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EU Defence: The White Book implementation process

12-12-2018

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within ...

The question of a defence White Book at European level has been under discussion for some time. Many voices, particularly in the European Parliament, are pushing for such an initiative, while others consider that it is not only unnecessary, but could even dangerously divide Europeans. Concretely, the question cannot be tackled separately from that of defence planning and processes which underpin the development of military capabilities, as White Books are often the starting point for these. Within the European Union, however, there is not just one, but three types defence planning: the national planning of each of the Member States; planning within the framework of NATO (the NATO Defence Planning Process) and, finally, the European Union’s planning, which has developed in stages since the Helsinki summit of 1999 and comprises many elements. Its best-known component - but by no means not the only one - is the capability development plan established by the European Defence Agency. How do all these different planning systems coexist? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Answering these preliminary questions is essential in mapping the path to a White Book. This is what this study sets out to do.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Mr Frédéric MAURO

Instrument na rzecz Przyczyniania się do Stabilności i Pokoju: dostosowanie dla podmiotów wojskowych

24-11-2017

Komisja Europejska proponuje zmianę rozporządzenia (UE) nr 230/2014 ustanawiającego Instrument na rzecz Przyczyniania się do Stabilności i Pokoju w celu stworzenia warunków umożliwiających UE wsparcie budżetowe systematycznej i długofalowej pomocy dla sektora bezpieczeństwa w państwach trzecich, m.in. za pomocą programów budowania zdolności, dostarczania nieśmiercionośnego sprzętu oraz modernizacji infrastruktury. Parlament ma przeprowadzić głosowanie nad wnioskiem podczas drugiego listopadowego ...

Komisja Europejska proponuje zmianę rozporządzenia (UE) nr 230/2014 ustanawiającego Instrument na rzecz Przyczyniania się do Stabilności i Pokoju w celu stworzenia warunków umożliwiających UE wsparcie budżetowe systematycznej i długofalowej pomocy dla sektora bezpieczeństwa w państwach trzecich, m.in. za pomocą programów budowania zdolności, dostarczania nieśmiercionośnego sprzętu oraz modernizacji infrastruktury. Parlament ma przeprowadzić głosowanie nad wnioskiem podczas drugiego listopadowego posiedzenia plenarnego.

ISIL/Da'esh: From Mosul to Mosul

13-07-2017

In June 2014, ISIL/Da'esh took over the city of Mosul in Iraq, and from there declared the advent of an Islamic State. Three years later, in July 2017, after nine months of battle involving Iraqi security forces, popular militias and Kurdish troops, ISIL/Da'esh has been expelled from its Iraqi stronghold, adding to the past two years' severe territorial losses. This is an important victory; however, it does not yet represent the eradication of a terrorist group that still has many supporters.

In June 2014, ISIL/Da'esh took over the city of Mosul in Iraq, and from there declared the advent of an Islamic State. Three years later, in July 2017, after nine months of battle involving Iraqi security forces, popular militias and Kurdish troops, ISIL/Da'esh has been expelled from its Iraqi stronghold, adding to the past two years' severe territorial losses. This is an important victory; however, it does not yet represent the eradication of a terrorist group that still has many supporters.

Japan: Defence and security policy reform

22-01-2016

After a lengthy, fraught parliamentary process, on 20 September 2015 the National Diet of Japan finally approved a long-awaited reform of Japan's defence and security laws. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s determination won out against opposition from within Parliament and the public. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution has been reinterpreted: Japan's Self-Defence Forces can now come to the aid of any ally which is under attack, in particular the US, which has guaranteed Japan's security since the ...

After a lengthy, fraught parliamentary process, on 20 September 2015 the National Diet of Japan finally approved a long-awaited reform of Japan's defence and security laws. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s determination won out against opposition from within Parliament and the public. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution has been reinterpreted: Japan's Self-Defence Forces can now come to the aid of any ally which is under attack, in particular the US, which has guaranteed Japan's security since the end of the Second World War. This change was one of a series of reforms and initiatives, which included setting up a National Security Council, defining a national security strategy, adopting a law on classified information and revising the Principles on Arms Exports. The guidelines for cooperation with the US have also been revised. At the same time, Tokyo has begun to develop its military cooperation with other countries in the region. The purpose of these reforms was to make Japan an 'active contributor to peace' in a regional context overshadowed by Chinese ambitions and the growing nuclear threat from North Korea.

United States and Syria: Strained credibility

15-01-2016

The United States' strategy in Syria has evolved over the five years of the conflict. Currently, the US aim is for a political solution to the civil war, seen as a precondition for the defeat of the ISIL/Da'esh terrorist group. Despite significant US military and diplomatic action, the effectiveness of the US strategy towards Syria and its implementation is widely criticised.

The United States' strategy in Syria has evolved over the five years of the conflict. Currently, the US aim is for a political solution to the civil war, seen as a precondition for the defeat of the ISIL/Da'esh terrorist group. Despite significant US military and diplomatic action, the effectiveness of the US strategy towards Syria and its implementation is widely criticised.

Russia in Syria: Playing for high stakes

15-01-2016

Russia, a staunch ally of Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad, has launched a wave of airstrikes in defence of its significant economic, military and geopolitical interests in the country. While the Syria campaign has helped Russia to project itself as a global player, it also presents significant risks.

