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Radicalisation and violent extremism – focus on women: How women become radicalised, and how to empower them to prevent radicalisation

21-12-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, focuses on Islamist radicalisation and violent extremism in the EU and has two aims: 1) to explore and assess the question of women’s radicalisation and their involvement in violent extremism in the EU as well as to look into the mechanisms in place to prevent women and girls from radicalisation and propose further ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, focuses on Islamist radicalisation and violent extremism in the EU and has two aims: 1) to explore and assess the question of women’s radicalisation and their involvement in violent extremism in the EU as well as to look into the mechanisms in place to prevent women and girls from radicalisation and propose further actions; and 2) to identify the potential of women in preventing radicalisation, in particular by looking into women’s current role in counter-radicalisation strategies and to explore potential gendered approaches and best practices to counter-radicalisation.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Seran DE LEEDE Renate HAUPFLEISCH Katja KOROLKOVA Monika NATTER With contributions by: Claudia CARVALHO (Case study Spain) Hadiya MASIEH (Case study United Kingdom)

Cross-border restitution claims of looted works of art and cultural goods

09-11-2017

Works of art and cultural goods looted in armed conflicts or wars usually travel across several borders when they are sold. The cross-border character of looted art creates legal challenges for restitution claims as they often concern various national jurisdictions, with differing rules, as well as fragmented and insufficiently defined legal requirements in international and European legal instruments. Against this background, this European Added Value Assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing ...

Works of art and cultural goods looted in armed conflicts or wars usually travel across several borders when they are sold. The cross-border character of looted art creates legal challenges for restitution claims as they often concern various national jurisdictions, with differing rules, as well as fragmented and insufficiently defined legal requirements in international and European legal instruments. Against this background, this European Added Value Assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing EU legal system for restitution claims of works of art and cultural goods looted in armed conflicts and wars. Moreover, it outlines potential legislative measures that could be taken at the EU level and that could generate European added value through simplification and harmonisation of the legal system in this area.

Illicit trade in cultural goods

25-07-2017

Illicit trade (or trafficking) in cultural goods is defined by the European Commission as the 'illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property, i.e. items being of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science' and is characterised as ranging 'from theft from cultural heritage institutions or private collections, through looting of archaeological sites to the displacement of artefacts due to war'. The European Commission points out that trafficking ...

Illicit trade (or trafficking) in cultural goods is defined by the European Commission as the 'illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property, i.e. items being of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science' and is characterised as ranging 'from theft from cultural heritage institutions or private collections, through looting of archaeological sites to the displacement of artefacts due to war'. The European Commission points out that trafficking in cultural goods 'fosters terrorism, money laundering, tax evasion, and organised crime' and that 'Europe, where art and culture are highly prized and where many wealthy buyers can be found, is a favourite outlet for trafficking'. Cultural goods have a significant economic value in the market and the trafficking of cultural goods and antiquities is estimated to be worth between US$50 million and US$150 million a year. The European Union does not have common rules on the import of cultural goods. Two EU acts govern only selected areas: Regulation (EU) 116/2009 lays down rules on the export of cultural goods, and Directive 2014/60/EU governs the return of cultural objects taken unlawfully from another EU country. Furthermore, most Member States impose restrictions on imports of culture goods (e.g. requiring declarations or controls) in line with Articles 34 and 35 of Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). On 13 July 2017 the European Commission tabled a proposal for a regulation on the import of cultural goods, which will set out conditions and procedure for the entry of cultural goods into the customs territory of the EU. The Commission is also preparing a study on illicit trade in cultural goods in the EU and the new technologies available to combat it.

Preventing and Countering Youth Radicalisation in the EU

15-04-2014

Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study focuses on the question of how to best prevent youth radicalisation in the EU. It evaluates counter-radicalisation policies, both in terms of their efficiency and their broader social and political impact. Building on a conception of radicalisation as a process of escalation, it highlights the need to take into account the relation between individuals, groups and state responses. In this light, it forefronts some of the shortcomings of current policies ...

Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study focuses on the question of how to best prevent youth radicalisation in the EU. It evaluates counter-radicalisation policies, both in terms of their efficiency and their broader social and political impact. Building on a conception of radicalisation as a process of escalation, it highlights the need to take into account the relation between individuals, groups and state responses. In this light, it forefronts some of the shortcomings of current policies, such as the difficulties of reporting individuals on the grounds of uncertain assessments of danger and the problem of attributing political grievances to ethnic and religious specificities. Finally, the study highlights the ambiguous nature of pro-active administrative practices and exceptional counter-terrorism legislation and their potentially damaging effects in terms of fundamental rights.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Didier BIGO (CCLS – King’s College, United-Kingdom), Laurent BONELLI (CCLS – University of Nanterre, Paris X, France), Emmanuel-Pierre GUITTET (CCLS – University of Manchester, United-Kingdom) and Francesco RAGAZZI (CCLS – University of Leiden, Netherlands)

Registration of Motor Vehicles Previously Registered in Another Member State: Choice of Number Plates in Union colours. Impact Assessment of a Substantive Amendment

15-11-2013

This Impact Assessment evaluates the potential benefits and costs of the introduction of a voluntary choice at a re-registration for EU businesses and citizens to have motor vehicle number plates in Union colours, rather than carrying colours determined by national law. The assessment includes a review of secondary evidence, consumer studies as well as interviews with key industry stakeholders. The findings indicate that while there are some possible tangible benefits from the proposed amendments ...

This Impact Assessment evaluates the potential benefits and costs of the introduction of a voluntary choice at a re-registration for EU businesses and citizens to have motor vehicle number plates in Union colours, rather than carrying colours determined by national law. The assessment includes a review of secondary evidence, consumer studies as well as interviews with key industry stakeholders. The findings indicate that while there are some possible tangible benefits from the proposed amendments they are highly uncertain. It is unknown what the level of consumer take-up of the vehicle plates in Union colours is likely to be or what the impact the choice of plates might have on vehicle value or citizens perceptions of the EU over time. Hence, the cost-benefit analysis concludes that any net benefit is likely to be marginal at best, considering the uncertainties involved.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

ICF GHK

Overview of the Worldwide Best Practices for Rape Prevention and for Assisting Women Victims of Rape

10-10-2013

The study provides an overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape. It reviews the international literature and offers selected examples of promising practices. It addresses the comprehensive range of policies in the fields of gender equality; law and justice; economy, development and social inclusion; culture, education and media; and health. It presents a wide-ranging set of examples of best practice. It concludes with a series of recommendations ...

The study provides an overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape. It reviews the international literature and offers selected examples of promising practices. It addresses the comprehensive range of policies in the fields of gender equality; law and justice; economy, development and social inclusion; culture, education and media; and health. It presents a wide-ranging set of examples of best practice. It concludes with a series of recommendations, based on the social scientific evidence presented in the study.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Sylvia Walby (Lancaster University, UK), Philippa Olive (Lancaster University), Jude Towers (Lancaster University), Brian Francis (Lancaster University), Sofia Strid (Örebro University, Sweden), Andrea Krizsán (Central European University, Budapest, Hungary), Emanuela Lombardo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster University), Suzanne Franzway (University of South Australia), David Sugarman (Lancaster University), Bina Agarwal (University of Delhi and University of Manchester)

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