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Defence: What has the EU done?

29-06-2018

Attempts to move towards a common defence have been part of the European Project since its inception. However, more has been achieved in the past two years than in the last 60 years.

Attempts to move towards a common defence have been part of the European Project since its inception. However, more has been achieved in the past two years than in the last 60 years.

Defence: Member States' Spending

31-05-2018

In 2016, the amount of expenditure dedicated to defence represented 1.3% of GDP for the EU-28 and 1.2% of GDP for the Euro area. This is much less than the amount spent on social protection (which is equivalent to 19.1% of GDP), Health (7.1%) or Education (4.7%) but not quite as much as the amount spent on Public Safety and Order (1.7% of GDP) and significantly higher that the amount spent on environmental protection (0.7% of GDP). In 2016, the highest levels of expenditure in defence in the EU were ...

In 2016, the amount of expenditure dedicated to defence represented 1.3% of GDP for the EU-28 and 1.2% of GDP for the Euro area. This is much less than the amount spent on social protection (which is equivalent to 19.1% of GDP), Health (7.1%) or Education (4.7%) but not quite as much as the amount spent on Public Safety and Order (1.7% of GDP) and significantly higher that the amount spent on environmental protection (0.7% of GDP). In 2016, the highest levels of expenditure in defence in the EU were observed in Estonia (2.4% of GDP), followed by Greece (2.1% of GDP), the United-Kingdom (2.0% of GDP) and France (1.8% of GDP). As a share of total government expenditure, defence expenditure amounted to 2.9% in the EU and to 2.6% in the Euro area.

L-implimentazzjoni tal-baġit

01-01-2018

Il-Kummissjoni, soġġetta għall-kontroll politiku tal-Parlament Ewropew, timplimenta l-baġit fuq ir-responsabilità tagħha stess b'kooperazzjoni mal-Istati Membri.

Il-Kummissjoni, soġġetta għall-kontroll politiku tal-Parlament Ewropew, timplimenta l-baġit fuq ir-responsabilità tagħha stess b'kooperazzjoni mal-Istati Membri.

"Other revenue" in the European Union Budget

15-11-2017

The Treaty on the functioning of the European Union divides the revenue of the general budget into two main components: own resources and other revenue. However, the wording of the Treaty indicates that other revenue should remain marginal compared to the own resources in the financing of the EU budget. Today, there are three main categories of own resources: i) traditional own resources, ii) VAT-based resource and iii) GNI-based own resource. The own resources system also includes a specific mechanism ...

The Treaty on the functioning of the European Union divides the revenue of the general budget into two main components: own resources and other revenue. However, the wording of the Treaty indicates that other revenue should remain marginal compared to the own resources in the financing of the EU budget. Today, there are three main categories of own resources: i) traditional own resources, ii) VAT-based resource and iii) GNI-based own resource. The own resources system also includes a specific mechanism for correcting budgetary imbalances in favour of the United Kingdom (the UK correction). In addition, some Member States may choose not to participate in certain justice and home affairs policies. Their own resources payments are adjusted accordingly.

Assigned Revenue in the Budget of the European Parliament

16-10-2017

While assigned revenue is effectively an exception to the principle of universality, it also takes account of the specific nature of such revenue and makes it possible to use it for its natural purpose. In certain cases, such as insurance payments serving to provide compensation for damages or to correct errors, the principle of universality is not applicable, or only with great difficulty. Moreover, assigned revenue is not always ‘true revenue’. In the two examples above, which in fact concern ...

While assigned revenue is effectively an exception to the principle of universality, it also takes account of the specific nature of such revenue and makes it possible to use it for its natural purpose. In certain cases, such as insurance payments serving to provide compensation for damages or to correct errors, the principle of universality is not applicable, or only with great difficulty. Moreover, assigned revenue is not always ‘true revenue’. In the two examples above, which in fact concern compensation for damage or correction of errors, pooling them according to the principle of budgetary universality would not make sense.

Assigned Revenue in the European Union Budget

15-09-2017

Assigned revenue is used to finance specific items of expenditure. It therefore constitutes an exception to the principle of universality.

Assigned revenue is used to finance specific items of expenditure. It therefore constitutes an exception to the principle of universality.

