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Access to the international market for coach and bus services

16-04-2019

The European Union aims to ensure that road transport rules are applied effectively and without discrimination. The current rules governing the access to the international market for coach and bus services appear to have been only partly effective in promoting this mode of transport. There are still differences in rules on access to national markets, differences in openness of national markets, diverse national access arrangements and discrimination in access to terminals in some EU countries. In ...

The European Union aims to ensure that road transport rules are applied effectively and without discrimination. The current rules governing the access to the international market for coach and bus services appear to have been only partly effective in promoting this mode of transport. There are still differences in rules on access to national markets, differences in openness of national markets, diverse national access arrangements and discrimination in access to terminals in some EU countries. In an attempt to address the issue, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal on 8 November 2017 to amend the EU rules for access to the international market for coach and bus services. The proposal is part of its 'Europe on the Move' package, which aims to modernise European mobility and transport. The European Parliament adopted its position on the proposal on 14 February 2019. However, interinstitutional negotiations cannot yet begin, as the Council has not reached a common position on the file. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Electronic freight transport information

16-04-2019

The movement of goods in the European Union has increased by almost 25 % over the last 20 years, and this growth is projected to continue. A large amount of information accompanies this movement, exchanged mostly in paper format. Yet the digitalisation of information exchange could make the transport of goods much more efficient and reliable, and yield significant savings. As one way to speed up the digitalisation of freight transport, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on ...

The movement of goods in the European Union has increased by almost 25 % over the last 20 years, and this growth is projected to continue. A large amount of information accompanies this movement, exchanged mostly in paper format. Yet the digitalisation of information exchange could make the transport of goods much more efficient and reliable, and yield significant savings. As one way to speed up the digitalisation of freight transport, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on electronic freight transport information on 17 May 2018. The aim of this regulation is to provide for a fully digital and harmonised environment for information exchanges between transport operators and authorities. The legislative proposal is part of the Commission's third 'Europe on the Move' package, which is designed to complete its agenda for the modernisation of mobility. The European Parliament adopted its position on the proposal on 12 March 2019. However, interinstitutional negotiations cannot begin until the Council reaches a common position on the file.

Electric road vehicles in the European Union: Trends, impacts and policies

03-04-2019

Technological advances and societal changes have triggered a drastic evolution in mobility. Alongside other trends, such as digitalisation, autonomous driving and shared mobility, electric mobility is also gaining momentum. Electric mobility could help the EU to achieve its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise and dependence on oil. However, the extent of this help will depend on a number of factors, such as the share of electric vehicles in the overall vehicle fleet and ...

Technological advances and societal changes have triggered a drastic evolution in mobility. Alongside other trends, such as digitalisation, autonomous driving and shared mobility, electric mobility is also gaining momentum. Electric mobility could help the EU to achieve its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise and dependence on oil. However, the extent of this help will depend on a number of factors, such as the share of electric vehicles in the overall vehicle fleet and how environmentally friendly electric vehicles can remain throughout their life cycle. Global sales of new electric road vehicles have been growing significantly in recent years, largely driven by the mass expansion of this mode of transport in China. Despite its rapid growth, the EU market for such vehicles is still small, and largely dependent on support policies. Most electric road vehicles are concentrated in a few northern and western Member States, although southern and eastern ones have recently recorded the biggest sales growth. Over the years, the EU has taken various actions to support electric mobility. For instance, EU-level measures have been encouraging the use of renewable electricity and smart charging; helping to develop and standardise charging infrastructure; and supporting research on batteries. Local, regional and national-level incentives (such as the introduction of lower taxes or the provision of free public parking for electric vehicles) are also promoting electric mobility. Countries that offer generous incentives and good charging infrastructure typically have a bigger market share for electric road vehicles.

