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Ostatnio opublikowane dokumenty

Opublikowano 21-11-2018

Framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP)

21-11-2018

Europe’s population is ageing, due to people living longer and having fewer children, putting pressure on pension systems and leading to reforms to make public pensions more sustainable – and often less generous – in future. To support retirement incomes, the European Commission’s 2012 pensions white paper called for more opportunities for citizens to save in safe and good-value complementary pensions. The proposed framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP) aims to encourage the ...

Europe’s population is ageing, due to people living longer and having fewer children, putting pressure on pension systems and leading to reforms to make public pensions more sustainable – and often less generous – in future. To support retirement incomes, the European Commission’s 2012 pensions white paper called for more opportunities for citizens to save in safe and good-value complementary pensions. The proposed framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP) aims to encourage the development of personal pensions (that is, voluntary, individually funded pensions) in Europe, to support retirement saving and strengthen the single market for capital by making more funds available for investment. Generally the proposal is considered a welcome extra option to support retirement savings and investment. However differing national pension systems and tax treatments are noted as challenges, although the Commission has also issued a tax recommendation. Council agreed a general approach on 19 June 2018 and the ECON committee voted its report and negotiating mandate on 3 September, hence trilogues have started. Second edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Research and innovation in the EU: Evolution, achievements, challenges

21-11-2018

Research and innovation have become indispensable elements in many areas of our daily lives, including health and wellbeing (e.g. radiotherapy, vaccinations), the search for a sustainable environment (e.g. weather forecasts, solar energy), safety and security (e.g. tsunami alerts, biometric border control) and end-user products (e.g. smart phones, e-cars). Despite the correlation between research, development, innovation and competitiveness, when it comes to international comparisons, most Member ...

Research and innovation have become indispensable elements in many areas of our daily lives, including health and wellbeing (e.g. radiotherapy, vaccinations), the search for a sustainable environment (e.g. weather forecasts, solar energy), safety and security (e.g. tsunami alerts, biometric border control) and end-user products (e.g. smart phones, e-cars). Despite the correlation between research, development, innovation and competitiveness, when it comes to international comparisons, most Member States lag behind the 'Barcelona target' to invest 3 % of national gross domestic product (GDP) in scientific research and innovation. Better coordination of transnational research activities and the completion of the European Research Area (ERA) could benefit the EU economy by an extra €16 billion per year. The instruments, governance and scope of the framework programmes (FP) for research have changed dramatically over time. These changes include the development of public-public and public-private partnerships, the establishment of the European Research Council (ERC) and the European Institute for Innovation and Technology (EIT), and the introduction of specific instruments for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as individual mobility grants. To date, the current FP, Horizon 2020, has supported over 18 000 projects with more than €31 billion in funding. Nevertheless, Horizon 2020 has shortcomings, including complex procedures, a high administrative burden, a lack of flexibility when it comes to reacting to unforeseen circumstances, and insufficient synergies with other EU funds and public interventions and/or private finance.

Religion and human rights

21-11-2018

Although on the EU agenda for decades, recent events, such as the migration crisis and the issues with the rule of law in some Member States, have brought the issue of values back into focus. EU values are those of inclusion, freedom and respect for diversity, including religion. Freedom of religion and belief has significant protections in the EU and under the international legal framework. Religion, represented by churches, religious communities and other actors, is also a significant factor in ...

Although on the EU agenda for decades, recent events, such as the migration crisis and the issues with the rule of law in some Member States, have brought the issue of values back into focus. EU values are those of inclusion, freedom and respect for diversity, including religion. Freedom of religion and belief has significant protections in the EU and under the international legal framework. Religion, represented by churches, religious communities and other actors, is also a significant factor in the protection and promotion of human rights, both in the world and in the European Union. International human rights bodies have even formalised the participation of religious actors, mostly through exchanges and dialogues, and the European Union is no exception. Its Article 17 Dialogue with churches, religious and philosophical organisations offers an opportunity for those groups to make their voices heard at EU level. Religious actors have made significant contributions in, for example, migration, deradicalisation, social justice and education for tolerance. However, the role of religion in the human rights arena is sometimes perceived as challenging, since some religious actors and some secular human rights actors may not see eye-to-eye in some areas. Experts therefore suggest that it is important to maintain that all human rights have equal worth, that everyone who may be affected by the issue is included in the dialogue, and to try to find a compromise that will not alienate any party from further cooperation.

