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Stronger Bacteria. Weaker Antimicrobial, The fight against antimicrobial resistance in Europe through research, and the Andalusian PIRASOA program. Two examples of examples of success still to be completed

11-01-2018

The research is the key to the fight against Antimicrobial Resistance, but funding against the AMR in Europe is not acceptable because of the magnitude of the heath problem. In this context, in Andalusia (Spain), the PIRASOA Programme has been successfully implemented and developed, integrated into the daily clinical practice. The preliminary outcomes show a reduction of antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial resistance and an improvement of antimicrobial prescription profile and. However, it ...

The research is the key to the fight against Antimicrobial Resistance, but funding against the AMR in Europe is not acceptable because of the magnitude of the heath problem. In this context, in Andalusia (Spain), the PIRASOA Programme has been successfully implemented and developed, integrated into the daily clinical practice. The preliminary outcomes show a reduction of antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial resistance and an improvement of antimicrobial prescription profile and. However, it is necessary to maintain professional motivation and more technical and human resources.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

José Miguel Cisneros

EU space policy: Industry, security and defence

14-11-2016

Autonomous space capabilities play a key role for in enhancing situational awareness, response to complex crises (natural disasters), management of natural resources (water, forests), delivery of services (health, energy, transport, communication, weather forecasting), and national security. With an increasing number of countries gaining access to outer space, the European Commission adopted a 'Space Strategy for Europe' in October 2016. This publication updates an 'at a glance' note from June 2016 ...

Autonomous space capabilities play a key role for in enhancing situational awareness, response to complex crises (natural disasters), management of natural resources (water, forests), delivery of services (health, energy, transport, communication, weather forecasting), and national security. With an increasing number of countries gaining access to outer space, the European Commission adopted a 'Space Strategy for Europe' in October 2016. This publication updates an 'at a glance' note from June 2016.

The Joint Programming Initiatives

21-10-2016

Joint programming is a process by which EU Member States establish a joint research strategy to tackle major societal challenges. The objective is to reduce research landscape fragmentation, and to align national research programmes and resources for more impact. Although the Member States launched ten Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) to implement this process, evaluation of the JPIs revealed that they lacked political and financial commitment to joint programming.

Joint programming is a process by which EU Member States establish a joint research strategy to tackle major societal challenges. The objective is to reduce research landscape fragmentation, and to align national research programmes and resources for more impact. Although the Member States launched ten Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) to implement this process, evaluation of the JPIs revealed that they lacked political and financial commitment to joint programming.

The Future of EU Defence Research

30-03-2016

There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends ...

There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends not only Europe’s ‘strategic autonomy’, but possibly the future of the whole European project. Several steps have already been initiated to answer the call for more defence in Europe. Since the beginning of his mandate, President Juncker has declared defence a ‘priority’, called for the implementation of the Permanent Structured Cooperation enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and reiterated the long term vision of a ’European army’. In June 2016, a ‘global strategy’ will be issued and a Commission Defence Action Plan should follow by the end of 2016. A ‘Pilot Project’, adopted by the European Parliament in autumn 2014, has been launched and should open the path to a ‘Preparatory Action on Defence Research’ that may be voted in 2016 for the 2017-2020 budgets. A natural underpinning of those efforts should be the undertaking of a full-fledged Union programme in defence research. The size, the shape and the steps to be taken towards setting it up are the subject of the present report.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Frédéric MAURO and Klaus THOMA

Research in the European Treaties

16-03-2016

Whilst Community research activities were a key component of the Treaties establishing the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and the European Atomic Energy Community in 1957, there were no provisions related to research policy in the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958. In 1972, the European Commission proposed to define and implement a Community research policy; however, there was no legal basis for it in the EEC Treaty. That is why in the 1970s and early 1980s ...

Whilst Community research activities were a key component of the Treaties establishing the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and the European Atomic Energy Community in 1957, there were no provisions related to research policy in the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958. In 1972, the European Commission proposed to define and implement a Community research policy; however, there was no legal basis for it in the EEC Treaty. That is why in the 1970s and early 1980s, the first EEC research programmes were adopted on the basis of Article 235 of the EEC Treaty, which gave the Council the implicit competence to adopt Community measures on policy areas not included in this Treaty. In 1982, the European Parliament called for the situation to be clarified. The Single European Act, signed in 1986, enshrined research policy in the EEC Treaty. It defined cooperation and coordination of national research policies as the objectives of the common research policy, provided a clear legal framework for the adoption of the Community framework programme for research, and offered additional tools for the implementation of research policies. The amendments introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 and the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997 concerned mainly the legislative procedures to be used for the adoption of the relevant provisions. The inception of the European Research Area (ERA) in 2000 triggered the use of articles, dormant since 1986, for the establishment of public-public and public-private partnerships (Articles 185 and 187 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, TFEU). While the Treaty of Nice (2001) did not amend the articles related to research, the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) recognised research and space as a shared competence. It made the completion of ERA a Treaty requirement and provided the legal basis for the adoption of legislation to implement ERA. So far, this possibility, supported by the Parliament, has not been used due to opposition from the Council.

