15

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Oblasť politiky
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Single-use plastics and fishing gear: Reducing marine litter

17-06-2019

Most of the plastic in our oceans originates from land-based sources. On European beaches, plastics make up 80-85 % of marine litter, which is considered a major threat to marine and coastal biodiversity. Marine litter also costs the European Union economy an estimated €259 million to €695 million per year. In May 2018, the European Commission put forward a legislative proposal seeking to address the issue of marine litter from plastics. The proposal would introduce a series of measures regarding ...

Most of the plastic in our oceans originates from land-based sources. On European beaches, plastics make up 80-85 % of marine litter, which is considered a major threat to marine and coastal biodiversity. Marine litter also costs the European Union economy an estimated €259 million to €695 million per year. In May 2018, the European Commission put forward a legislative proposal seeking to address the issue of marine litter from plastics. The proposal would introduce a series of measures regarding the top 10 single-use plastics found on European beaches, as well as fishing gear, with a view to reducing their impact on the environment and ensuring a functional internal market. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed by the presidents of the co-legislators (European Parliament and Council) on 5 June 2019, and published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 12 June 2019. Member States have two years (i.e. until 3 July 2021) to transpose the new directive into national law. Fourth edition of a briefing originally drafted by Didier Bourguignon. document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Marine litter: single-use plastics and fishing gear

09-07-2018

The Commission proposal aims to reduce the environmental harm from single-use plastics and fishing gear. The supporting impact assessment (IA) does not discuss the impacts on innovation, research and development or the feasibility for businesses to invest into alternative materials. The IA only briefly touches upon the implications for SMEs and does not explain why the open public consultation ran for 8 weeks instead of the 12 weeks. Finally, the proposal misses certain measures foreseen under the ...

The Commission proposal aims to reduce the environmental harm from single-use plastics and fishing gear. The supporting impact assessment (IA) does not discuss the impacts on innovation, research and development or the feasibility for businesses to invest into alternative materials. The IA only briefly touches upon the implications for SMEs and does not explain why the open public consultation ran for 8 weeks instead of the 12 weeks. Finally, the proposal misses certain measures foreseen under the preferred option and contains measures not foreseen in the IA.

Towards a circular economy-Waste management in the EU

25-09-2017

This STOA study explores waste management in the EU. Around one third of EU municipal waste was sent to landfill in 2012. To turn waste into a resource, waste management objectives must be aligned with the goals of a circular economy transition. This report highlights progress and challenges across Member States and in municipalities for (1) reducing waste, and (2) generating high-quality waste streams for re-use and recovery. It focuses on the current policy landscape, trends, and technologies for ...

This STOA study explores waste management in the EU. Around one third of EU municipal waste was sent to landfill in 2012. To turn waste into a resource, waste management objectives must be aligned with the goals of a circular economy transition. This report highlights progress and challenges across Member States and in municipalities for (1) reducing waste, and (2) generating high-quality waste streams for re-use and recovery. It focuses on the current policy landscape, trends, and technologies for the five waste streams identified in the European Commission´s Circular Economy Action Plan. Employment opportunities for the different steps of the waste hierarchy as well as future policy options are identified and discussed.

Externý autor

EPRS, DG

Green Public Procurement and the EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy

15-06-2017

Public procurement and the purchasing of services, works and supplies cover about 14 % of European gross domestic product (GDP). Procurement initiatives, tools and guidance therefore have tremendous power and make products and services greener and more sustainable. The assessment carried out in this study provides results on the applicability of ongoing initiatives and shows how they contribute to the European Commission´s Action Plan on the Circular Economy. With the proposed recommendations the ...

Public procurement and the purchasing of services, works and supplies cover about 14 % of European gross domestic product (GDP). Procurement initiatives, tools and guidance therefore have tremendous power and make products and services greener and more sustainable. The assessment carried out in this study provides results on the applicability of ongoing initiatives and shows how they contribute to the European Commission´s Action Plan on the Circular Economy. With the proposed recommendations the involved parties are offered possibilities and options for a better approach in the future.

Externý autor

Christian NEUBAUER, Mervyn JONES, Francesca MONTEVECCHI, Christian NEUBAUER, Hanna SCHREIBER, Angelika TISCH, Birgit WALTER

Circular economy package: Four legislative proposals on waste

21-02-2017

Although waste management in the EU has improved considerably in recent decades, over a quarter of municipal waste is still landfilled and less than half is recycled or composted, with wide variations between Member States. Improving waste management could deliver positive effects for the environment, climate, human health and the economy. As part of a shift towards a circular economy, the European Commission made four legislative proposals introducing new waste-management targets regarding reuse ...

Although waste management in the EU has improved considerably in recent decades, over a quarter of municipal waste is still landfilled and less than half is recycled or composted, with wide variations between Member States. Improving waste management could deliver positive effects for the environment, climate, human health and the economy. As part of a shift towards a circular economy, the European Commission made four legislative proposals introducing new waste-management targets regarding reuse, recycling and landfilling, strengthening provisions on waste prevention and extended producer responsibility, and streamlining definitions, reporting obligations and calculation methods for targets. "A more recent edition of this document is available. Find it by searching by the document title at this address: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html"

Supporting the Market for Secondary Raw Materials in a Circular Economy

15-02-2017

This report summarises four presentations by experts and discussions which took place at the workshop ‘Supporting the market for Secondary raw Materials’ held on 31st January 2017 in the European Parliament in Brussels. The aim was to provide background information to the ENVI and ITRE Committees’ Members and contribute to their understanding of the role and opportunities for secondary raw materials as part of the implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan, including the proposed waste legislation ...