Russia in the Middle East: From sidelines to centre stage

21-11-2018

In 2011, it looked as if the Arab Spring uprisings would deal a further blow to Russia's declining influence in the Middle East, by toppling Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, one of Moscow's few remaining allies in the region. In 2015, Russia launched a military intervention. Though it came at an enormous humanitarian cost, the campaign succeeded in saving Assad's regime, at the same time as reversing the Middle Eastern fortunes of Russia as Assad's main international backer. Russia's involvement ...

In 2011, it looked as if the Arab Spring uprisings would deal a further blow to Russia's declining influence in the Middle East, by toppling Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, one of Moscow's few remaining allies in the region. In 2015, Russia launched a military intervention. Though it came at an enormous humanitarian cost, the campaign succeeded in saving Assad's regime, at the same time as reversing the Middle Eastern fortunes of Russia as Assad's main international backer. Russia's involvement in Syria has given its relations with neighbouring countries a new momentum. Despite divergent interests, Iran, Turkey and Israel cooperate with Russia and acknowledge its leadership in Syria. Russia's success in imposing its agenda in Syria has bolstered its influence throughout the wider region. Although Moscow's role is not always a constructive one, it has become a key actor and sometimes a mediator in regional conflicts from Libya to Yemen. Russia's regional clout is also helped by its skilful use of energy cooperation to further economic and geopolitical interests. Russia's drive to become a major Middle Eastern player should be seen in the wider context of global geopolitical rivalry with the United States. Moscow's growing influence in the region is as much the result of Western policy failures as its own strength.

EU Agencies, Common Approach and Parliamentary Scrutiny

21-11-2018

Decentralised agencies were set up on a case-by-case basis over the years, to respond to emerging individual policy needs. Currently there are 36 of them and they have been operating under very diverse conditions. This study provides an overview of the different decentralised EU agencies according to a number of criteria; including their functions, legal bases, sources of financing, respective roles of Parliament, Council, Commission and Member States, stakeholder involvement and transparency. It ...

Decentralised agencies were set up on a case-by-case basis over the years, to respond to emerging individual policy needs. Currently there are 36 of them and they have been operating under very diverse conditions. This study provides an overview of the different decentralised EU agencies according to a number of criteria; including their functions, legal bases, sources of financing, respective roles of Parliament, Council, Commission and Member States, stakeholder involvement and transparency. It particularly examines how the parliamentary scrutiny over decentralised agencies is ensured and suggests possible improvements to those mechanisms in order to reach a more coherent, efficient and transparent institutional set up for the parliamentary scrutiny over agencies’ activities.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

EPRS, DG

Opublikowano 20-11-2018

What if algorithms could abide by ethical principles?

20-11-2018

Algorithms, are step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, usually expressed in computer code as a set of instructions for a computer to follow in order to complete a task. Day-to-day decisions around the world are increasingly based on data science techniques powered by machine learning algorithms that are gradually making a meaningful impact on human lives. For example, the operation of intermediary platforms that propose accommodation (AirBnB) or transportation alternatives (Uber) are extensively ...

Algorithms, are step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, usually expressed in computer code as a set of instructions for a computer to follow in order to complete a task. Day-to-day decisions around the world are increasingly based on data science techniques powered by machine learning algorithms that are gradually making a meaningful impact on human lives. For example, the operation of intermediary platforms that propose accommodation (AirBnB) or transportation alternatives (Uber) are extensively using algorithms. Algorithms implicitly or explicitly are not neutral as they comprise essential value-judgments that can potentially have race or sex biases. This raises an important question: is it possible to develop and ensure that algorithms are ethical?

Mediterranean swordfish recovery plan

20-11-2018

Mediterranean swordfish, overfished for decades, is subject to a multiannual recovery plan aimed at rebuilding the stock, adopted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), which is responsible for its management. The European Parliament is currently considering the Commission's proposal on the transposition of this plan into EU law.