The European Research Area: Evolving concept, implementation challenges

16-03-2016

The 'European Research Area' (ERA) is the policy concept at the heart of the common European policy for research. The framing and adoption of ERA in 2000 was the result of a lengthy process started in 1972. Proposed by the European Commission, the concept has been reshaped by the Council of the European Union in 2008 and influenced by the involvement of stakeholders since 2012. The commitment of the Member States is now at the heart of the process of developing ERA. More than 40 years after the ...

The 'European Research Area' (ERA) is the policy concept at the heart of the common European policy for research. The framing and adoption of ERA in 2000 was the result of a lengthy process started in 1972. Proposed by the European Commission, the concept has been reshaped by the Council of the European Union in 2008 and influenced by the involvement of stakeholders since 2012. The commitment of the Member States is now at the heart of the process of developing ERA. More than 40 years after the first steps to establish a common research policy, and 16 years after the formulation of the concept, ERA remains a work in progress, as both a complex concept to define and a challenging one to implement.

Horizon 2020: boosting research and innovation

14-11-2013

Parliament and Council negotiators have reached a trilogue agreement on the Horizon 2020 framework research programme. This new instrument for European research and innovation funding seeks to simplify the rules for gaining funding, improve the commercialisation of research results and increase the participation of industry, SMEs and scientific community.

Parliament and Council negotiators have reached a trilogue agreement on the Horizon 2020 framework research programme. This new instrument for European research and innovation funding seeks to simplify the rules for gaining funding, improve the commercialisation of research results and increase the participation of industry, SMEs and scientific community.

Towards an EU industrial policy for space

31-07-2013

The European space industry occupies a strategic niche in the EU economy. The European Commission is proposing to develop a new EU space industrial policy that can support innovation and efficiency in the space industry, while creating new opportunities for jobs and growth.

The European space industry occupies a strategic niche in the EU economy. The European Commission is proposing to develop a new EU space industrial policy that can support innovation and efficiency in the space industry, while creating new opportunities for jobs and growth.

Making Perfect Life: European Governance Challenges in 21st Century Bio-engineering (Study, Summary and Options Brief)

14-09-2012

The report describes four fields of bio-engineering: engineering of living artefacts (chapter 2), engineering of the body (chapter 3), engineering of the brain (chapter 4), and engineering of intelligent artefacts (chapter 5). Each chapter describes the state of the art of these bio-engineering fields, and whether the concepts “biology becoming technology” and “technology becoming biology” are helpful in describing and understanding, from an engineering perspective, what is going on in each R&D terrain ...

The report describes four fields of bio-engineering: engineering of living artefacts (chapter 2), engineering of the body (chapter 3), engineering of the brain (chapter 4), and engineering of intelligent artefacts (chapter 5). Each chapter describes the state of the art of these bio-engineering fields, and whether the concepts “biology becoming technology” and “technology becoming biology” are helpful in describing and understanding, from an engineering perspective, what is going on in each R&D terrain. Next, every chapter analyses to what extent the various research strands within each field of bio-engineering are stimulated by the European Commission, i.e., are part and parcel of the European Framework program. Finally, each chapter provides an overview of the social, ethical and legal questions that are raised by the various scientific and technological activities involved. The report’s final chapter discusses to what extent the trends “biology becoming technology” and vice versa capture many of the developments that are going on in the four bio-engineering fields we have mapped. The report also reflects on the social, ethical and legal issues that are raised by the two bioengineering megatrends that constitute a new technology wave.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Rinie van Est (Rathenau Instituut), Dirk Stemerding (Rathenau Instituut), Piret Kukk (Fraunhofer ISI), Bärbel Hüsing (Fraunhofer ISI), Ira van Keulen (Rathenau Instituut), Mirjam Schuijff (Rathenau Instituut), Knud Böhle (ITAS), Christopher Coenen (ITAS), Michael Decker (ITAS), Michael Rader (ITAS), Helge Torgersen (ITAS) and Markus Schmidt (Biofaction)

The Attractiveness of the EU for Top Scientists

15-06-2012

The study shows that while Europe has a strong science and research base the European research sector does not currently represent an attractive enough proposition for top researchers. To effectively address this problem, policies must be developed that specifically focus on the quality of the research environment while also creating the conditions that can best promote and reward scientific excellence. Opportunities exist at the EU level to positively address these issues, primarily in the context ...

The study shows that while Europe has a strong science and research base the European research sector does not currently represent an attractive enough proposition for top researchers. To effectively address this problem, policies must be developed that specifically focus on the quality of the research environment while also creating the conditions that can best promote and reward scientific excellence. Opportunities exist at the EU level to positively address these issues, primarily in the context of targeted actions in relation to smart specialisation initiatives and specific actions in the framework of cohesion policy. There is a clear need also to strengthen the ERC and to streamline international cooperation with third countries in relation, for instance, to the Horizon 2020 initiative.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Kimmo Halme (Ramboll Management Consulting, Finland), Odysseas Cartalos (LOGOTECH, Greece), Kaisa Lähteenmäki-Smith (Ramboll Management Consulting, Finland) and Kimmo Viljamaa (Ramboll Management Consulting, Finland)

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Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
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