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Jewish communities in the European Union

21-01-2019

Europe's Jewish population has been diminishing in recent decades, and a growing number of anti-Semitic acts and anti-Jewish violence have been occurring in recent years in the EU. In defence of its values, including respect for minorities, the EU undertakes and funds actions to counter anti-Semitism. This is a further updated version of an 'at a glance' note published in January 2018.

Europe's Jewish population has been diminishing in recent decades, and a growing number of anti-Semitic acts and anti-Jewish violence have been occurring in recent years in the EU. In defence of its values, including respect for minorities, the EU undertakes and funds actions to counter anti-Semitism. This is a further updated version of an 'at a glance' note published in January 2018.

The European Union and Holocaust remembrance

21-01-2019

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation of property, state discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, the policy was extended to all the European territories and countries controlled by the Nazis during the Second World War. It was a policy that ...

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation of property, state discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, the policy was extended to all the European territories and countries controlled by the Nazis during the Second World War. It was a policy that would culminate in mass summary executions ('Holocaust by Bullets') and extermination camps. The perpetrators were prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials in 1945-1946, but the charge of crimes against humanity was preferred over genocide. It was not until 2005, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, that a United Nations resolution on Holocaust remembrance designated 27 January as the day of commemoration. In the European Union, numerous programmes seek to preserve the memory of these tragic events in the history of the continent. Since 1995, the European Parliament has adopted resolutions drawing attention to the obligation to remember not only through commemorations but also through education. In November 2018, the EU became a permanent international partner of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (AISH). This is an updated version of a briefing from January 2018.

Konrad Adenauer: Europe's elder statesman

30-10-2018

Konrad Adenauer was born at the end of the 19th century in imperial Germany. Growing up in relatively humble surroundings, he adopted Prussian values and a Christian faith that guided him throughout his life. Adenauer first took up political office in 1906, as city councillor of his home town of Cologne. In 1909, he became president of the city council. He was then elected Lord Mayor of Cologne in 1917 – at the age of just 41. With the end of the First World War, Adenauer made efforts to promote ...

Konrad Adenauer was born at the end of the 19th century in imperial Germany. Growing up in relatively humble surroundings, he adopted Prussian values and a Christian faith that guided him throughout his life. Adenauer first took up political office in 1906, as city councillor of his home town of Cologne. In 1909, he became president of the city council. He was then elected Lord Mayor of Cologne in 1917 – at the age of just 41. With the end of the First World War, Adenauer made efforts to promote transnational cooperation with Germany's neighbours to the West on several occasions – a progressive move at that point in time. When, in February 1933, the newly elected German Chancellor Adolf Hitler visited Cologne, Konrad Adenauer refused to receive him – a decision that saw him removed from his position as Lord Mayor. Forced into political exile – even incarcerated at one point – he spent the following 12 years with his family at his home in Rhöndorf. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, Adenauer was determined to establish a political platform that would unite people around core Christian and democratic values and it was on this basis that he was elected as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany in September 1949. Throughout his 14 years as Chancellor of Germany, Konrad Adenauer remained determined to integrate Germany into a value-based European political system. Therefore, reconciliation, rapprochement and cooperation with France became the central goals of Adenauer's foreign policy, ultimately shaping German policy up to the present day.

Cultural heritage in EU policies

22-05-2018

2018 is devoted to the European Union's cultural heritage. This paper focuses on the evolution of the very notion of cultural heritage, its role and place in society, as well as the way it is perceived and interpreted in the context of related EU prerogatives. The European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 is a result of this evolution, and allows EU citizens to gain a broad understanding of their cultural heritage in all its aspects, democratically share responsibility for it, celebrate it and benefit ...