This report summarises four presentations by experts and discussions which took place at the workshop ‘Supporting the market for Secondary raw Materials’ held on 31st January 2017 in the European Parliament in Brussels. The aim was to provide background information to the ENVI and ITRE Committees’ Members and contribute to their understanding of the role and opportunities for secondary raw materials as part of the implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan, including the proposed waste legislation.

Externý autor

Schweitzer Jean-Pierre, Eliaerts, Sylvie, Gionfra Susanna, Jones Harvey, Nanni, Sylvia and Solovieva, Anna

Tackling food waste: The EU's contribution to a global issue

29-11-2016

In spite of the availability of food, there is still malnutrition in the world. Food is lost or wasted throughout the supply chain, from initial agricultural production down to final consumers. In developed countries, a significant amount of food is wasted at the consumption stage, meaning that it is discarded even though still suitable for human consumption. In developing countries food is lost mostly at the farmer-producer end of the food supply chain; much less food is wasted at consumer level ...

In spite of the availability of food, there is still malnutrition in the world. Food is lost or wasted throughout the supply chain, from initial agricultural production down to final consumers. In developed countries, a significant amount of food is wasted at the consumption stage, meaning that it is discarded even though still suitable for human consumption. In developing countries food is lost mostly at the farmer-producer end of the food supply chain; much less food is wasted at consumer level. Experts assert that the largest part of food waste in developed countries is produced by households and is linked mainly to urbanisation, changes in the composition of diets, and large-scale mass distribution. Food losses and waste have negative environmental and economic impacts and their existence raises questions for society. Overall, on a per-capita basis, much more food is wasted in the industrialised world than in developing countries. In the EU, food waste has been estimated at some 88 million tonnes, or 173 kg per capita per year. The production and disposal of this food waste leads in turn to the emission of 170 million tonnes of CO2 and consumes 261 million tonnes of resources. The EU is contributing to reducing food waste mainly through its commitment to halve the disposal of edible food in the EU by 2020. Various national initiatives also aim to attain this goal. In June 2016, EU agriculture ministers adopted conclusions in which they pledged to improve data-gathering and awareness-raising on food losses and waste. In addition, they urged the European Commission to remove the legal and practical barriers so that it becomes easier to donate food. This briefing is an update of an earlier one, of January 2014.

Understanding waste streams: Treatment of specific waste

07-07-2015

Waste streams are flows of specific waste, from its source through to recovery, recycling or disposal. Together they make up the overall waste treated in the European Union (4.6 tonnes per capita in 2012). Waste streams can be divided into two broad types: streams made of materials (such as metals or plastics) or streams made of certain products (such as electronic waste or end-of-life vehicles) which require specific treatment and ultimately feed into materials-related streams. Reports suggest that ...

Waste streams are flows of specific waste, from its source through to recovery, recycling or disposal. Together they make up the overall waste treated in the European Union (4.6 tonnes per capita in 2012). Waste streams can be divided into two broad types: streams made of materials (such as metals or plastics) or streams made of certain products (such as electronic waste or end-of-life vehicles) which require specific treatment and ultimately feed into materials-related streams. Reports suggest that the new legislative proposal on waste to be tabled by the European Commission by the end of 2015, as part of the new 'circular economy' package, is likely to focus on individual materials. Each waste stream has its specific characteristics and applicable legislation, including in terms of treatment method, hazardousness, practical recovery and recycling possibilities. Broadly, a set of general principles apply across waste streams. Waste streams can be divided into two main categories: material-related streams (including metals; glass; paper and cardboard; plastics; wood; rubber; textiles; bio-waste) and product-related streams (including packaging; electronic waste; batteries and accumulators; end-of-life vehicles; mining, construction and demolition waste). A number of aspects need to be considered in assessing different waste streams: sources of waste to be treated and uses of treated waste; applicable recycling and recovery methods; specific opportunities and challenges, in particular related to recycling; and applicable European Union legislation and its implementation.

Resource efficiency and waste: Implementation appraisal

23-09-2014

Environmental concerns were the first reason for the European Community to address the problem of waste generated by various sectors of the economy and a significant number of legislative acts and non-legislative actions were adopted or taken in that area since 1975. In recent years, economic arguments have come to the fore in the waste-management debate, especially with the concept of circular economy as an alternative to the existing linear model. The transition to a circular economy could ensure ...

Environmental concerns were the first reason for the European Community to address the problem of waste generated by various sectors of the economy and a significant number of legislative acts and non-legislative actions were adopted or taken in that area since 1975. In recent years, economic arguments have come to the fore in the waste-management debate, especially with the concept of circular economy as an alternative to the existing linear model. The transition to a circular economy could ensure sustainable growth in the context of growing pressure of production and consumption on the world's resources and environment, by shifting the focus to reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products, where what used to be regarded as 'waste' can be turned into a resource and final residual waste is close to zero. The European Union's basic approach to such a transition was outlined in January 2011 by the European Commission's Communication on a resource-efficient Europe as one of the Europe 2020 flagship initiatives coordinating actions across many policy areas to secure sustainable growth and jobs through better use of resources.

Plastic waste

29-10-2013

Plastic production increases with GDP: production during the past decade equalled that of the entire 20th century. Plastic waste could become a valuable resource if separate collection circuits were designed to ensure that single-use plastic packaging could be phased out through an effective roadmap towards the circular economy.

Plastic production increases with GDP: production during the past decade equalled that of the entire 20th century. Plastic waste could become a valuable resource if separate collection circuits were designed to ensure that single-use plastic packaging could be phased out through an effective roadmap towards the circular economy.

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EPRS Annual Lecture: Clash of Cultures: Transnational governance in post-war Europe
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