Russia, a staunch ally of Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad, has launched a wave of airstrikes in defence of its significant economic, military and geopolitical interests in the country. While the Syria campaign has helped Russia to project itself as a global player, it also presents significant risks.

EU Member States' arms exports (2013)

10-12-2015

This infographic aims to present data on arms exports licensed by EU Member States for the year 2013. The source of data is the 16th Annual Report on arms exports, published by the Council in March 2015, under the common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment. It categorises arms based on the 22 categories of military technology and equipment of the EU Common Military List. Data refer to 26 EU Member States, as figures for Cyprus and Greece are not available. This ...

This infographic aims to present data on arms exports licensed by EU Member States for the year 2013. The source of data is the 16th Annual Report on arms exports, published by the Council in March 2015, under the common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment. It categorises arms based on the 22 categories of military technology and equipment of the EU Common Military List. Data refer to 26 EU Member States, as figures for Cyprus and Greece are not available. This paper presents the overall value of arms exports licences, and then focuses on the subgroup ‘Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and their ammunition’, representing ML1, ML2 and ML3 of the Common Military List.

State of Play of the Implementation of EDA's Pooling and Sharing Initiatives and Its Impact on the European Defence Industry

10-06-2015

This study examines the state of 'Pooling and Sharing' (P&S) at EU and Member State (MS) level. Instead of the demanded change in mindset, we witness another episode in the traditional struggle to make classic defence cooperation work. The marginal results of P&S are not yet adequate to the size of problems. The cooperation initiative misses definitions of success, useful models of cooperation and a permanent monitoring of opportunities and capabilities. MS make progress at a snail’s pace: many projects ...

This study examines the state of 'Pooling and Sharing' (P&S) at EU and Member State (MS) level. Instead of the demanded change in mindset, we witness another episode in the traditional struggle to make classic defence cooperation work. The marginal results of P&S are not yet adequate to the size of problems. The cooperation initiative misses definitions of success, useful models of cooperation and a permanent monitoring of opportunities and capabilities. MS make progress at a snail’s pace: many projects kicked off in the first phase of P&S are still in their early stages and thus do not deliver capabilities. At the same time, Member States paralyse efforts of the EDA. NATO has not performed much better. This underlines that the core of the problem remains the sovereignty question within Member States. The developments have to be seen against the simultaneous evolution of the European defence landscape: budgets and capabilities have been cut further. Member States have lost time and money but most importantly, they have also lost many options to safeguard capabilities through pooling or sharing. The European Parliament should encourage first, a new politico-military flagship project around which defence can be organised, second, an efficiency perspective towards spending and procuring capabilities; third, the discussion on the future of sovereignty in defence; and fourth, a European Defence Review that offers a sober assessment of the current and future European defence landscape, including the opportunities for cooperation. This would enable a public debate on Europe with or without defence.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Christian MÖLLING

Towards a New European Security Strategy? Assessing the Impact of Changes in the Global Security Environment

09-06-2015

As work on a new European Security Strategy begins, this briefing examines the impact of changes in the security environment of Europe. It argues in favour of an ambitious new security strategy which, twelve years after the adoption of the 2003 European Security Strategy, is most needed in a degraded security environment. It looks back at the process and content of that document and identifies its successes environment since 2003. Mapping those changes, the report points at new threats and challenges ...

As work on a new European Security Strategy begins, this briefing examines the impact of changes in the security environment of Europe. It argues in favour of an ambitious new security strategy which, twelve years after the adoption of the 2003 European Security Strategy, is most needed in a degraded security environment. It looks back at the process and content of that document and identifies its successes environment since 2003. Mapping those changes, the report points at new threats and challenges and the changing nature of conflict. It also focuses on the and North Africa, which have challenged the assessment that Europe is not facing threats on its borders. The briefing presents an assessment of the changes in the institutional and political architecture of the EU in the post-Lisbon context, which is significantly different from the 2003 institutional environment. It emphasises the multiple tools the EU is using to develop its security policy. Finally, the briefing provides some recommendations for the process and the substance of the starting strategic review and future strategy.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Ian ANTHONY (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden), Camille GRAND (Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, France) and Patricia LEWIS (Chatham House, United Kingdom)

Russia's armed forces: Reforms and challenges

29-04-2015

After a long period of neglect and decline, the Russian armed forces have once again taken centre stage. On top of their alleged involvement in Ukraine, incursions into the airspace and territorial waters of neighbouring countries are becoming more frequent, and large-scale military drills have been held throughout the country. The traditional Victory Day parade through Moscow on 9 May celebrates Russian military prowess. In line with their increasingly active role, the Russian armed forces are ...

After a long period of neglect and decline, the Russian armed forces have once again taken centre stage. On top of their alleged involvement in Ukraine, incursions into the airspace and territorial waters of neighbouring countries are becoming more frequent, and large-scale military drills have been held throughout the country. The traditional Victory Day parade through Moscow on 9 May celebrates Russian military prowess. In line with their increasingly active role, the Russian armed forces are undergoing a modernisation process with sweeping reforms and a major rearmament programme. In the context of rising tensions with NATO and a potentially escalating conflict in Ukraine, the crucial question is whether the country now has a modern fighting machine capable of taking on a more substantial adversary.

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