2018 is devoted to the European Union's cultural heritage. This paper focuses on the evolution of the very notion of cultural heritage, its role and place in society, as well as the way it is perceived and interpreted in the context of related EU prerogatives. The European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 is a result of this evolution, and allows EU citizens to gain a broad understanding of their cultural heritage in all its aspects, democratically share responsibility for it, celebrate it and benefit from the creation it inspires. Despite the fact that the EU has limited powers in respect of cultural heritage – the role of the European institutions is generally limited to financial support, coordination of joint projects and efforts, and sharing of knowledge – it has contributed to raising awareness about preservation, conservation and restoration issues, technological research (for example 3D reconstructions) and scientific progress in technological solutions. Furthermore, the EU has become an international expert in the field. Cultural heritage has been taken into consideration in numerous EU funding programmes, which has allowed Member States to undertake action to revive their national or local heritage, keep their traditions and crafts, and thereby develop their cultural tourism. The European Parliament has adopted resolutions highlighting, inter alia, the dangers from which cultural heritage is to be protected both in the EU and the world, and underlining the necessity to address trafficking and looting of cultural heritage artefacts, the protection of cultural heritage, including traditional crafts, and the role of cultural heritage in sustanainable tourism.

Alcide De Gasperi: Democracy beyond borders

15-05-2018

Alcide De Gasperi was born at the end of the 19th century, and grew up in a region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire mainly populated by Italians. From his youth, he was committed to politics and journalism. He was a clear opponent of fascism, and faced strong political persecution from Mussolini’s regime. After some time in prison, he found refuge in the Vatican, where he worked for 14 years. After the Second World War, he involved himself heavily in the construction of the Italian Republic, through ...

Alcide De Gasperi was born at the end of the 19th century, and grew up in a region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire mainly populated by Italians. From his youth, he was committed to politics and journalism. He was a clear opponent of fascism, and faced strong political persecution from Mussolini’s regime. After some time in prison, he found refuge in the Vatican, where he worked for 14 years. After the Second World War, he involved himself heavily in the construction of the Italian Republic, through the Christian Democratic Party. He was President of the Council (prime minister) between 1945 and 1953. He developed a consensual method of government, trying to involve as much as possible the various Italian political parties. In the field of foreign policies, one of his main contributions was to advocate tirelessly for the return of Germany to the concert of nations, in the face of the growing threat posed by the Soviet Union. For this reason, he also became a passionate advocate of the European Defence Community. Therefore, in the light of his commitment, it is no surprise that the 1957 Treaties creating the European Economic Community and Euratom were signed in Rome.

International Roma Day: How the European Union supports the study of Roma culture, language and history

03-04-2018

International Roma Day, marked on 8 April, is devoted to Europe's largest ethnic minority, the Roma, a predominant part of whom suffer from discrimination and isolation. This day also focuses on Roma history, culture, language and aspirations, which remain largely unknown in Europe, even though they are key to mutual understanding and can contribute to closing the gap between communities. The study and promotion of Roma culture and language fall under the remit of legislation concerning the preservation ...

International Roma Day, marked on 8 April, is devoted to Europe's largest ethnic minority, the Roma, a predominant part of whom suffer from discrimination and isolation. This day also focuses on Roma history, culture, language and aspirations, which remain largely unknown in Europe, even though they are key to mutual understanding and can contribute to closing the gap between communities. The study and promotion of Roma culture and language fall under the remit of legislation concerning the preservation of cultural and linguistic diversity on the one hand, and the protection of minority languages, on the other, as provided for by the EU Treaties and the Council of Europe Charter for Regional and Minority Languages. The EU offers support for the preservation of the Roma language, Romani, and its numerous local dialects, some of which are endangered and could disappear. The EU allocates funds to the study of Roma history, culture and language, while some EU Member States have also put in place programmes that include the teaching of Roma culture, history and language in primary schools.

Prvé zmluvy

01-01-2018

Vzhľadom na katastrofálne následky druhej svetovej vojny a neustálu hrozbu konfrontácie medzi Východom a Západom sa zmierenie medzi Francúzskom a Nemeckom stalo kľúčovou prioritou. Spolupráca týkajúca sa uhoľného a oceliarskeho priemyslu medzi šiestimi európskymi krajinami upravená Parížskou zmluvou v roku 1951 znamenala prvé kroky na ceste k európskej integrácii. Rímske zmluvy z roku 1957 znamenali upevnenie základov tejto integrácie a potvrdenie myšlienky spoločnej budúcnosti šiestich zapojených ...

