59

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The EU dairy sector: Main features, challenges and prospects

17-12-2018

The EU dairy sector is the second biggest agricultural sector in the EU, representing more than 12 % of total agricultural output. While milk is produced in all Member States, farm and herd sizes, yields and types of farming vary widely across Europe, from free-range farming in Alpine areas to large specialised dairy farms in the north-west and centre of Europe. In 2016, 157 million tonnes of milk were delivered to dairies, where raw milk is processed into fresh products such as cheese or butter. ...

The EU dairy sector is the second biggest agricultural sector in the EU, representing more than 12 % of total agricultural output. While milk is produced in all Member States, farm and herd sizes, yields and types of farming vary widely across Europe, from free-range farming in Alpine areas to large specialised dairy farms in the north-west and centre of Europe. In 2016, 157 million tonnes of milk were delivered to dairies, where raw milk is processed into fresh products such as cheese or butter. Part of the common agricultural policy, the EU's dairy policy consists of a range of instruments designed to support farmers and address market imbalances. In particular, it includes common market organisation, public intervention and private storage provisions, direct payments and rural development measures. The policy has been constantly updated over time, one recent development being the suppression of milk quotas in 2015. The 2014 to 2016 crisis, during which raw milk prices dropped dramatically from around 40 to 25.7 cents per litre, triggered a reaction by the Commission based on public intervention-buying, private storage and a range of exceptional measures. Two aid packages were adopted, including incentives for farmers to reduce production. Recovery was in sight by 2017. In the coming years, growing EU and global demand is expected to support world dairy markets, without hindering price fluctuations and market imbalances. Resilience and sustainability are key words for the future of the sector. This can be achieved with innovation, as a way to reconcile the need for farmers to earn a decent living, consumer demand for affordable and quality dairy products, and environmental/animal health requirements.

Research for AGRI Committee – New competition rules for the agri-food chain in the CAP post 2020

14-09-2018

In connection with the next reform of the CAP post 2020, the Commission has proposed a new Regulation (COM(2018)394 of 1 June 2018) on the common market organisation, amending Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of 13 December 2013 (amended by Regulation (EU) No 2017/2393 of 13 December 2017). This draft regulation does not, however, cover questions on the relationship between the CAP and competition; the proposal does not contain any provisions concerning the responsibilities of professional and interbranch ...

In connection with the next reform of the CAP post 2020, the Commission has proposed a new Regulation (COM(2018)394 of 1 June 2018) on the common market organisation, amending Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of 13 December 2013 (amended by Regulation (EU) No 2017/2393 of 13 December 2017). This draft regulation does not, however, cover questions on the relationship between the CAP and competition; the proposal does not contain any provisions concerning the responsibilities of professional and interbranch organisations and the possible conditions of their submission to competition rules. The recent Omnibus Regulation (EU) No 2017/2393 has made changes to the legal framework for the application of competition rules to the agreements and practices of farmers and their associations. However, this new legislative framework is not yet entirely consistent and, in the light of the Court of Justice judgment handed down on 14 November 2017 in the Endive case, the progress ought to be consolidated and clarified in order to guarantee the real effectiveness of these provisions and greater legal certainty for operators. This study analyses the development of the relationship between the CAP and the competition rules and highlights the need to take corrective action with respect to current farming legislation to ensure that the CAP has primacy over the competition rules and the implementation of the objectives set out in Article 39 of the Treaty.

Externe auteur

C. Del Cont; A. Iannarelli

Research for AGRI Committee - Towards the CAP post 2020 - Appraisal of the EC Communication on ‘The Future of Food and Farming’ of 29 November 2017

15-05-2018

This study assesses the European Commission’s plans for CAP reform as set out in November 2017 and subsequently. It discusses the extent to which those plans address the performance of the CAP against its objectives, compares them with the views and ideas of stakeholders and makes recommendations.

This study assesses the European Commission’s plans for CAP reform as set out in November 2017 and subsequently. It discusses the extent to which those plans address the performance of the CAP against its objectives, compares them with the views and ideas of stakeholders and makes recommendations.

