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Women in CSDP missions

06-12-2017

Promoting women’s participation in CSDP missions and operations is important to sustain EU’s credibility, to improve effectiveness, to promote equality at home and abroad, to increase the talent pool for personnel, and to make the best use of our financial resources. More needs to be done by both member states and the EU to fulfil promises to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. This report looks at three issues that contribute to more inclusion ...

Promoting women’s participation in CSDP missions and operations is important to sustain EU’s credibility, to improve effectiveness, to promote equality at home and abroad, to increase the talent pool for personnel, and to make the best use of our financial resources. More needs to be done by both member states and the EU to fulfil promises to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. This report looks at three issues that contribute to more inclusion and better effectiveness: First, the structures that promote equality in the security sector institutions within the EU; second, the effects of women’s participation in missions and operations; third, how CSDP structures and EU member states policies could be further adapted to create a working environment that is conducive to both men and women contributing their full potential to better solutions to security challenges. Political commitment and hands-on leadership by the EU and its Member States is key to more diversity and inclusivity in CSDP structures. A pro-active approach to recruitment and retention of female staff, adapted job-descriptions, comprehensive family policies, and employing an approach that values diversity and creates a positive work environment are all necessary in this regard.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

WIIS, Women in International Security Brussels, Belgium

Tunisia: Progress achieved and prospects for the social dimension

30-11-2017

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the ...

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the stability and progress achieved, further reforms are needed.

Poverty, gender and life cycle: Portraits of poverty in the European Union

30-11-2017

Nearly a quarter of the population in the European Union (23.8 %) were at risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2015. Living conditions, the degree of insecurity and the routes into and out of poverty vary according to age and gender, as well as varying over the course of a lifetime. Children are the most affected population in Europe today, while young people aged between 18 and 24 now represent 10% of those at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. There is little difference between the ...

Nearly a quarter of the population in the European Union (23.8 %) were at risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2015. Living conditions, the degree of insecurity and the routes into and out of poverty vary according to age and gender, as well as varying over the course of a lifetime. Children are the most affected population in Europe today, while young people aged between 18 and 24 now represent 10% of those at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. There is little difference between the sexes at this age, but it is a key difference among older people. The mid-life period is characterised by substantial variations based on gender, family circumstances and/or professional status. Women, single-parent families, large families or low-income workers are, at this point in their lives, more at risk of poverty or social exclusion. Lastly, older people are now simultaneously the least affected by poverty on average, and also among the most vulnerable, in the case of women.

Saudi Arabia: Economic indicators and trade with EU

22-11-2017

The EU is Saudi Arabia's first trading partner in goods, with 16.3 % of Saudi Arabia’s global trade, followed by China with 14.1 % and the US with 11.8 %. Saudi Arabia is the EU's 15th trading partner in goods, with an EU market share of 1.5 %. The trade balance is positive for the EU, as this infographic illustrates. Trade between the EU and Saudi Arabia takes place within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia and the United ...

The EU is Saudi Arabia's first trading partner in goods, with 16.3 % of Saudi Arabia’s global trade, followed by China with 14.1 % and the US with 11.8 %. Saudi Arabia is the EU's 15th trading partner in goods, with an EU market share of 1.5 %. The trade balance is positive for the EU, as this infographic illustrates. Trade between the EU and Saudi Arabia takes place within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The GCC countries formed their own customs union on 1 January 2015. The EU exports a wide range of goods and services to the region; however, around 50 % of the EU's exported goods to the GCC are machinery, including power generation plants, railway locomotives, aircrafts, electrical machinery and mechanical appliances. Meanwhile, approximately 70 % of all EU imports from the GCC consist of fuels and their derivatives. Following a reliance on oil revenues for about 90% of its budget in recent years, Saudi Arabia has embarked on an ambitious plan to restructure its oil-dependent economy, known as Vision 2030, involving diversification, privatisation, tax increases and subsidy cuts. Saudi Arabia has significant defence relationships with a rising number of EU Member States, primarily driven by the trade in arms (and often also related contracts for training and maintenance).

Differences in Men's and Women's Work, Care and Leisure Time

15-03-2016

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality ...

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Konstantina DAVAKI (Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, the UK)

Gender balance on company boards

30-11-2015

In line with the Commission's increased emphasis on improving gender equality in leadership positions, and after unsuccessful calls for voluntary measures, in 2012 the Commission proposed a directive aimed at increasing female presence on company boards. Despite support from the European Parliament and efforts by several Council presidencies, this proposal has not yet been adopted. On 7 December, the Council is due again to discuss the topic.

In line with the Commission's increased emphasis on improving gender equality in leadership positions, and after unsuccessful calls for voluntary measures, in 2012 the Commission proposed a directive aimed at increasing female presence on company boards. Despite support from the European Parliament and efforts by several Council presidencies, this proposal has not yet been adopted. On 7 December, the Council is due again to discuss the topic.

