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Retrofitting smart tachographs by 2020: Costs and benefits

02-02-2018

The scope of this study is to assess the costs and benefits of retrofitting smart tachographs in heavy-duty vehicles operating in international transport by January 2020. Specifically, it addresses economic consequences of a technological upgrade of these vehicles. Moreover, it considers the related economic impacts incurred on national enforcement authorities. It also assesses the costs, which Member States’ national enforcement bodies risk to incur, among others, due to retrieving and processing ...

The scope of this study is to assess the costs and benefits of retrofitting smart tachographs in heavy-duty vehicles operating in international transport by January 2020. Specifically, it addresses economic consequences of a technological upgrade of these vehicles. Moreover, it considers the related economic impacts incurred on national enforcement authorities. It also assesses the costs, which Member States’ national enforcement bodies risk to incur, among others, due to retrieving and processing data from smart tachometers. In assessing both the costs and benefits, the study focuses on the EU-level analysis with consideration of the European Added Value aspect in particular.

Autor externo

This study has been written by Dr Michał Suchanek of the University of Gdańsk, at the request of the European Added Value Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS) of the General Secretariat of the European Parliament. The preface has been written by Aleksandra Heflich, European Added Value Unit.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - January 2018

15-01-2018

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Odometer manipulation in motor vehicles

09-01-2018

Second-hand cars traded across the EU have their odometer readings manipulated more frequently than those traded on national markets. Odometer fraud is difficult to track and leaves no trace. This incurs costs and creates challenges on the EU internal market. It can also impact EU road safety. Against this background, this European added value assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing EU legal system. Moreover, it outlines potential policy measures that could be taken at the EU level, and ...

Second-hand cars traded across the EU have their odometer readings manipulated more frequently than those traded on national markets. Odometer fraud is difficult to track and leaves no trace. This incurs costs and creates challenges on the EU internal market. It can also impact EU road safety. Against this background, this European added value assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing EU legal system. Moreover, it outlines potential policy measures that could be taken at the EU level, and that could generate European added value through coordinated approaches and more harmonisation in this area.

Research for TRAN Committee - Odometer tampering: measures to prevent it

15-11-2017

Odometer tampering is still a widespread malpractice in the European Union and it affects almost all second-hand car markets of its Member States. This study examines how improvement can be made by presenting the best practices implemented in some Member States and countries outside of the EU, while emphasising their success factors and results achieved. Furthermore, the study highlights the available technological developments and IT solutions to combat the phenomenon with a view to a potential ...

Odometer tampering is still a widespread malpractice in the European Union and it affects almost all second-hand car markets of its Member States. This study examines how improvement can be made by presenting the best practices implemented in some Member States and countries outside of the EU, while emphasising their success factors and results achieved. Furthermore, the study highlights the available technological developments and IT solutions to combat the phenomenon with a view to a potential further application by the European automotive industry.

Autor externo

Enrico Pastori, Raffaele Vergnani

European Commission guidelines on dual quality of branded food products

07-11-2017

On 26 September 2017, the European Commission published a notice laying out guidelines on the application of EU food and consumer protection law to issues of dual quality of food products. This legally non-binding notice follows tests in seven 'new' EU Member States that compared the composition and sensory qualities of branded products sold in those countries with some of the 'old' Member States. The tests showed that some of the products included less of the main ingredient, included ingredients ...

On 26 September 2017, the European Commission published a notice laying out guidelines on the application of EU food and consumer protection law to issues of dual quality of food products. This legally non-binding notice follows tests in seven 'new' EU Member States that compared the composition and sensory qualities of branded products sold in those countries with some of the 'old' Member States. The tests showed that some of the products included less of the main ingredient, included ingredients that were considered to be less healthy and of poorer quality, or had different taste, consistency, and other sensory characteristics. Manufacturers have questioned the reliability of the tests, claiming the differences were the result of adjusting their products to local tastes or using local ingredients and different places of manufacture. The Commission notice acknowledges that producers have a right to differentiate their products, but warns that consumers must not be misled. It clarifies the provisions of EU legislation which should enable the national authorities in Member States to act. It introduces the notion of a 'product of reference', against which consumer expectations are to be measured. Consumers need to be adequately informed if a product differs from their expectations, as when inadequate information leads them to buy a product they would not otherwise buy, such dual quality may be contrary to the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. Members of the European Parliament have regularly spoken out against the practice of dual quality of food, with the European Parliament asking the Commission to verify the extent of the problem as early as 2013.

Dual quality of branded food products: Addressing a possible east-west divide

20-06-2017

Recent tests on branded food in three 'new' EU Member States have shown that the taste and composition of these products, sold under the same name and in the same packaging, sometimes differ from the 'same' products sold in neighbouring 'old' Member States. While the ingredients were generally properly labelled and the products were considered safe for consumption, some of those in 'new' Member States were considered to be of inferior quality and less healthy, and were also more expensive. Similar ...