Mediterranean swordfish, overfished for decades, is subject to a multiannual recovery plan aimed at rebuilding the stock, adopted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), which is responsible for its management. The European Parliament is currently considering the Commission's proposal on the transposition of this plan into EU law.

CO2 standards for new cars and vans

20-11-2018

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on reducing CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans). The proposed measures and targets are aligned with the 2030 climate and energy framework and with the energy union strategy, which envisages a reduction in transport emissions and energy consumption. The Commission sets new targets for the EU fleet-wide average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars and vans. Average CO2 emissions from ...

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on reducing CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans). The proposed measures and targets are aligned with the 2030 climate and energy framework and with the energy union strategy, which envisages a reduction in transport emissions and energy consumption. The Commission sets new targets for the EU fleet-wide average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars and vans. Average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars and vans registered in the EU would have to be 15 % lower in 2025, and 30 % lower in 2030, compared to their respective limits in 2021. The proposal includes a dedicated incentive mechanism for zero- and low-emission vehicles, in order to accelerate their market uptake. Interinstitutional trilogue negotiations started on 10 October 2018, after the Parliament and the Council adopted their respective positions. Second edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

European Defence Fund: Multiannual financial framework 2021-2027

20-11-2018

In June 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal on a European Defence Fund, including a budget allocation of €13 billion in current prices for the 2021 to 2027 period. The proposal aims to streamline and simplify the current legislation by integrating the Preparatory Action on Defence Research (research window) and the European Defence Industrial Development Programme (as one part of the capability window) into a single fund. The main aims of the fund are to foster the competitiveness ...

In June 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal on a European Defence Fund, including a budget allocation of €13 billion in current prices for the 2021 to 2027 period. The proposal aims to streamline and simplify the current legislation by integrating the Preparatory Action on Defence Research (research window) and the European Defence Industrial Development Programme (as one part of the capability window) into a single fund. The main aims of the fund are to foster the competitiveness and innovativeness of European defence and to contribute to the EU's strategic autonomy. In this regard, the fund would support collaborative industrial projects; co-finance the costs of prototype development; encourage the participation of small and medium-sized enterprises; and promote projects in the framework of permanent structured cooperation. Synergies are expected with other EU initiatives in the field of cybersecurity, maritime transport, border management, Horizon Europe, the space programme and the European Peace Facility.

The European Ombudsman: Reflections on the role and its potential

20-11-2018

The European Ombudsman is a body established to ensure that maladministration in the EU institutions is addressed and where possible remedied. From the establishment of the European Ombudsman, personalities and the open-ended character of the notion of maladministration have been relevant in shaping the activity of the office. Maladministration is widely accepted to be a sphere of inappropriate behaviour of the administration that goes beyond simple illegality. The particularity of the Ombudsman ...

The European Ombudsman is a body established to ensure that maladministration in the EU institutions is addressed and where possible remedied. From the establishment of the European Ombudsman, personalities and the open-ended character of the notion of maladministration have been relevant in shaping the activity of the office. Maladministration is widely accepted to be a sphere of inappropriate behaviour of the administration that goes beyond simple illegality. The particularity of the Ombudsman lies therefore on the fact that it is able, through the exercise of 'soft power', to tackle issues that would escape the scrutiny of the Court of Justice of the EU. This paper provides an overview of the activity of the Ombudsman, and attempts to identify the main areas of activity in quantitative terms, the main institutions to which the Ombudsman addresses inquiries and recommendations and highlights the proactive role exercised by this body so far. The compliance rate with the recommendations of the Ombudsman is rather high, although it would seem to decrease where the Ombudsman, by issuing critical remarks, exercises an 'educational' function. This paper also sets out some proposals to modify the Statute, with some less-extensive proposals, that would take into account already established practices, and other more far-reaching proposals, that would need however to be carefully considered so as not to distort the nature of the body.

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Children victims or witnesses of gender-based violence – Hearing – 21.11.2018
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