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Non-tariff barriers in the Single Market

23-05-2016

The Single Market was launched more than 20 years ago, yet a considerable number of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) still exist, despite the fact that this should no longer be the case. NTBs come in many, often disguised, forms and substantially reduce the benefits of the Single Market.

The Single Market was launched more than 20 years ago, yet a considerable number of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) still exist, despite the fact that this should no longer be the case. NTBs come in many, often disguised, forms and substantially reduce the benefits of the Single Market.

Financial Instruments under Cohesion Policy 2007-13: How Have Member States and Selected Financial Institutions Respected and Preserved EU Financial Interests?

04-02-2016

This study assesses the implementation of financial instruments (FIs) in Cohesion policy during the 2007-13 programming period. It takes stock of existing knowledge on the operation of FIs as reflected in the academic literature and policy documents. A comparative analysis of eight case studies, focusing on the different stages in the lifecycle of FIs, provides the basis on which to draw lessons from the implementation of FIs in 200713, highlighting implications for 2014-20.

This study assesses the implementation of financial instruments (FIs) in Cohesion policy during the 2007-13 programming period. It takes stock of existing knowledge on the operation of FIs as reflected in the academic literature and policy documents. A comparative analysis of eight case studies, focusing on the different stages in the lifecycle of FIs, provides the basis on which to draw lessons from the implementation of FIs in 200713, highlighting implications for 2014-20.

Autor externo

Fiona Wishlade, Rona Michie, Philip Vernon, Stefan Kah Ms Claudia Gloazzo (European Policies Research Centre, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, the UK, for Chapters 1-4) ; Fabian Zuleeg, Claire Dheret and Iva Tasheva (European Policy Centre, Brussels, Belgium, for Chapter 5)

The World Economic Forum: Influential and controversial

19-01-2016

The World Economic Forum is considered to have significant influence. At the same time, it attracts considerable criticism. To its proponents, the organisation – through its meetings – enables business, NGOs and political leaders to meet and debate possible solutions to key issues of global concern. To its critics, the Forum, and specifically its annual meetings, is nothing more than an opaque venue for political and business leaders to take decisions without having to account to their electorate ...

The World Economic Forum is considered to have significant influence. At the same time, it attracts considerable criticism. To its proponents, the organisation – through its meetings – enables business, NGOs and political leaders to meet and debate possible solutions to key issues of global concern. To its critics, the Forum, and specifically its annual meetings, is nothing more than an opaque venue for political and business leaders to take decisions without having to account to their electorate or shareholders. Nevertheless, its longevity and the high profile of those attending its events, make it an organisation that is well known and widely referenced. This year, the Forum's Annual Meeting – with the theme 'Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution: how to adapt to the transformation of production, distribution and consumption systems, caused by mobile internet, smaller, cheaper and more powerful sensors, as well as artificial intelligence and machine learning' – will be co chaired by six personalities from varying backgrounds, and attended by over 2 500 participants, including several European Commissioners.

'Make in India' for more 'made in India'

21-01-2015

Doing business in India today is much more difficult than elsewhere, but the government wants to change this. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched the 'Make in India' initiative to attract investors and make India a global manufacturing hub.

Doing business in India today is much more difficult than elsewhere, but the government wants to change this. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has launched the 'Make in India' initiative to attract investors and make India a global manufacturing hub.

Reshoring of EU manufacturing

21-03-2014

Rising costs in formerly low-cost countries, and particularly China, have recently brought reshoring – bringing back manufacturing – to the fore. The hope is for a return of the many jobs that left the EU from the 1980s through to the 2000s.

Rising costs in formerly low-cost countries, and particularly China, have recently brought reshoring – bringing back manufacturing – to the fore. The hope is for a return of the many jobs that left the EU from the 1980s through to the 2000s.

Gender Quotas in Management Boards

14-02-2012

The note reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of legal instruments as compared with voluntary regimes in narrowing the gender gap on corporate management boards. It finds that legal instruments to enforce quotas are an effective and fast means of achieving change. The use of voluntary regimes has led to some increase in the proportion of women on corporate boards, but the effects are significantly smaller and slower. The only instance of achieving 40% of each gender was through the use of legal ...

The note reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of legal instruments as compared with voluntary regimes in narrowing the gender gap on corporate management boards. It finds that legal instruments to enforce quotas are an effective and fast means of achieving change. The use of voluntary regimes has led to some increase in the proportion of women on corporate boards, but the effects are significantly smaller and slower. The only instance of achieving 40% of each gender was through the use of legal instruments to enforce quotas. The note identifies and reports on the positions and recommendations of nine international bodies on this matter.

Autor externo

Jo Armstrong and Sylvia Walby (UNESCO Chair in Gender Research Group, Lancaster University, Lancaster, the UK)

The Economic Consequences of Large Shareholder Activism

15-07-2009

While ownership and control were under the effective supremacy of the firm’s (factual) owners at the beginning of the 20th century, the 21st century was entered by listed companies of which the growing size and the dispersion of ownership have paved the way for public corporations entailing systemic risk that are often characterized by a separation of ownership and control, coinciding the well-defined agency problem. While the agency problem was first attempted to be covered by monitoring mechanisms ...

While ownership and control were under the effective supremacy of the firm’s (factual) owners at the beginning of the 20th century, the 21st century was entered by listed companies of which the growing size and the dispersion of ownership have paved the way for public corporations entailing systemic risk that are often characterized by a separation of ownership and control, coinciding the well-defined agency problem. While the agency problem was first attempted to be covered by monitoring mechanisms offered by the law – i.e. (i) the market for corporate control; (ii) the legal, political and regulatory system; and (iii) the internal control system – the modern corporate governance wave applies itself to the rights and responsibilities of shareholders as the owners and monitors of public corporations. The central figure in this debate are large shareholders who have acquired a reputation of being able to successfully affect corporate decision-making process of corporate boards. The features of large shareholder activism, however, have come under great scrutiny. A variety of studies indicate that under the vein of corporate monitoring, the activities of large shareholders circumvent the existing legal devices regulation investor voice and give rise to substantial concerns in the corporate governance arena. Commissioned by the European Parliament in January 2009, this study contemplates on the economic consequences of large shareholder activism in five European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) and refers to two other countries (Italy and Spain).

Autor externo

Christoph Van der Elst and Gulsum Aslan (Department of Business Law, University of Tilburg, the Netherlands)

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