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Regional efforts to fight Boko Haram

13-02-2017

The cross-border dimension of the Boko Haram insurgency – one of the world's deadliest terrorist groups – has compelled the countries in the Lake Chad basin to coordinate their fight against it. Launched in 2014, the Multinational Joint Task Force has weakened the group, without fully defeating it. The acute humanitarian situation calls for an approach that goes beyond military intervention. This 'at a glance' note updates a previous edition from March 2015.

The cross-border dimension of the Boko Haram insurgency – one of the world's deadliest terrorist groups – has compelled the countries in the Lake Chad basin to coordinate their fight against it. Launched in 2014, the Multinational Joint Task Force has weakened the group, without fully defeating it. The acute humanitarian situation calls for an approach that goes beyond military intervention. This 'at a glance' note updates a previous edition from March 2015.

Expanding the network of EU tuna fisheries agreements

08-07-2016

Since 1980, the EU has set up a network of bilateral fisheries agreements, providing fishing opportunities for the EU fleet in the waters of third countries. These agreements were concluded with countries in West Africa (1980-1998), in the western Indian Ocean (1984-1989), and in the western-central Pacific (2003-2007). Over the past few years, the European Commission has considered the possibility of expanding EU fleet access to new partner countries’ waters in the three regions. These fishing opportunities ...

Since 1980, the EU has set up a network of bilateral fisheries agreements, providing fishing opportunities for the EU fleet in the waters of third countries. These agreements were concluded with countries in West Africa (1980-1998), in the western Indian Ocean (1984-1989), and in the western-central Pacific (2003-2007). Over the past few years, the European Commission has considered the possibility of expanding EU fleet access to new partner countries’ waters in the three regions. These fishing opportunities would slot in the current network of tuna fisheries agreements, allowing EU vessels to pursue tuna migration within the waters of the new partner countries. Several procedures are now at different stages of progress, with the first of them – the agreement with Liberia – being adopted recently. To put these new opportunities into perspective, this briefing provides an overview of the EU tuna fisheries in the three regions, outlining the activities of the different types of EU tuna fishing vessels within and outside the framework of EU agreements, and the importance of their catches to the EU market. The potential agreements with Ghana and Sierra Leone (in West Africa); with Tanzania and Kenya (in the western Indian Ocean); and with the Cook Islands (in the western-central Pacific) are presented against this backdrop.

Export Taxes and Other Restrictions on Raw Materials and their Limitation through Free Trade Agreements: Impact on Developing Countries

28-04-2016

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff ...

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff escalation. Multilateral trade rules do not forbid the use of export taxes, but they do apply to export restrictions. The treatment of these instruments in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) negotiated by the EU varies, even between the different Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The EU should be flexible when it comes to the treatment of these instruments in trade agreements involving LDCs and small developing countries. In some cases, the EU should consider renegotiating existing agreements to remove strict prohibitions that can hamper development.

Autor extern

Maximiliano Mendez Parra (Overseas Development Institute), Samuel R. Schubert (Webster University) and Elina Brutschin (Webster University)

Environmental and Social Standards in the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with West Africa: A Comparison to Other EPAs

02-06-2015

Although negotiations on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) were launched with seven regions in 2002 – with the expectation that they would be concluded within five years – only one full EPA was in force by March 2015: the agreement between the EU and the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM). A few interim EPAs are being implemented, including one for Eastern and Southern Africa. This briefing compares the principal provisions on social and environmental standards in the EPA with West Africa to the provisions ...

Although negotiations on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) were launched with seven regions in 2002 – with the expectation that they would be concluded within five years – only one full EPA was in force by March 2015: the agreement between the EU and the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM). A few interim EPAs are being implemented, including one for Eastern and Southern Africa. This briefing compares the principal provisions on social and environmental standards in the EPA with West Africa to the provisions in the CARIFORUM EPA and the interim EPA for Eastern and Southern Africa. In general, the CARIFORUM EPA contains the widest set of environmental and socials standards, as well as the most specific provisions, including on monitoring and dispute settlement procedures. While less comprehensive, the West Africa EPA also contains references to social and environmental objectives; the West Africa text confirms provisions in the Cotonou Partnership Agreement and includes a 'non-execution clause', which allows the EU to take measures in cases of human rights violations. The divergences between EPAs may well derive from different negotiating contexts. All EPAs will face a challenge when the Cotonou Agreement expires, as their non-execution clauses are linked to Cotonou.

The Role of the EU in Promoting a Broader Transatlantic Partnership

25-02-2013

The European Union should promote a new transatlantic partnership encompassing both North and South America. Such cooperation is necessary not only to respond to competitive challenges from countries like China and India, but also to help develop new markets in Africa and to promote strong partnerships across the South Atlantic. More important, a new transatlantic partnership is essential to protect the security of the Atlantic basin, to develop more sustainable use of energy resources, to protect ...

