous programming period, the governance aspects (ownership and responsibility) and the territorial dimension of the strategy.

This analysis provides input to the own-initiative report on "Cohesion policy and the review of the Europe 2020 strategy". The analysis focuses on three key themes: the (reciprocal) relationship between cohesion policy and the Europe 2020 strategy in the present and the previous programming period, the governance aspects (ownership and responsibility) and the territorial dimension of the strategy.

Medicinal products in the European Union: The legal framework for medicines for human use

01-04-2015

EU legislation on human medicines goes back 50 years. Its twofold aim is to safeguard public health without hindering development of the European pharmaceutical industry or trade in medicinal products. The regulatory framework is complex and covers the entire lifecycle of a medicine, from manufacture, to clinical trials, to marketing authorisation, to pharmacovigilance and patient information. Added to that, the principles of good manufacturing, distribution and pharmacovigilance practice contribute ...

EU legislation on human medicines goes back 50 years. Its twofold aim is to safeguard public health without hindering development of the European pharmaceutical industry or trade in medicinal products. The regulatory framework is complex and covers the entire lifecycle of a medicine, from manufacture, to clinical trials, to marketing authorisation, to pharmacovigilance and patient information. Added to that, the principles of good manufacturing, distribution and pharmacovigilance practice contribute to increasing medicines' safety. An emerging approach to granting early access to medicines – adaptive pathways – could prove its future merits for patients with a medical condition not adequately addressed by an existing therapy.

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