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Between the East and the West: Mobility and Migration from the EU´s Eastern Partners

22-04-2016

The Eastern Partners were among the first countries to launch mobility dialogues with the EU. Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine have also engaged in a process of visa liberalisation, which has been completed in the Republic of Moldova and is in its final stages in Georgia and Ukraine. In addition, the Association Agreements with these countries include provisions, which will be applicable from 2017 for the temporary presence – up to two years – of natural persons in EU Member States. Notwithstanding ...

The Eastern Partners were among the first countries to launch mobility dialogues with the EU. Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine have also engaged in a process of visa liberalisation, which has been completed in the Republic of Moldova and is in its final stages in Georgia and Ukraine. In addition, the Association Agreements with these countries include provisions, which will be applicable from 2017 for the temporary presence – up to two years – of natural persons in EU Member States. Notwithstanding the influence of these mobility-fostering legal provisions, legal migration from Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine is concentrated in certain Member States as a result of economic opportunities or linguistic ties. However, with the exception of Moldova, the number of migrants from the countries in question is generally smaller in Member States than in the Russian Federation, where specific legal provisions favour internal migration from members of the Eurasian Economic Union (Belarus and Armenia), and to a lesser extent from members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Moldova and Ukraine) and Georgia. The countries of origin of those large numbers of migrant workers receive a substantial boost to their economies through personal remittances. This precious source of capital has declined recently, however, owing to falling oil prices and, to a lesser extent, to economic sanctions affecting Russia. Personal remittances from the EU are showing a similar trend, with the exception, again, of Moldova.

Migration Policies of the European Union with its Mediterranean Partners - Necessity of Greater Mobility

25-04-2014

The construction of an integrated Euro-Mediterranean region necessarily requires the establishment of strong cooperation in the field of migration. For this reason, migration must be considered a real opportunity, bringing benefits for the countries and populations of the two shores of the Mediterranean. This report analyses European migration policies towards the Mediterranean Partner Countries before and after the Arab Spring. Furthermore, it highlights their key limitations and proposes specific ...

The construction of an integrated Euro-Mediterranean region necessarily requires the establishment of strong cooperation in the field of migration. For this reason, migration must be considered a real opportunity, bringing benefits for the countries and populations of the two shores of the Mediterranean. This report analyses European migration policies towards the Mediterranean Partner Countries before and after the Arab Spring. Furthermore, it highlights their key limitations and proposes specific recommendations in order to respond to the imperative of greater mobility in the region. In order to achieve this, migration policies, often the source of passionate debate, must be tackled serenely and be the subject of constant dialogue between the parties involved, including civil society. These policies must not only meet objectives with regard to controlling migration flows but surpass them and render them an integral part of a coherent and comprehensive development policy for neighbouring countries. The EU must also develop a more attractive policy vis-à-vis migrant workers, which is able to respond to the labour shortages in certain segments of the European market and increase the likelihood of the country of origin benefiting from the competencies acquired in Europe. In this context, the participation of Euro-Mediterranean professional networks is to be encouraged.

Externe auteur

Macarena NUÑO (IPEMED, France)

Political, Social and Economic Impacts of European Union Policies with its Mediterranean Partners - Focus on ‘Investment’ and Recommendations for Improved Integration

25-04-2014

Since the 2011 Arab revolutions, the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries (SEMCs) have been undergoing multiple transitions (political, social, cultural, religious, etc.). These revolutions have brought to light two main areas requiring action: the upgrading of infrastructures and the creation of jobs for the younger generation. Although the relationship between these countries and Europe is strong, it needs to be renewed. This renewal must be comprehensive and must focus on investment, joint ...

Since the 2011 Arab revolutions, the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries (SEMCs) have been undergoing multiple transitions (political, social, cultural, religious, etc.). These revolutions have brought to light two main areas requiring action: the upgrading of infrastructures and the creation of jobs for the younger generation. Although the relationship between these countries and Europe is strong, it needs to be renewed. This renewal must be comprehensive and must focus on investment, joint management of energy transition, and mobility, which requires special treatment due to its human dimension. Certain measures would need to be put in place for this, for example a fund dedicated to infrastructures, bringing together all of the financial support from Europe; increased mobilisation in favour of SMEs, and management of the mobility of professionals. As far as the SEMCs are concerned, the establishment of a regional economic area will be achieved through improvement of the business climate. This will entail the modernisation of the legal framework by means of regional convergence so that the EU operators and the SEMCs have shared and mutually compatible legal tools at their disposal, as well as taking a progressive step towards the modernisation of the financial system in accordance with a schedule set out by each country.

Externe auteur

Amal CHEVREAU (Ipemed, France)

The Role of Women in the Green Economy - The Issue of Mobility

15-05-2012

This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline ...

This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies.

Externe auteur

Manuela Samek Lodovici and Flavia Pesce (Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale - IRS, Italy) , Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi and Caterina Rosa (TRT - Italy)

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