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Reform of the Dublin system

01-03-2019

The refugee and migrant crisis in Europe has exposed the need for reform of the Common European Asylum System, in general, and of the Dublin rules, in particular. The Commission’s proposal of 4 May 2016 to reform the Dublin system would not change the existing criteria for determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application. Instead of a fundamental overhaul of the Dublin regime, as suggested by Parliament, the Commission proposed to streamline and supplement the current ...

The refugee and migrant crisis in Europe has exposed the need for reform of the Common European Asylum System, in general, and of the Dublin rules, in particular. The Commission’s proposal of 4 May 2016 to reform the Dublin system would not change the existing criteria for determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application. Instead of a fundamental overhaul of the Dublin regime, as suggested by Parliament, the Commission proposed to streamline and supplement the current rules with a corrective allocation mechanism. This mechanism would be triggered automatically were a Member State to be faced with disproportionate numbers of asylum-seekers. If a Member State decided not to accept the allocation of asylum-seekers from another one under pressure, a ‘solidarity contribution’ per applicant would have to be made instead. An agreement on the balance between responsibility and solidarity regarding the distribution of asylum-seekers will be a cornerstone for the new EU asylum policy. Although Parliament’s LIBE committee adopted its positon in autumn 2017, the Council has been unable to reach a position on the proposal.

The Istanbul Convention: A tool to tackle violence against women and girls

17-11-2017

The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is the first instrument in Europe to set legally binding standards specifically to prevent gender-based violence, protect victims of violence and punish perpetrators. Following the EU’s signing of the Convention in June 2017, the European Parliament’s consent is required for the EU’s accession to the Convention. Pending Council’s formal request for that consent, Parliament ...

The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is the first instrument in Europe to set legally binding standards specifically to prevent gender-based violence, protect victims of violence and punish perpetrators. Following the EU’s signing of the Convention in June 2017, the European Parliament’s consent is required for the EU’s accession to the Convention. Pending Council’s formal request for that consent, Parliament adopted an interim resolution in September 2017. This is an updated edition of an EPRS ‘at a glance’ note published in September 2017, PE 608.671.

Violence against women and the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention

15-11-2017

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. This study has three main objectives: 1) providing an overview of the progress made by EU Member States in the area of violence against women; 2) presenting the state of play of the ratification or implementation of the Istanbul Convention by Member States; and 3) analysing the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention and its consequences ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. This study has three main objectives: 1) providing an overview of the progress made by EU Member States in the area of violence against women; 2) presenting the state of play of the ratification or implementation of the Istanbul Convention by Member States; and 3) analysing the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention and its consequences. The study concludes with policy recommendations on the role of the European Parliament in monitoring the process of implementation of the Istanbul Convention.

Autor extern

Athena CHRISTOFI, Elena FRIES-TERSCH, Nathalie MEURENS, Catarina MONTEIRO, Sophie MOREL, Hana SPANIKOVA, Milieu.

Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism: Implementation Appraisal

04-05-2016

EU-level reports available on the implementation of the Framework Decision on Terrorism suggest that the FD provisions have been implemented in the Member States in a broadly satisfactory way. Several concerns remain, however, notably in relation to the adequacy of the current framework in ensuring prosecutions of individual foreign fighters who are self-motivated and travel by themselves. The changing security situation, and developments on the international stage (adoption of UNSCR 2178 (2014) ...

EU-level reports available on the implementation of the Framework Decision on Terrorism suggest that the FD provisions have been implemented in the Member States in a broadly satisfactory way. Several concerns remain, however, notably in relation to the adequacy of the current framework in ensuring prosecutions of individual foreign fighters who are self-motivated and travel by themselves. The changing security situation, and developments on the international stage (adoption of UNSCR 2178 (2014) and the CoE Additional Protocol), appear to call for amendments to the Framework Decision. The Commission proposal for a new directive would bring EU legislation in line with the provisions of the above-mentioned UN and CoE documents by broadening the scope of criminalised acts to include inter alia travelling abroad for terrorism and receiving training for terrorism. It is important to note in this context that recent reports stress that Member States have to a large degree already introduced further criminal offenses in their legislation, or are in the process of doing so (especially those Member States from which the majority of FFs originate). The proposal would also go further by requiring Member States to ensure that victims of terrorism are offered protection and assistance. The Commission proposal for a new Directive is not accompanied by an impact assessment. The Commission said this was justified by ‘the urgent need to improve the EU framework to increase security in the light of recent terrorist attacks’. As noted earlier, this approach has been met with criticism. The proposal contains a review clause (Article 26(2)) obliging the Commission to assess the impact and added value of the directive four years after the implementation deadline, and to report on this to the Council and the Parliament. It is to be hoped that this ex-post evaluation will address some of the questions that would have been tackled in an impact assessment. In this light, a more precise wording of Article 26(2) may contribute to a genuine evaluation of the proposed directive along the pre-determined criteria.

