37

Resulta(a)t(en)

Woord(en)
Publicatietype
Beleidsterrein
Auteur
Zoekterm
Datum

The Development of an Institutional Framework for the Implementation of the Association Agreements in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: a comparative perspective

19-09-2018

In recent years the EU concluded Association Agreements, including the creation of a Comprehensive Free Trade Areas with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. These are amongst the most complex and comprehensive legal treaties concluded by the EU with third countries. The treaties place a profound obligation on the partner countries of legal approximation, that is, to undertake extensive, binding commitments to adopt vast swathes of the acquis in order to stimulate political and economic development and ...

In recent years the EU concluded Association Agreements, including the creation of a Comprehensive Free Trade Areas with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. These are amongst the most complex and comprehensive legal treaties concluded by the EU with third countries. The treaties place a profound obligation on the partner countries of legal approximation, that is, to undertake extensive, binding commitments to adopt vast swathes of the acquis in order to stimulate political and economic development and institutional modernisation. This study shows that creating the institutional framework for implementation is a challenging and drawn-out process. While all countries have made some progress with devising these mechanisms, they are short of the necessary political leadership, policy planning, administrative capacity and there is a dearth of budgetary planning to enable effective implementation. There is also a notable need to embed implementation into wider reform strategies. While these issues are being addressed on the part of the countries, the EU can assist them by providing the necessary systemic support in an integrated, sequenced and long-term way.

Externe auteur

Kataryna WOLCZUK, Professor of East European Politics, University of Birmingham and Associate Fellow, Russia and Eurasia Programme, Chatham House, United Kingdom

Euronest 2018: Way forward after the Eastern Partnership summit

17-07-2018

The European Parliament regularly hosts the Euronest parliamentary assembly of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Launched in 2011, the EaP is composed of the EU and its Member States, together with six of their eastern European neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. During their Riga summit in 2015, the partners in the EaP decided to focus on four areas: economic development and market opportunities; institutional capacity and good governance; connectivity, energy efficiency ...

The European Parliament regularly hosts the Euronest parliamentary assembly of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Launched in 2011, the EaP is composed of the EU and its Member States, together with six of their eastern European neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. During their Riga summit in 2015, the partners in the EaP decided to focus on four areas: economic development and market opportunities; institutional capacity and good governance; connectivity, energy efficiency, environment and climate change; mobility and people-to-people contacts. Before the EaP's 2017 Brussels summit, the European Commission and the European External Action Service published '20 deliverables for 2020', a series of specific objectives that are being piloted by various partners and have to be achieved by the EaP countries by 2020. To facilitate this task, the two institutions also proposed to streamline the structure of the EaP, which the Brussels summit endorsed. In June 2018, the Euronest meeting in Brussels adopted a number of resolutions on the EU’s mediation in frozen conflicts, on foreign direct investment and on undeclared labour. It also called for the release of Ukrainian political prisoners in Russia.

Association agreements between the EU and Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine

28-06-2018

The study presents the successes and shortcomings of the implementation of three association agreements singed by the EU with Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine. The study is composed of four papers: the first presents the opinions of the EU monitoring and supervising bodies on the implementation of the three agreements; the second evaluates in detail the implementation of the agreement in Moldova, the third - in Georgia and the fourth - in Ukraine. The recommendations on how to improve the implementation ...

The study presents the successes and shortcomings of the implementation of three association agreements singed by the EU with Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine. The study is composed of four papers: the first presents the opinions of the EU monitoring and supervising bodies on the implementation of the three agreements; the second evaluates in detail the implementation of the agreement in Moldova, the third - in Georgia and the fourth - in Ukraine. The recommendations on how to improve the implementation processes form part of the evaluation.

Foreign Direct Investment in the EU and the Eastern Partnership Countries

05-02-2018

Upon request of the Euronest parliamentary assembly economic committee, investment patterns and policies in the EU and Eastern Partnership countries were compared. The EU is an investment heavyweight, both in terms of attracting as placing foreign direct investment. Many EU Member States protect their investment abroad and some have screening mechanisms for incoming investment. The Eastern Partnership countries are minor investors themselves, but keep attracting a slowly growing level of foreign ...

Upon request of the Euronest parliamentary assembly economic committee, investment patterns and policies in the EU and Eastern Partnership countries were compared. The EU is an investment heavyweight, both in terms of attracting as placing foreign direct investment. Many EU Member States protect their investment abroad and some have screening mechanisms for incoming investment. The Eastern Partnership countries are minor investors themselves, but keep attracting a slowly growing level of foreign direct investment. Investment is supported by the European Investment Bank, the EBRD or the World Bank. Looking at which countries invest in which Eastern Partnership country, it appears that each of them has one main investing country, suggesting a preferred relationship, which would need further research to explain.