Recent tests on branded food in three 'new' EU Member States have shown that the taste and composition of these products, sold under the same name and in the same packaging, sometimes differ from the 'same' products sold in neighbouring 'old' Member States. While the ingredients were generally properly labelled and the products were considered safe for consumption, some of those in 'new' Member States were considered to be of inferior quality and less healthy, and were also more expensive. Similar claims have previously been made concerning cosmetics and laundry detergents. Companies are known to change the composition of their branded products to adjust to local taste, local ingredients, divergent purchasing power, etc. EU legislation does not consider this to be misleading, as long as the products are safe, properly labelled and not falsely advertised as being identical to those sold in another Member State. At the same time, trademark law, while protecting the right of the trademark owner to communicate the origin and quality of products by using a mark, does not offer the consumer a legally enforceable guarantee. In 2013 the European Parliament asked the Commission to look into the matter, and in 2017 a group of MEPs issued a major interpellation asking the Commission to make proposals to amend EU legislation in connection with the 'dual quality' of products. The Commission has so far been reluctant to take this path, preferring to address the issue in the High-Level Forum for a better functioning food supply chain.

Mutual Recognition Regulation

13-06-2017

The internal market for goods is one of the EU’s greatest achievements at European level, as well as one of its most important and continuing priorities. Despite its undeniable success, the single market has yet to reach its full potential, and barriers to free exchange of goods continue to limit opportunities for businesses and citizens. Since 2009, Regulation EC 764/2008, also known as the Mutual Recognition Regulation, has strengthened the free trade of goods within the EU. This regulation requires ...

The internal market for goods is one of the EU’s greatest achievements at European level, as well as one of its most important and continuing priorities. Despite its undeniable success, the single market has yet to reach its full potential, and barriers to free exchange of goods continue to limit opportunities for businesses and citizens. Since 2009, Regulation EC 764/2008, also known as the Mutual Recognition Regulation, has strengthened the free trade of goods within the EU. This regulation requires that all Member States provide information on their national technical rules for products lawfully marketed in another Member State and sets out a standard procedure for enforcing these rules. The European Commission is now preparing new measures aimed at improving this regulation and making it easier for businesses to market their products in another EU country. This briefing highlights some key elements of the single market for goods and focuses on the revision of Regulation EC 764/2008.

Free Trade Agreements and Patterns of Risk Regulation in the EU and the US

13-09-2016

Transatlantic regulatory patterns overall and in four key sectors: food, automobiles, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals indicate that the EU risk regulation is not always or generally more stringent or precautionary than the US regulation. In fact, the reality is a complex mix of parity and particularity. While there is overall EU-US similarity, there is also variation. In some risk matters, and across and within sectors, there is more precaution in Europe, whereas in others it may be in the US. Even ...

Transatlantic regulatory patterns overall and in four key sectors: food, automobiles, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals indicate that the EU risk regulation is not always or generally more stringent or precautionary than the US regulation. In fact, the reality is a complex mix of parity and particularity. While there is overall EU-US similarity, there is also variation. In some risk matters, and across and within sectors, there is more precaution in Europe, whereas in others it may be in the US. Even if they are unusual deviations, and even if they go in both directions, transatlantic regulatory differences can still pose barriers to trade that may in some cases warrant harmonization. However, regulatory variation can also be the basis for learning to improve future regulatory design, both by comparing outcomes across regulations in different jurisdictions, and by planning adaptive regulation over time. International regulatory cooperation does not simply mean adopting the current standard of one side or the other. It can also involve collaboration to reviewing existing regulations and designing new approaches that improve outcomes for all.

Analysis of the Prospects for Updating the Trade Pillar of the European Union-Chile Association Agreement

30-05-2016

The perception of the present state of trade relations with Chile is obscured by a lack of adequate understanding of its legal framework as well as of the policy behind it. This study attempts to clarify the present state of and future prospects for trade between the EU and Chile through an examination of previous agreements and the EU’s new approach to trade liberalisation. The authors agree with the large consensus existing on both the EU and Chilean sides regarding the efficacy of the Association ...

The perception of the present state of trade relations with Chile is obscured by a lack of adequate understanding of its legal framework as well as of the policy behind it. This study attempts to clarify the present state of and future prospects for trade between the EU and Chile through an examination of previous agreements and the EU’s new approach to trade liberalisation. The authors agree with the large consensus existing on both the EU and Chilean sides regarding the efficacy of the Association Agreement, but note that any extension of an agreement with Chile should capture the spirit of older EU agreements rather than simply following the ‘NAFTA route’. The study also includes a comparative analysis between the EU-Chile agreement and current trade agreements being negotiated by the EU and Chile with third countries.

Autor externo

Rodrigo Polanco

The International Civil Aviation Organization

13-05-2016

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations, established in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention). Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations, established in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention). Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

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