The gender dimension of human trafficking

08-02-2016

Human trafficking is a serious crime and a violation of human rights. It is on the rise due to increasing mobility, the development of new technologies and the generally low risks and high profit involved. Data on the prevalence of this crime show that the majority of its victims are women and girls. Sexual exploitation is by far the first purpose of trafficking in women. Most trafficked women are forced into commercial sexual services while many are also victims of domestic servitude. There are ...

Human trafficking is a serious crime and a violation of human rights. It is on the rise due to increasing mobility, the development of new technologies and the generally low risks and high profit involved. Data on the prevalence of this crime show that the majority of its victims are women and girls. Sexual exploitation is by far the first purpose of trafficking in women. Most trafficked women are forced into commercial sexual services while many are also victims of domestic servitude. There are several factors which contribute to trafficking in women. Their vulnerability, especially as a consequence of violence, and the demand for their sexual services are two leading factors which have received increased attention in recent years. Tackling this demand requires addressing prostitution. EU Member States have adopted different approaches to this phenomenon, ranging from criminalisation of all activities related to prostitution to regulation. Traffickers operate via various channels of recruitment which involve coercion, force or deception. They usually exploit the poor economic situation of women searching for a better life abroad. The internet and new technologies play an important role, as does migrant smuggling. The EU has adopted key instruments to tackle trafficking in human beings. They are based on a victim-centred approach and recognise that support and protection of victims, as well as prevention should be gender-specific. The European Parliament plays an important part in shaping EU policies in the field.

The Istanbul Convention: A tool to tackle violence against women and girls

25-11-2015

A powerful international tool, the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) was opened for signature in May 2011 and entered into force in August 2014. It is the first instrument in Europe to set legally binding standards specifically to prevent gender-based violence, protect victims of violence and punish perpetrators.

A powerful international tool, the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) was opened for signature in May 2011 and entered into force in August 2014. It is the first instrument in Europe to set legally binding standards specifically to prevent gender-based violence, protect victims of violence and punish perpetrators.

Preventing radicalisation in the EU

18-11-2015

The tragic attacks of 13 November in Paris have again painfully demonstrated the immediate security threat deriving from radicalisation, recruitment of EU citizens by terrorist organisations and 'foreign fighters'. The competence for national security lies with the Member States, but the cross border nature of these complex threats requires a coordinated response at EU level.

The tragic attacks of 13 November in Paris have again painfully demonstrated the immediate security threat deriving from radicalisation, recruitment of EU citizens by terrorist organisations and 'foreign fighters'. The competence for national security lies with the Member States, but the cross border nature of these complex threats requires a coordinated response at EU level.

Understanding definitions of terrorism

06-11-2015

The international community remains divided over a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Despite broad consensus that the threat of terrorism needs to be addressed urgently, the positions adopted by individual countries, regional and international organisations have resulted in a patchwork of approaches. This is primarily due to diverging views on what constitutes terrorism, as opposed to exercising peoples' right to self-determination, as enshrined in the UN Charter.

The international community remains divided over a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Despite broad consensus that the threat of terrorism needs to be addressed urgently, the positions adopted by individual countries, regional and international organisations have resulted in a patchwork of approaches. This is primarily due to diverging views on what constitutes terrorism, as opposed to exercising peoples' right to self-determination, as enshrined in the UN Charter.

Trafficking in Human Organs

18-06-2015

The commercial trade in human organs, including trafficking in persons for organ removal has developed into a global problem. This report describes the current situation regarding international organ trafficking, committed often by transnational criminal networks. It zooms in on the role of traffickers, international brokers, health professionals, and the recipients and suppliers. To combat and prevent organ commercialism and trafficking, a legal framework for the criminalisation of trafficking offences ...

The commercial trade in human organs, including trafficking in persons for organ removal has developed into a global problem. This report describes the current situation regarding international organ trafficking, committed often by transnational criminal networks. It zooms in on the role of traffickers, international brokers, health professionals, and the recipients and suppliers. To combat and prevent organ commercialism and trafficking, a legal framework for the criminalisation of trafficking offences, and tailor-made law enforcement instruments have been developed by a number of international organisations. A number of recent trafficking cases in which European citizens were involved, have been analysed in detail to highlight the different forms of organ trafficking and to demonstrate how investigation and prosecution can result in an effective justice response to these crimes. The efforts of the EU and other European organisations, such as the Council of Europe or the OSCE, to develop binding legal instruments and formulate policy actions to step up law enforcement and legal cooperation in the combat against trafficking in organs, are described. The report concludes with observations and recommendations for the EU to prepare next steps in successfully fighting and preventing trafficking in organs and organ commercialism.

Autor extern

Michael BOS (Eurotransplant International Foundation, the Netherlands)

Ending child, early and forced marriage

22-05-2015

Despite commitments at international, regional and national levels, child, early and forced marriage remain widespread across the world, curtailing the human rights of girls and women and hindering poverty reduction and development. Within the EU itself, forced marriage also remains a concern.

Despite commitments at international, regional and national levels, child, early and forced marriage remain widespread across the world, curtailing the human rights of girls and women and hindering poverty reduction and development. Within the EU itself, forced marriage also remains a concern.

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01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
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