Russia in the southern Caucasus

18-01-2018

Armenia is a Russian ally, Georgia has chosen a pro-Western course, while Azerbaijan has kept its distance from both sides. Despite these differences, Russia has significant economic interests in all three Caucasian countries and enjoys considerable soft power.

Armenia is a Russian ally, Georgia has chosen a pro-Western course, while Azerbaijan has kept its distance from both sides. Despite these differences, Russia has significant economic interests in all three Caucasian countries and enjoys considerable soft power.

The state of implementation of the associations and free trade agreements with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova with a particular focus on Ukraine and systemic analysis of key sectors

16-11-2017

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance ...

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance with the DCFTA were calculated, level of investment associated with the necessary modernisation to make these economies competitive were neglected. The discrepancy between costs and benefits should prompt the EU to be more flexible. Brussels’ achievements remain fragile. Informal interests continue to play important roles in these countries and have the potential to thwart reforms. In the absence of strong, de-politicised institutions, the EU should work to support political consolidation—the alternative is further polarisation and political fragility—while at the same time insisting on adherence to democratic standards and strengthened institutional checks and balances.

Externe auteur

Iulian GROZA; Balazs JARABIK (coordinator); Jana KOBZOVA; Dr. Viktor KONSTANTYNOV; Tsovinar KUIUMCHIAN; Leonid LITRA; Tornike SHARASHENIDZE; Isaac WEBB

The electoral reforms in three association countries of the Eastern Neighbourhood - Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova and their impact on political developments in these countries

26-10-2017

This study focuses on electoral reform in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, which have all concluded Association Agreements with the EU. Recent experience in all three countries has shown that political elites are changing (or not changing) the electoral system to hold onto power. Beyond the choice of electoral system, changes have often been introduced in a rush, without a genuinely inclusive, thorough and public debate. Frequent changes to legal frameworks, often made just prior to elections, have ...

This study focuses on electoral reform in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, which have all concluded Association Agreements with the EU. Recent experience in all three countries has shown that political elites are changing (or not changing) the electoral system to hold onto power. Beyond the choice of electoral system, changes have often been introduced in a rush, without a genuinely inclusive, thorough and public debate. Frequent changes to legal frameworks, often made just prior to elections, have also not contributed to stability of law. Issues identified during elections are symptomatic of deeper weaknesses that must be addressed, including: lack of an independent judiciary, insufficient rule of law, non-functioning or selective use of oversight mechanisms, weak government institutions, concentration of media ownership, political corruption and misuse of state resources. All three countries are also experiencing widespread public discontent with the political elite, and political renewal is much needed. While electoral reform can play a role, efforts should be made to promote internal party democracy and overcome barriers to entry for new political actors.

Externe auteur

Holly RUTHRAUFF

Russian ties with China in the face of Western sanctions

16-10-2017

Since the West imposed sanctions on Russia, in response to its annexation of Crimea and destabilisation of eastern Ukraine in 2014, the country has accelerated its 'turn to the East' and notably to like-minded China, in an attempt to offset its loss of access to Western financial markets and advanced technology. Three years on, the economic outcomes appear to have fallen largely short of Russia's high expectations. The most visible signs of the incremental Sino-Russian economic rapprochement have ...

Since the West imposed sanctions on Russia, in response to its annexation of Crimea and destabilisation of eastern Ukraine in 2014, the country has accelerated its 'turn to the East' and notably to like-minded China, in an attempt to offset its loss of access to Western financial markets and advanced technology. Three years on, the economic outcomes appear to have fallen largely short of Russia's high expectations. The most visible signs of the incremental Sino-Russian economic rapprochement have been long-term and large-scale deals orchestrated by the two countries' top leaderships in a number of state-controlled strategic sectors. Politically, these highly publicised agreements were meant to signal to the West that Russia under sanctions had ample other options. Economically, the jury is still out on whether they will be beneficial for Russia in the long run, since it has had to make major concessions to China. The asymmetry of their relationship has thus become further entrenched, although appearances may suggest otherwise. Moreover, the state-led deals have so far failed to generate major spill-over effects to other less state-dominated sectors. China and Russia pursue two competing concepts of regional integration for Eurasia – the China-initiated Silk Road Economic Belt and the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union – which experts consider incompatible. It remains to be seen what form, if any, their envisaged coordination will take, and how this will reshape the economic order in the EU's neighbourhood. Closer Sino-Russian strategic alignment on global governance issues – despite its limits – is likely to diminish the space for governance concepts developed by Western liberal democracies and the core values associated with them.