Artificial intelligence in transport: Current and future developments, opportunities and challenges

27-03-2019

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities come real challenges, including unintended consequences and misuse such as cyber-attacks and biased decisions about transport. There are also ramifications for employment, and ethical questions regarding liability for the decisions taken by artificial intelligence in the place of humans. The EU is taking steps to adapt its regulatory framework to these developments, so that it supports innovation while at the same time ensuring respect for fundamental values and rights. The measures already taken include general strategies on artificial intelligence and rules that support the technologies enabling the application of artificial intelligence in transport. In addition, the EU provides financial support, in particular for research.

New civil aviation safety rules

15-10-2018

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules ...

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules. Two years later, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the new rules and the rules have been in force since 11 September 2018. The reform includes the first-ever EU rules for civil drones, extends the EASA's mandate and provides for using existing resources more efficiently. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view earlier editions of this briefing, please see: PE 620.199, 28 March 2018.

Digital tourism in the European Union

28-09-2018

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union, contributing about 10 % to the Union's gross domestic product and employing up to 26 million people through its direct, indirect and induced impact on the economy. While it is true that the EU is the global leader in terms of international tourist arrivals and receipts, fast-growing tourism to some other destinations is challenging this status quo. The EU tourism sector is also facing changes brought on by the digital revolution. Many customers ...

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union, contributing about 10 % to the Union's gross domestic product and employing up to 26 million people through its direct, indirect and induced impact on the economy. While it is true that the EU is the global leader in terms of international tourist arrivals and receipts, fast-growing tourism to some other destinations is challenging this status quo. The EU tourism sector is also facing changes brought on by the digital revolution. Many customers nowadays plan and book trips on their own through online travel agencies, search and meta-search engines, and making increasing use of mobile technology and apps. Some of them share their travel experiences through personal exchanges on social media platforms, travel blogs or commercial channels such as TripAdvisor. Most businesses serving tourists have understood the need to adapt their products to the changes in the way the market works, and consequently have launched various online and automatic services. However, some of these changes, such as the emergence of online platforms on which people propose to share temporarily with tourists what they own or what they do, have proved more difficult to adapt to. Although the EU has only limited competence in the field of tourism, it has an impact on digital tourism through various policies related to other sectors. In particular, the digital single market strategy has had a huge impact on tourism through various legislative acts. The EU supports digital tourism further through various funds and non-legislative initiatives such as forums, conferences and webinars.

The external dimension of EU tourism policy

03-07-2018

The European Union is the most visited tourist destination in the world, and EU tourists are one of the largest groups travelling to third countries. In order to maintain and increase these tourist flows in a sustainable way, the EU cooperates with a number of international bodies and third countries.

The European Union is the most visited tourist destination in the world, and EU tourists are one of the largest groups travelling to third countries. In order to maintain and increase these tourist flows in a sustainable way, the EU cooperates with a number of international bodies and third countries.

Wspólne zasady w dziedzinie lotnictwa cywilnego

06-06-2018

W związku z nasilaniem się ruchu lotniczego oraz pojawianiem się w przestrzeni powietrznej nowych technologii, takich jak samoloty bezzałogowe, Unia Europejska postanowiła dostosować swoje przepisy dotyczące lotnictwa cywilnego do nowej rzeczywistości. W grudniu 2015 r. Komisja Europejska przedstawiła wniosek w sprawie rozporządzenia dotyczący bezpieczeństwa lotnictwa cywilnego oraz Europejskiej Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Lotniczego (EASA), które miałoby zastąpić rozporządzenie na ten sam temat z 2008 ...

W związku z nasilaniem się ruchu lotniczego oraz pojawianiem się w przestrzeni powietrznej nowych technologii, takich jak samoloty bezzałogowe, Unia Europejska postanowiła dostosować swoje przepisy dotyczące lotnictwa cywilnego do nowej rzeczywistości. W grudniu 2015 r. Komisja Europejska przedstawiła wniosek w sprawie rozporządzenia dotyczący bezpieczeństwa lotnictwa cywilnego oraz Europejskiej Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Lotniczego (EASA), które miałoby zastąpić rozporządzenie na ten sam temat z 2008 r. Dwa lata później Parlament Europejski oraz Rada osiągnęły wstępne porozumienie w sprawie nowych zasad. Porozumienie to ma zostać poddane pod głosowanie w Parlamencie w pierwszym czytaniu podczas czerwcowego posiedzenia plenarnego.