Gender indexes – an overview

16-11-2015

In legal and statistical parlance, 'indicators' are the criteria used to measure progress towards specific objectives. Gender indicators – a sub category – have developed over the past 30 years with the aim of measuring inequalities in the fulfilment of women's rights across different countries and social systems. Since 1990, when the Gender Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure were generated, no less than 10 international gender indicators have been created. These indexes may vary ...

In legal and statistical parlance, 'indicators' are the criteria used to measure progress towards specific objectives. Gender indicators – a sub category – have developed over the past 30 years with the aim of measuring inequalities in the fulfilment of women's rights across different countries and social systems. Since 1990, when the Gender Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure were generated, no less than 10 international gender indicators have been created. These indexes may vary in length, approach (e.g. which legal provisions are taken into consideration for the assessment), level of analysis (e.g. which statistical data are used and to what extent they are used), and scope (e.g. descriptive, analytical).

Trends in female employment

26-10-2015

Statistics and research results show that over the past decade, despite the economic and financial downturn, the EU's labour market has witnessed an increase in women's employment rates. Women's employment seems to be more resilient to the economic crisis then men's. This is partly due to long-term developments and institutional framework changes, as well as to women's tendency to work in particular sectors and accept flexible working arrangements (e.g. part-time work, teleworking). Despite the general ...

Statistics and research results show that over the past decade, despite the economic and financial downturn, the EU's labour market has witnessed an increase in women's employment rates. Women's employment seems to be more resilient to the economic crisis then men's. This is partly due to long-term developments and institutional framework changes, as well as to women's tendency to work in particular sectors and accept flexible working arrangements (e.g. part-time work, teleworking). Despite the general upward trend, however, women's employment rates vary by Member State, age, social group, and educational level. Even though international and EU legislation takes account of women's situation in the labour market, and the EU dedicates a substantial amount of analytical work to it, a number of challenges remain unresolved. Examples include the need to harmonise retirement schemes taking into account specific characteristics of women's careers; to better reconcile work and family life through more flexible employment arrangements; but the improvement and recognition of women's skills, the equal treatment of domestic work and migrant workers, and the further closing of the gender pay gap are likewise important.

Main Causes of Female Poverty - Compilation

24-03-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, these in-depth analyses highlight different aspects of female poverty. They complement two other Workshop contributions from a research project of the European Commission and from UNICEF. Wim van Lancker and his team examine the extent of women’s poverty in the EU and the impact of social exclusion through poverty on living and working conditions of women and their children. He concludes with a discussion of policy measures that have been taken in EU Member States ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, these in-depth analyses highlight different aspects of female poverty. They complement two other Workshop contributions from a research project of the European Commission and from UNICEF. Wim van Lancker and his team examine the extent of women’s poverty in the EU and the impact of social exclusion through poverty on living and working conditions of women and their children. He concludes with a discussion of policy measures that have been taken in EU Member States for enabling paid employment and ensuring adequate income protection. Diane Perrons explores the impact of the crisis on female poverty. Multiple differences exist among European Union Member States but overall poverty has increased and women are still more likely than men to live in poverty, though until 2012 the increase for men was greater than that for women. Economic performance and economic policies seem to be associated with poverty. The paper recommends that macroeconomic policy be mainstreamed to identify gender specific outcomes. Maria Stratigaki focuses on European policies and activities and the role of the European Social Fund in the fight against female poverty. She emphasises the need for developing a holistic methodological approach to face gendered poverty, going beyond tackling poverty exclusively via active labour market policies.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Wim Van Lancker, Vincent Corluy, Jeroen Horemans, Sarah Marchal and Julie Vinck (Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp, Belgium) ; Diane Perrons (Gender Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, Tthe UK) ; Maria Stratigaki (Department of Social Policy, Panteion University, Greece)

Maternity, Paternity and Parental Leave: Data Related to Duration and Compensation Rates in the European Union

16-02-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs has developed a number of figures visualising duration of and compensation rates of previous incomes during maternity, paternity and parental leave in the Member States of the European Union. The figures are based on data published notably by the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation between 2012 and 2014 which were cross-checked with data collected by the European Parliamentary ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs has developed a number of figures visualising duration of and compensation rates of previous incomes during maternity, paternity and parental leave in the Member States of the European Union. The figures are based on data published notably by the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation between 2012 and 2014 which were cross-checked with data collected by the European Parliamentary Research Service and Eurofound in 2014. The data has been collected in relation to a possible revision of Council Directive 92/85/EEC on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding and include comparisons with the Commission proposal and EP's First Reading in this respect. Literature on the role of reconciliation policies for economic growth and gender equality as well as the important role of maternity leave provisions for such reconciliation policies is also summarized.

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