Media freedom trends 2017: Eastern Partnership countries

03-05-2017

Media freedom is a core EU value and a cornerstone of democracy. That makes it a key part of the overall set of democratic and legal reforms being implemented by the six Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries. As such, it is high on the agenda in political dialogue between the EU and these former Soviet states. Since the 2015 Eastern Partnership Media Conference highlighted media freedom in the EaP countries and options for EU engagement, international rankings assessing the levels of media freedom ...

Media freedom is a core EU value and a cornerstone of democracy. That makes it a key part of the overall set of democratic and legal reforms being implemented by the six Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries. As such, it is high on the agenda in political dialogue between the EU and these former Soviet states. Since the 2015 Eastern Partnership Media Conference highlighted media freedom in the EaP countries and options for EU engagement, international rankings assessing the levels of media freedom in most EaP countries have seen limited changes. Whereas Ukraine has made progress, despite the on-going crisis in the country, Moldova — former 'poster child' of the international media freedom rankings — has slipped downwards over recent years. In both countries, the Kremlin's increasing information activities present a difficult challenge to media freedom policies. Sustainable changes in media freedom do not happen overnight. Nevertheless, beneath the surface, EU-funded projects and programmes are helping to change the media landscape. The European Parliament (EP) has also been consistent in promoting and supporting press freedom and freedom of expression in the region.

Georgia: European engagement in an unstable environment

20-02-2017

Georgia is one of the European Union's advanced partners in the Eastern Partnership region. Following the Rose Revolution of 2003, the Georgian government implemented radical reforms to promote democratisation, step up the fight against corruption and liberalise the economy. However, the government's top-down approach, the 2008 war with Russia and the global economic crisis of 2009 propelled the opposition coalition, Georgian Dream, to electoral victory in 2012 and once again in 2016. The fact that ...

Georgia is one of the European Union's advanced partners in the Eastern Partnership region. Following the Rose Revolution of 2003, the Georgian government implemented radical reforms to promote democratisation, step up the fight against corruption and liberalise the economy. However, the government's top-down approach, the 2008 war with Russia and the global economic crisis of 2009 propelled the opposition coalition, Georgian Dream, to electoral victory in 2012 and once again in 2016. The fact that, once ousted from power, the ruling party – United National Movement – did not disband but went into opposition is exceptional in the context of the Eastern Partnership countries and a sign of democratic consolidation. Since 2012, Georgian Dream has largely adhered to its policy of seeking closer links with the EU and carrying out reforms, albeit at a slower pace. Nevertheless, the government has been criticised for politicising the judiciary, especially when dealing with the opposition. Since the war between them in 2008, Georgia and Russia have had few contacts with each other at international level; nevertheless, the situation has improved in economic terms, not least because of the Georgian Dream coalition's pragmatic orientation towards Russia. However, the latter still supports the two separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and there is no improvement in this regard. In 2014, Georgia and the EU signed an association agreement, and Georgians are expected to soon be able to travel visa-free to the EU.

Toekomstige activiteiten

05-11-2019
The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
Diverse activiteiten -
EPRS
06-11-2019
Where next for the global and European economies? The 2019 IMF Economic Outlook
Diverse activiteiten -
EPRS
06-11-2019
EPRS Annual Lecture: Clash of Cultures: Transnational governance in post-war Europe
Diverse activiteiten -
EPRS

Partners

Blijf verbonden

email update imageMailberichten

U kunt alles wat verband houdt met het Parlement volgen via ons systeem van mailberichten, waarbij updates rechtstreeks naar uw e-mailadres worden gestuurd. Zo kunt u onder meer op de hoogte blijven van het laatste nieuws over EP-leden, de voorlichtingsdiensten of de Think Tank.

Het systeem is toegankelijk vanop alle webpagina's van het Parlement. Om u te abonneren en updates over de Think Tank te ontvangen, dient u alleen uw e-mailadres in te vullen en aan te geven voor welk onderwerp u belangstelling heeft en hoe vaak (dagelijks, wekelijks of maandelijks) u updates wenst te ontvangen. Om uw aanmelding te bevestigen, klikt u op een link die u via e-mail zal worden toegestuurd.

RSS imageRSS-feeds

Volg al het nieuws en de updates op de website van het Europees Parlement via onze RSS-feed.

Klik op de onderstaande link om uw feed te configureren.