Vzhľadom na katastrofálne následky druhej svetovej vojny a neustálu hrozbu konfrontácie medzi Východom a Západom sa zmierenie medzi Francúzskom a Nemeckom stalo kľúčovou prioritou. Spolupráca týkajúca sa uhoľného a oceliarskeho priemyslu medzi šiestimi európskymi krajinami upravená Parížskou zmluvou v roku 1951 znamenala prvé kroky na ceste k európskej integrácii. Rímske zmluvy z roku 1957 znamenali upevnenie základov tejto integrácie a potvrdenie myšlienky spoločnej budúcnosti šiestich zapojených európskych krajín.

Zmluva z Nice a Konvent o budúcnosti Európy

01-01-2018

Zmluva z Nice pripravila Európsku úniu na významné rozšírenie smerom na východ a na juh v rokoch 2004 a 2007 iba čiastočne. Preto sa ako odpoveď na otázky nastolené v Laekenskej deklarácii Konvent o budúcnosti Európy pokúsil o vytvorenie nového právneho základu Únie v podobe Zmluvy o Ústave pre Európu. V dôsledku zamietavých výsledkov referend v dvoch členských štátoch však táto zmluva nebola ratifikovaná.

Zmluva z Nice pripravila Európsku úniu na významné rozšírenie smerom na východ a na juh v rokoch 2004 a 2007 iba čiastočne. Preto sa ako odpoveď na otázky nastolené v Laekenskej deklarácii Konvent o budúcnosti Európy pokúsil o vytvorenie nového právneho základu Únie v podobe Zmluvy o Ústave pre Európu. V dôsledku zamietavých výsledkov referend v dvoch členských štátoch však táto zmluva nebola ratifikovaná.

Helmut Kohl, citizen of Europe

29-06-2017

Helmut Kohl died on 16 June 2017 at the age of 87. The father of German reunification and a strong supporter of European integration, he leaves a long-lasting legacy.

Helmut Kohl died on 16 June 2017 at the age of 87. The father of German reunification and a strong supporter of European integration, he leaves a long-lasting legacy.

Budova Eastman: klenot bruselského dedičstva ako Dom európskej histórie

28-04-2017

Budova Eastman, ktorá sa nachádza v štvrti Léopold v blízkosti európskych inštitúcií, v druhej polovici roka 2017 otvorí svoje dvere ako Dom európskej histórie. Výber a renovácia tejto bývalej zubnej kliniky umožňuje vyzdvihnúť históriu budovy, ktorá je dôležitou súčasťou bruselského a európskeho dedičstva. Zubná klinika, ktorú založil George Eastman, zakladateľ spoločnosti Kodak, bola vybudovaná v roku 1935 v parku Léopold, ktorý už od konca 19. storočia slúži ako miesto pre vedu a voľný čas. Budovu ...

Budova Eastman, ktorá sa nachádza v štvrti Léopold v blízkosti európskych inštitúcií, v druhej polovici roka 2017 otvorí svoje dvere ako Dom európskej histórie. Výber a renovácia tejto bývalej zubnej kliniky umožňuje vyzdvihnúť históriu budovy, ktorá je dôležitou súčasťou bruselského a európskeho dedičstva. Zubná klinika, ktorú založil George Eastman, zakladateľ spoločnosti Kodak, bola vybudovaná v roku 1935 v parku Léopold, ktorý už od konca 19. storočia slúži ako miesto pre vedu a voľný čas. Budovu, ktorá bola postupne verejnou klinikou, zariadením verejného vzdelávania a domovom dôchodcov, si Európsky parlament prenajíma od roku 1985. Nachádzajú sa tu jeho správne oddelenia, tlačiareň a jasle. V priebehu rokov v budove takisto sídlili aj iné európske orgány, napríklad európsky ombudsman alebo Európsky dvor audítorov. V roku 2009 Európsky parlament rozhodol, že budova sa po ambicióznej renovácii a rozšírení stane sídlom Domu európskej histórie. Úlohou tohto múzea je pomocou najmodernejšej múzejnej vedy predstaviť dejiny Európy za posledné dve storočia. Budova Eastman tak iným spôsobom bude naďalej plniť svoje poslanie byť pedagogickým miestom otvoreným verejnosti.

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