9

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Oblasť politiky
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Regional implications of Iraqi Kurdistan's quest for independence

06-12-2016

Strengthened by its victories over ISIL/Da'esh, the government of the autonomous region of Kurdistan in Iraq has announced that it plans to organise a referendum on independence. The deadline is still unclear, as political divisions have led the region to an institutional stalemate. Negotiations with the federal Iraqi government will focus on the territorial scope of the referendum. The Kurdish leaders want to include the 'disputed areas', in particular Kirkuk, in the poll. However, Iraq is not keen ...

Strengthened by its victories over ISIL/Da'esh, the government of the autonomous region of Kurdistan in Iraq has announced that it plans to organise a referendum on independence. The deadline is still unclear, as political divisions have led the region to an institutional stalemate. Negotiations with the federal Iraqi government will focus on the territorial scope of the referendum. The Kurdish leaders want to include the 'disputed areas', in particular Kirkuk, in the poll. However, Iraq is not keen to be cut off from this oil-rich region, which is already at the heart of a dispute on the sharing of oil revenues. The status of Mosul after it is recaptured from ISIL/Da'esh is also under discussion. Even if the referendum were to take place and the 'yes' side won, it is not certain that a Kurdish state would emerge. Such a state would be weakened by internal divisions and poor economic conditions. In addition, Syria, Turkey and Iran, neighbouring countries that have complex relations with Iraqi Kurdistan, are worried that an independent Kurdish state would encourage their own Kurdish populations to seek greater autonomy. Yet, the perspective of a Greater Kurdistan is remote, since the regional Kurdish landscape is dominated by the PKK (Kurdistan Workers' Party) and its affiliates, which do not share Iraqi Kurdish leaders' ideology or strategic alliances. As for the EU and the great world powers, although they consider Iraqi Kurdistan to be a reliable ally in the fight against ISIL/Da'esh (again recently in the battle for Mosul), they do not want to openly back the fragmentation of the Middle-East.

EU Arctic Policy in Regional Context

06-07-2016

EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does ...

EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does not focus on security issues or on hydrocarbon development. Arctic oil and gas are not the primary keys to EU energy security, but do play a role, and are important for the EU’s two main suppliers, Norway and Russia – sustainable management of these resources is in the EU’s interest. While the region has been a model for cooperation – Arctic collaboration with Russia continues via multiple mechanisms, despite wider tensions. That it will remain so cannot be taken for granted. The EU supports peaceful Arctic cooperation via multiple mechanisms, including the Arctic Council, the Barents-Euro Arctic Council, and via multiple cross-border collaboration platforms. As the EU becomes increasingly engaged in Arctic issues, continued focus on policy coherence, engagement with other Arctic stakeholders, and the priorities of the region’s citizens will be essential.

Nigeria: Economic situation

06-05-2015

After years of sustained growth, Nigeria has become Africa's biggest economy, but is currently experiencing the strong impact of declining oil prices. The share of the oil and gas sector in the economy has diminished, but the sector remains the main source of foreign exchange and federal government revenues. The country is yet to transform its economy into a diversified and competitive modern economy.

After years of sustained growth, Nigeria has become Africa's biggest economy, but is currently experiencing the strong impact of declining oil prices. The share of the oil and gas sector in the economy has diminished, but the sector remains the main source of foreign exchange and federal government revenues. The country is yet to transform its economy into a diversified and competitive modern economy.

Gas disputes in the eastern Mediterranean

28-01-2013

Discoveries of gas reserves in the eastern Mediterranean have brought both opportunities and challenges to the entire region. Although political uncertainty has clouded the whole picture, energy is emerging as the dominant issue for the future of the region.

Discoveries of gas reserves in the eastern Mediterranean have brought both opportunities and challenges to the entire region. Although political uncertainty has clouded the whole picture, energy is emerging as the dominant issue for the future of the region.

EU-Russia trade relations: State of play and prospects

26-04-2012

EU-Russia trade relations are growing again, after a drop in 2009. Russia is the EU's main energy supplier. In return, the EU provides Russia with high-tech, manufactured products. Russia's WTO accession raises hope of progress towards a new EU-Russia agreement. Challenges remain, such as the implications of EU energy policy for Russia and the Russian (ab)use of sanitary measures in import restrictions for EU food produce.