New civil aviation safety rules

28-03-2018

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules ...

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules. Two years later, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the new rules. The reform includes the first-ever EU rules for civil drones, extends the EASA's mandate and provides for using existing resources more efficiently. The provisional agreement now needs to be confirmed by Parliament in plenary. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view earlier editions of this briefing, please see: PE 595.877, 12 January 2017.

Turystyka i gospodarka dzielenia sie

23-01-2017

Usługi turystyczne tradycyjnie świadczone są przez przedsiębiorstwa takie jak hotele, przewoźnicy taksówkowi czy organizatorzy turystyki. Od niedawna coraz większa liczba osób prywatnych oferuje turystom możliwość czasowego współdzielenia posiadanych dóbr (np. domu czy samochodu) lub wykonywanych czynności (np. sporządzanie posiłków lub odbywanie wycieczek). Ten rodzaj współdzielenia otrzymał nazwę „gospodarki dzielenia się”. Nie jest to model ograniczony wyłącznie do turystyki i można go zaobserwować ...

Usługi turystyczne tradycyjnie świadczone są przez przedsiębiorstwa takie jak hotele, przewoźnicy taksówkowi czy organizatorzy turystyki. Od niedawna coraz większa liczba osób prywatnych oferuje turystom możliwość czasowego współdzielenia posiadanych dóbr (np. domu czy samochodu) lub wykonywanych czynności (np. sporządzanie posiłków lub odbywanie wycieczek). Ten rodzaj współdzielenia otrzymał nazwę „gospodarki dzielenia się”. Nie jest to model ograniczony wyłącznie do turystyki i można go zaobserwować w wielu obszarach działalności społecznej i gospodarczej, niemniej turystyka stanowi jeden z tych sektorów, w których wywarł on największy wpływ. Współdzielenie dóbr i usług między osobami prywatnymi samo w sobie nie stanowi nowości. Niemniej dzięki rozwojowi internetu, a w konsekwencji powstaniu platform internetowych, dzielenie się z innymi stało się prostsze niż kiedykolwiek dotąd. W minionym dziesięcioleciu na rynku pojawiło się wiele firm zarządzających tego rodzaju platformami. Dobrze znanym przykładem jest platforma umożliwiająca dokonywanie rezerwacji zakwaterowania (Airbnb). Gospodarka dzielenia się wywarła zarówno korzystny, jak i niekorzystny wpływ na turystykę. Jej zwolennicy uważają, że zapewnia ona łatwy dostęp do szerokiej gamy usług, które często mają wyższą jakość i oferowane są po bardziej przystępnych cenach niż usługi świadczone przez tradycyjne podmioty gospodarcze. Krytycy tego modelu twierdzą jednak, że gospodarka dzielenia się prowadzi do nieuczciwej konkurencji, ogranicza bezpieczeństwo zatrudnienia, umożliwia unikanie opodatkowania i stanowi zagrożenie dla przestrzegania norm dotyczących bezpieczeństwa, ochrony zdrowia i ułatwień dla osób niepełnosprawnych. W obrębie UE reakcja na zjawisko gospodarki dzielenia się pozostaje rozdrobniona. Niektóre obszary działalności lub określone jej aspekty uregulowano na szczeblu krajowym, regionalnym lub lokalnym. W czerwcu 2016 r. Komisja opublikowała komunikat w sprawie europejskiego programu na rzecz gospodarki dzielenia się, aby doprecyzować odpowiednie przepisy UE i zapewnić organom publicznym wytyczne w zakresie stosowanej polityki. Parlament Europejski oraz komitety doradcze również poruszyły tę kwestię w licznych rezolucjach oraz opiniach. Niniejszy dokument stanowi aktualizację briefingu z września 2015 r.

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