Externe auteur

D. Mottershead, K. Hart, A. Maréchal, S. Meredith, A. Lorant, F. Bas-Defossez, D. Baldock (IEEP), J-C. Bureau, A. Matthews

De instrumenten van het GLB en de hervormingen ervan

01-04-2018

Het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB) heeft in de loop der jaren vijf grote hervormingen ondergaan, waarvan de meest recente plaatsvonden in 2003 (tussentijdse herziening), in 2009 (de „check-up”) en in 2013 (voor de financiële periode 2014-2020). De eerste gesprekken over het GLB na 2020 zijn begonnen in 2016 en de overeenkomstige wetgevingsvoorstellen zijn gepresenteerd in juni 2018.

Het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB) heeft in de loop der jaren vijf grote hervormingen ondergaan, waarvan de meest recente plaatsvonden in 2003 (tussentijdse herziening), in 2009 (de „check-up”) en in 2013 (voor de financiële periode 2014-2020). De eerste gesprekken over het GLB na 2020 zijn begonnen in 2016 en de overeenkomstige wetgevingsvoorstellen zijn gepresenteerd in juni 2018.

De eerste pijler van het GLB: I — Gemeenschappelijke marktordening (GMO) voor landbouwproducten

01-04-2018

De GMO vormt het kader voor de marktmaatregelen binnen het GLB. De achtereenvolgende hervormingen hebben ertoe geleid dat in 2007 de toenmalige 21 GMO's zijn samengevoegd tot één GMO voor alle landbouwproducten. Daarnaast is het GLB als gevolg van de herzieningen geleidelijk aan nog marktgerichter geworden en is de reikwijdte van de interventie-instrumenten teruggeschroefd; die worden nu als "vangnetten" beschouwd die alleen in crisissituaties worden gebruikt.

De GMO vormt het kader voor de marktmaatregelen binnen het GLB. De achtereenvolgende hervormingen hebben ertoe geleid dat in 2007 de toenmalige 21 GMO's zijn samengevoegd tot één GMO voor alle landbouwproducten. Daarnaast is het GLB als gevolg van de herzieningen geleidelijk aan nog marktgerichter geworden en is de reikwijdte van de interventie-instrumenten teruggeschroefd; die worden nu als "vangnetten" beschouwd die alleen in crisissituaties worden gebruikt.

De eerste pijler van het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB): II — Rechtstreekse betalingen aan landbouwers

01-04-2018

Bij de hervorming van 2003 en de "check-up" van 2009 werd het grootste deel van de rechtstreekse steun ontkoppeld en overgebracht naar de nieuwe bedrijfstoeslagregeling (BTR) of, voor de nieuwe lidstaten, naar de vereenvoudigde regeling van areaalbetaling. Sinds 1 januari 2015 wordt het systeem van rechtstreekse betalingen geregeld door Verordening (EU) nr. 1307/2013.

Bij de hervorming van 2003 en de "check-up" van 2009 werd het grootste deel van de rechtstreekse steun ontkoppeld en overgebracht naar de nieuwe bedrijfstoeslagregeling (BTR) of, voor de nieuwe lidstaten, naar de vereenvoudigde regeling van areaalbetaling. Sinds 1 januari 2015 wordt het systeem van rechtstreekse betalingen geregeld door Verordening (EU) nr. 1307/2013.

De tweede pijler van het GLB: het beleid inzake plattelandsontwikkeling

01-04-2018

Als tweede pijler van het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB) is het beleid van de EU inzake plattelandsontwikkeling ontwikkeld om plattelandsgebieden binnen de Unie te ondersteunen en het hoofd te bieden aan een breed scala aan uitdagingen op het gebied van economie, milieu en maatschappij in de 21e eeuw. Een hogere mate van flexibiliteit (in vergelijking met de eerste pijler) stelt regionale, nationale en lokale autoriteiten in staat om hun individuele zevenjarige programma's voor plattelandsontwikkeling ...