EU-Russia trade relations are growing again, after a drop in 2009. Russia is the EU's main energy supplier. In return, the EU provides Russia with high-tech, manufactured products. Russia's WTO accession raises hope of progress towards a new EU-Russia agreement. Challenges remain, such as the implications of EU energy policy for Russia and the Russian (ab)use of sanitary measures in import restrictions for EU food produce.

EU Energy Efficiency Policy – Achievements and Outlook

01-12-2010

The European Energy Efficiency Policy has had limited success thus far. The non-binding political target of 20% energy savings compared to a business-asusual development cannot be achieved with current policies. Major additional policy measures need to be implemented in order to tap the large energy savings potentials that provide economic benefits to energy consumers.

The European Energy Efficiency Policy has had limited success thus far. The non-binding political target of 20% energy savings compared to a business-asusual development cannot be achieved with current policies. Major additional policy measures need to be implemented in order to tap the large energy savings potentials that provide economic benefits to energy consumers.

Externý autor

Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik (LBST) Mr. M. Altmann, Mr. J. Michalski HINICIO Mr. A. Brenninkmeijer, Mr. J.-C. Lanoix, Ms. P. Tisserand Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) Mr. C. Egenhofer, Mr. A. Behrens, Ms. N. Fujiwara College of Europe (COE) Mr. D. Ellison Mr. P. Linares

Black Sea Regional olicy Approach: a Potential Contributor to European Energy Security

16-10-2007

Externý autor

Dr Burcu Gültekin-Punsmann

Being Rich in Energy Resources a blessing or a Curse

31-01-2007

Being rich in energy resources – a blessing or a curse finds that an energy resource curse plagues many EU supplier states. This in turn directly affects Europe’s energy supply security and threatens to engulf Europe in unwanted hostilities at home and abroad. The study addresses seven issues including the evidence suggesting that a curse exists among Europe’s external energy suppliers, active programs to limit that risk, the significance of economic diversification, the applicability of dividend ...

Being rich in energy resources – a blessing or a curse finds that an energy resource curse plagues many EU supplier states. This in turn directly affects Europe’s energy supply security and threatens to engulf Europe in unwanted hostilities at home and abroad. The study addresses seven issues including the evidence suggesting that a curse exists among Europe’s external energy suppliers, active programs to limit that risk, the significance of economic diversification, the applicability of dividend programs, the link between corruption and security of energy supplies, additional possible actions of the Union, and further threats posed by resource cursed countries. It establishes a definitive links between corruption and supply security, poor transparency, and inequality, and proves that a low level of economic diversification is a reliable indicator for the existence of the curse. It also finds that there are examples of excellence in recovering from and even converting the curse to a blessing. In looking at the policy instruments available to the Union, the study determines that the Union does have the technical expertise and financial means to restructure political and economic systems and strengthen public administrations and institutions and found that Europe’s successful implementation of similar past programs could be taken, at least in part, as models for future efforts. Finally, the study recommends the controversial approach of conditionality in the use of aid and finds that the Union should legislate standards for the reporting and auditing of energy exports and imports at home and abroad

Externý autor

Samuel R. Schubert

Innovations for the Promotion of Renewable Energies

01-04-1998

This study seeks to give an overview of various innovative strategies to promote renewable energy sources (including energy pricing policy ('green pricing')). The possibilities and prospects for the use of renewable energy sources in developing countries are also discussed in a separate section. In addition, some space is devoted - in connection with the use of renewable sources of energy - to the water situation (drinking water, irrigation and water purification) in developing countries (particularly ...

This study seeks to give an overview of various innovative strategies to promote renewable energy sources (including energy pricing policy ('green pricing')). The possibilities and prospects for the use of renewable energy sources in developing countries are also discussed in a separate section. In addition, some space is devoted - in connection with the use of renewable sources of energy - to the water situation (drinking water, irrigation and water purification) in developing countries (particularly in Africa and the Middle East).

Externý autor

Ole Langniß (coordinator), Dr. Franz Trieb (German Aerospace Research Establishment, Stuttgart), Dr. Andreas Bandi, Dieter Geyer (Center for Solar Energy and Hudrogen Research Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart), Prof. Dr.-Ing.habil Jürgen Giesecke, Prof Dr.rer.nat. Dr.-Ing.habil.Andras Bardossy, Gabriele hartmann, Dr.-Ing.Walter Marc (Unversity of Stuttgart)

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