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The return of foreign fighters to EU soil: Ex-post evaluation

15-05-2018

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to ...

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to the prevention of radicalisation; to information exchange at EU level; to criminal justice responses to returnees; to disengagement/deradicalisation inside and outside prisons. This study aims at outlining the EU response to the issue of returning foreign fighters and their families. It furthermore examines how six Member States have responded to this phenomenon so far (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK). These Member States are confronted with significant challenges in dealing with foreign fighters that combine legal, ethical and practical questions regarding their obligations and capabilities as regards the handling of the foreign fighters still abroad and the returnees already on EU soil. Meanwhile, Member States' existing programmes aiming at tackling radicalisation are difficult to evaluate, leading to uncertainties as regards the efficiency of current practices.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

The external study was written by Dr Francesco Ragazzi (Assistant Professor at Leiden University, the Netherlands) and Josh Walmsley (Independent Researcher) at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Developing a Criminal Justice Area in the European Union

15-01-2014

This study addresses the development of an EU criminal justice area. By exploring key concepts and features of criminal processes in comparative perspective, it seeks to provide ideas for such an area. Because the situation in the member states is diverse, independent concepts guided by the study findings are explored.

This study addresses the development of an EU criminal justice area. By exploring key concepts and features of criminal processes in comparative perspective, it seeks to provide ideas for such an area. Because the situation in the member states is diverse, independent concepts guided by the study findings are explored.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Marianne L. Wade (Institute of Judicial Administration, University of Birmingham, the UK, in association with the Institut für Migrations- und Sicherheitsstudien, Berlin, Germany)

Clinical Trials in Developing Countries : How to Protect People Against Unethical Practices ?

27-03-2009

Executive summary European legislation regulating the marketing authorisation of medical products states that results from clinical trials that do not meet the ethical requirements of Good Clinical Practice, cannot legally be used by an applicant to justify its application, irrespective of whether the trial was done inside or outside the EU. However, earlier studies indicate that this legislation is not always properly observed: these studies identified trials with an unethical design that were part ...

Executive summary European legislation regulating the marketing authorisation of medical products states that results from clinical trials that do not meet the ethical requirements of Good Clinical Practice, cannot legally be used by an applicant to justify its application, irrespective of whether the trial was done inside or outside the EU. However, earlier studies indicate that this legislation is not always properly observed: these studies identified trials with an unethical design that were part of approved EU marketing applications. Clinical trials that are no longer accepted by Western European ethics committees are approved by the local ethics committees in countries like India, China, Argentina and Russia. Once officially approved by an ethics committee, there are no obstacles to including the trial in the technical dossier of a marketing application. In particular the ethical principles which are of utmost importance for developing countries, as reflected in the Declaration of Helsinki, are ignored by companies and regulatory authorities. The main objective of this paper is to provide the European Parliament with concrete recommendations, both at legislative and enforcement level, aimed to guarantee that trials conducted in third countries are done so in conformity with EU and international ethical standards. [...]

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Irene Schipper (SOMO - Center for Research on Multinational Companies, Amsterdam, Holland)

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