Resources for the funding of the research fund for coal and steel

15-09-2017

The ECSC Treaty, which was concluded for a period of 50 years from its entry into force, expired on 23 July 2002. Accordingly, in the run-up to its expiry, and in view of the benefits which the coal and steel sectors derived from the ECSC research and technological development programmes, the European Council, in the resolution on growth and employment which it adopted in Amsterdam on 16 and 17 June 1997, determined that revenues from reserves outstanding at the expiry of the Treaty should be used ...

The ECSC Treaty, which was concluded for a period of 50 years from its entry into force, expired on 23 July 2002. Accordingly, in the run-up to its expiry, and in view of the benefits which the coal and steel sectors derived from the ECSC research and technological development programmes, the European Council, in the resolution on growth and employment which it adopted in Amsterdam on 16 and 17 June 1997, determined that revenues from reserves outstanding at the expiry of the Treaty should be used for a research fund for sectors related to the coal and steel industry.

Proceedings of the Workshop on the Mid-Term Revision of the Financial Regulation Improvement of Direct Management & Outlook on the Commission Proposal

15-09-2016

On 11 July 2016, at the request of the Committees on Budget and Budgetary Control, the Policy Department for Budgetary Affairs organised a half-day workshop on Mid-Term Revision of the Financial Regulation, Improvement of direct management & Outlook on the Commission proposal. Experts from the Commission, the ECA, the EARTO, the EUA, Firalis and Max-Planck-Gesellschaft presented their views on the following main issues: • Complications due to the multiplicity of accounting systems; • Complications ...

On 11 July 2016, at the request of the Committees on Budget and Budgetary Control, the Policy Department for Budgetary Affairs organised a half-day workshop on Mid-Term Revision of the Financial Regulation, Improvement of direct management & Outlook on the Commission proposal. Experts from the Commission, the ECA, the EARTO, the EUA, Firalis and Max-Planck-Gesellschaft presented their views on the following main issues: • Complications due to the multiplicity of accounting systems; • Complications due to multiplicity of audits and control levels; • Direct costs and flat rate costs models; • Specificity of the fundamental research sector; and • Loans versus subsidies. The aim of this brochure is to disseminate the information shared among the experts during this half day. This document can not constitute an authentic record of proceedings. The workshop was public and live webstreamed. The video record can be found under the following link: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/ep-live/en/committees/video?event=20160711-1500-COMMITTEE-BUDG.

The Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM): Costs and Financing

14-10-2015

The ECB is responsible for the effective and consistent functioning of the SSM and oversees the system. The costs of the ECB supervisory tasks are covered by levying an annual fee on all supervised banks. The fee is calculated according to the bank's importance and its risk profile.

The ECB is responsible for the effective and consistent functioning of the SSM and oversees the system. The costs of the ECB supervisory tasks are covered by levying an annual fee on all supervised banks. The fee is calculated according to the bank's importance and its risk profile.

Financing the EU Budget: What Does the Academic World Tell Us?

15-04-2015

The European Parliament’s position advocating a reform of the current revenue system and more genuine own resources to finance the EU budget appears to be strongly backed by academic research. There is a broad consensus that the current system to feed the EU budget is no longer viable. National contributions currently account for more or less 85% of the budget. The net payer debate is seen as misleading and polluting discussions on the EU budget. The accounting calculations on which it is based ...

The European Parliament’s position advocating a reform of the current revenue system and more genuine own resources to finance the EU budget appears to be strongly backed by academic research. There is a broad consensus that the current system to feed the EU budget is no longer viable. National contributions currently account for more or less 85% of the budget. The net payer debate is seen as misleading and polluting discussions on the EU budget. The accounting calculations on which it is based are arbitrary and do not reflect the real net benefits and costs of the EU budget. Academic research provides numerous analyses of the best options to reform the current system of own resources and to bring back the GNI resource to its initial balancing role. As Andreis and Marè (2014) stated in their conclusions, the EU budget is a key condition for the evolution of European integration, and also part of the debate on the legitimacy of the Union’s action. Indeed, debating the EU budget is actually discussing competing visions of Europe’s future. Therefore, an agreement on the future of the EU is a pre-condition for resolving the issue of financing the EU budget.

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