Als tweede pijler van het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB) is het beleid van de EU inzake plattelandsontwikkeling ontwikkeld om plattelandsgebieden binnen de Unie te ondersteunen en het hoofd te bieden aan een breed scala aan uitdagingen op het gebied van economie, milieu en maatschappij in de 21e eeuw. Een hogere mate van flexibiliteit (in vergelijking met de eerste pijler) stelt regionale, nationale en lokale autoriteiten in staat om hun individuele zevenjarige programma's voor plattelandsontwikkeling op te stellen op basis van een Europees "menu van maatregelen". In tegenstelling tot de eerste pijler, die geheel gefinancierd wordt door de EU, worden de programma's binnen de tweede pijler medegefinancierd door EU-gelden en regionale of nationale middelen.

Research for AGRI Committee - Young farmers - Policy implementation after the 2013 CAP reform

16-10-2017

This report provides information regarding the state of implementation of the current CAP young farmers’ mechanism. The different implementation styles of the Members States are described and the currently implemented policy tools are evaluated. Based on the secondary analysis and case studies, several policy recommendations are formulated, aimed at improving the existing support scheme and assisting young farmers to deal with the major barriers to entering agriculture.

This report provides information regarding the state of implementation of the current CAP young farmers’ mechanism. The different implementation styles of the Members States are described and the currently implemented policy tools are evaluated. Based on the secondary analysis and case studies, several policy recommendations are formulated, aimed at improving the existing support scheme and assisting young farmers to deal with the major barriers to entering agriculture.

Externe auteur

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic: Lukáš Zagata, Jiří Hrabák, Michal Lošťák, Miroslava Bavorová Technology Centre of the Czech Academy of Science: Tomáš Ratinger The James Hutton Institute, Scotland UK: Lee-Ann Sutherland, Annie McKee

Current priorities and challenges in EU agricultural policy

20-06-2017

The European Commission's work programme for 2017 includes a commitment to progress and consult widely on the simplification and modernisation of the common agricultural policy (CAP). A public consultation exercise was launched at the beginning of February 2017 and closed on 2 May 2017. A number of stakeholder organisations and think tanks have issued their reflections on the future shape of EU agricultural policy post 2020. In the last reform of the CAP, the European Parliament had a key role to ...

The European Commission's work programme for 2017 includes a commitment to progress and consult widely on the simplification and modernisation of the common agricultural policy (CAP). A public consultation exercise was launched at the beginning of February 2017 and closed on 2 May 2017. A number of stakeholder organisations and think tanks have issued their reflections on the future shape of EU agricultural policy post 2020. In the last reform of the CAP, the European Parliament had a key role to play in this process. Both the Parliament and the Council will have responsibility to legislate on the Commission's proposals. A key role is performed by the Parliament's Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. Future discussions on these matters can therefore be anticipated. The Maltese Presidency has identified a number of priorities to guide the discussion on future policy and also held a debate earlier in the year on the future of the CAP in the Agriculture Council. A communication is expected from the Commission before the end of 2017. This briefing provides a short overview of these issues, along with a summary of the key elements of the current CAP, some key features of EU agriculture including the prospects for the main agricultural markets based on the Commission's most recent agricultural outlook report. Recent developments in Council are also covered, and a number of stakeholder perspectives are highlighted.

Research for AGRI Committee - CAP implementation: Flexibility given to Member States - state of play and perspectives

15-05-2017

This study discusses flexibility of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) from various angles. The current flexibility does not create major conflicts with the objectives of the CAP. It makes decision-making more dispersed over the Member States, but also more effective. There may be small adverse effects on the level playing field. On the positive side, flexibility allows Member States to address specific problems and pursue heterogeneous and/or geographically bound goals. This should be regarded ...

This study discusses flexibility of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) from various angles. The current flexibility does not create major conflicts with the objectives of the CAP. It makes decision-making more dispersed over the Member States, but also more effective. There may be small adverse effects on the level playing field. On the positive side, flexibility allows Member States to address specific problems and pursue heterogeneous and/or geographically bound goals. This should be regarded as bounded targeting, not renationalisation.

Externe auteur

Ida Terluin, Petra Berkhout, Tuomas Kuhmonen

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