The European Union should promote a new transatlantic partnership encompassing both North and South America. Such cooperation is necessary not only to respond to competitive challenges from countries like China and India, but also to help develop new markets in Africa and to promote strong partnerships across the South Atlantic. More important, a new transatlantic partnership is essential to protect the security of the Atlantic basin, to develop more sustainable use of energy resources, to protect the environment, to combat the drugs trade and human trafficking, and to tackle the problem of illegal immigration. The European Parliament has a unique role to play in fostering a more inclusive Atlantic community. It can help to break down traditional patterns of North-South engagement, it can build capacity in Latin American regional organizations, it can encourage leadership within the Latin American community, and it can foster democracy and civil society across the South Atlantic. Moreover, the European Parliament can help exploit the long experience of the European Union in collective decision-making, multinational democratic representation, information exchange, and shared best practice to lay the foundations for more effective cooperation at all levels of government across the Atlantic region.

Autor extern

Timo BEHR (The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, FINLAND), Emily CLEWS (School of Social, Political and Geographical Sciences, Loughborough University, the U.K.), Mahrukh DOCTOR (Department of Politics and International Studies, Hull University, the U.K.), Gregory W. FULLER (School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A./ITALY), Gabriel GOODLIFFE (Departamento de Estudios Internacionales, InstitutoTecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, MEXICO), Lee MILES (Department of Political Science, Karlstad University, SWEDEN), Rana MITTER (St Cross College, Oxford University, the U.K.), Andrew MONAGHAN (St Antony's College, Oxford University, the U.K.) and Saskia VAN GENUGTEN (School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A./ITALY)

The Maritime Dimension of CSDP: Geostrategic Maritime Challenges and their Implications for the European Union

29-01-2013

The global maritime security environment is in the midst of an important transformation, driven by a simultaneous intensification of global maritime flows, the growing interconnectedness of maritime regions, the diffusion of maritime power to emerging powers, and the rise of a number of maritime non-state actors. These changes are having a profound impact on the maritime security environment of the EU and its member states and require an upgrading of the maritime dimension of the EU’s Common Security ...

The global maritime security environment is in the midst of an important transformation, driven by a simultaneous intensification of global maritime flows, the growing interconnectedness of maritime regions, the diffusion of maritime power to emerging powers, and the rise of a number of maritime non-state actors. These changes are having a profound impact on the maritime security environment of the EU and its member states and require an upgrading of the maritime dimension of the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). This study analysis the impact that the changing maritime security context is having on the EU’s maritime neighbourhood and along the EU’s sea lines of communications (SLOCs) and takes stock of the EU’s existing policies and instruments in the maritime security domain. Based on this analysis, the study suggests that the EU requires a comprehensive maritime security strategy that creates synergies between the EU’s Integrated Maritime Policy and the maritime dimension of CSDP and that focuses more comprehensively on the security and management of global maritime flows and sea-based activities in the global maritime commons.

Autor extern

Timo BEHR, Jyrki KALLIO, Mika AALTOLA, Charly SALONIUS-PASTERNAK, Maija SALONEN (Finnish Intitute of International Affairs, Finland) , Erik BRATTBERG (Swedish Intitute of International Affairs, Sweden) , Andreas RASPOTNIK (Trans European Policy Studies Association, Belgium)

Impact of EU Bioenergy Policy on Developing Countries

02-03-2012

Against the background of the renewable energy targets of the European Union, the EUs interest in biomass has considerably increased in recent years, not only for energy crops grown on arable land but also for woody biomass. This brief analyses some of the main impact dimensions with regard to land access, energy and food security and environmental impacts in developing countries. The developing countries most likely to export woody biomass to feed Europe’s demand are west and central African countries ...

Against the background of the renewable energy targets of the European Union, the EUs interest in biomass has considerably increased in recent years, not only for energy crops grown on arable land but also for woody biomass. This brief analyses some of the main impact dimensions with regard to land access, energy and food security and environmental impacts in developing countries. The developing countries most likely to export woody biomass to feed Europe’s demand are west and central African countries as well as Latin American countries. While clear links between the increasing EU demand for wood for energy generation and impacts in developing countries, both negative and positive, need to be drawn on a project level, the additional demand for biomass worldwide will have macro effects. The rising demand for woody biomass energy is likely to raise the global price for wood, thus adding pressure on forests and other ecosystems and driving land use conflicts. More specific risks include deforestation when natural forests are replaced by monoculture plantations and long term impacts on local food and energy security. This brief concludes with potential approaches to tackle these impacts including biomass sustainability criteria, increased efforts towards resource efficiency and support for developing countries to build up good governance mechanisms.

Autor extern

WUNDER Stephanie, KAPHENGST Timo, TIMEUS Krista and BERZINS Kristine (ECOLOGIC INSTITUTE, GERMANY)

Policy Coherence for Development and the Effects of Eu Fisheries Policies on Development in West Africa

29-08-2007

Autor extern

L Bartels, University of Edinburgh L A de la Fayette, Oceans and Environment International H Davies, Sustainable Fishing Solutions Ltd L Campling, School of Oriental and African Studies United Kingdom

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