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Objavljeno dne 19-10-2018

What if 'nudging' good habits could make us healthier?

19-10-2018

The link between high consumption of trans fats, sugar and salt, found in high amounts in processed food, and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), type 2 diabetes and various cancers is well established. In the current food market, calorie-rich, processed food, wrapped with ambiguous labels, is readily available, cheap and heavily promoted. But what if consumers could be prompted to make healthier food choices?

The link between high consumption of trans fats, sugar and salt, found in high amounts in processed food, and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), type 2 diabetes and various cancers is well established. In the current food market, calorie-rich, processed food, wrapped with ambiguous labels, is readily available, cheap and heavily promoted. But what if consumers could be prompted to make healthier food choices?

Single-use plastics and fishing gear: Reducing marine litter

19-10-2018

Most of the plastic in our oceans originates from land-based sources. On European beaches, plastics make up 80-85 % of marine litter, which is considered a major threat to marine and coastal biodiversity. Marine litter also costs the European Union economy an estimated €259 million to €695 million per year. In May 2018, the European Commission put forward a legislative proposal seeking to address the issue of marine litter from plastics. The proposal would introduce a series of measures regarding ...

Most of the plastic in our oceans originates from land-based sources. On European beaches, plastics make up 80-85 % of marine litter, which is considered a major threat to marine and coastal biodiversity. Marine litter also costs the European Union economy an estimated €259 million to €695 million per year. In May 2018, the European Commission put forward a legislative proposal seeking to address the issue of marine litter from plastics. The proposal would introduce a series of measures regarding the top 10 single-use plastics found on European beaches, as well as fishing gear, with a view to reducing their impact on the environment and ensuring a functional internal market. In the European Parliament, the report by the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is expected to be the subject of a vote in plenary in October 2018. Second edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Multiannual plan for fisheries in the Western Waters

19-10-2018

On 9 October 2018, Parliament’s Committee on Fisheries (PECH) adopted its report on a proposed multiannual plan for management of fisheries in the Western Waters, an area of the north-east Atlantic along the western coast of the EU. The plan covers fisheries exploiting stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'), including several deep-sea stocks. It aims to ensure that these stocks are exploited sustainably and that their management is based on the most ...

On 9 October 2018, Parliament’s Committee on Fisheries (PECH) adopted its report on a proposed multiannual plan for management of fisheries in the Western Waters, an area of the north-east Atlantic along the western coast of the EU. The plan covers fisheries exploiting stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'), including several deep-sea stocks. It aims to ensure that these stocks are exploited sustainably and that their management is based on the most up-to-date scientific information. The EU fishing fleet concerned mainly includes vessels from Belgium, Germany, France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom. The proposal follows the pattern set by the recently adopted North Sea multiannual plan. It would allow a certain flexibility in setting fishing opportunities, by defining ranges of fishing mortality based on the best available scientific advice, and would introduce safeguard measures based on biomass levels, so as to restore stocks when they fall below safe biological limits. The plan would not include quantified values for fishing mortality or biomass levels. These are instead provided by the latest scientific advice available, and directly used by the Council when fixing fishing opportunities.

Outcome of the meetings of EU Heads of State or Government, 17-18 October 2018

19-10-2018

The European Council (Article 50) meeting of 17 October 2018 made neither made progress towards finalising a withdrawal agreement nor decide on holding an extraordinary summit on Brexit. At the European Council meeting of 18 October 2018, EU leaders stressed the need to cooperate with countries of origin and transit as well as fighting people smuggling-networks. On internal security they adopted conclusions regarding many of the new threats the EU is facing, including cyber-attacks, disinformation ...

The European Council (Article 50) meeting of 17 October 2018 made neither made progress towards finalising a withdrawal agreement nor decide on holding an extraordinary summit on Brexit. At the European Council meeting of 18 October 2018, EU leaders stressed the need to cooperate with countries of origin and transit as well as fighting people smuggling-networks. On internal security they adopted conclusions regarding many of the new threats the EU is facing, including cyber-attacks, disinformation campaigns, and terrorism. Additionally they addressed a number of external relations related issues, such as EU-Africa relations, the upcoming EU League of Arab States meeting and Climate change.

Madagascar: vers une sortie des crises politiques à répétition?

19-10-2018

Depuis l’indépendance de Madagascar, malgré l’absence de conflit majeur et sa richesse en ressources tant humaines que naturelles, sa population continue de s’appauvrir. Cette 'énigme malgache' s’accompagne d’un paradoxe: chaque fois qu’une reprise économique s’amorce, une crise politique vient l’interrompre. La clef de l’énigme réside dans les jeux de pouvoir entres les réseaux des élites, qui se créent au gré des circonstances autour des leaders aspirant au poste du chef d’État. La culture politique ...

Depuis l’indépendance de Madagascar, malgré l’absence de conflit majeur et sa richesse en ressources tant humaines que naturelles, sa population continue de s’appauvrir. Cette 'énigme malgache' s’accompagne d’un paradoxe: chaque fois qu’une reprise économique s’amorce, une crise politique vient l’interrompre. La clef de l’énigme réside dans les jeux de pouvoir entres les réseaux des élites, qui se créent au gré des circonstances autour des leaders aspirant au poste du chef d’État. La culture politique, tout en gardant une apparence démocratique, soutient implicitement les institutions informelles fondées sur la personnalisation du pouvoir, au détriment des institutions formelles, dont l’équilibre est censé stabiliser le système politique. Les institutions étatiques sont constamment (re)façonnées au profit des réseaux au pouvoir pour ne pas menacer la mainmise de l’exécutif. La déception de la population, dont le pouvoir d’achat ne cesse de diminuer depuis des décennies, se confirme dans les enquêtes d'opinion et dans la baisse constante de la participation électorale. En effet, il existe un clivage profond entre les élites, prises dans l’auto-préservation, et la population, désabusée et tiraillée entre les aspirations démocratiques et une soumission fataliste, dérivée des valeurs ancestrales. L’aide internationale, bien que vitale pour la population, vivant en majorité dans une grande pauvreté, est insuffisante pour un développement durable du pays. Au-delà du renforcement des institutions démocratiques et du développement de corps intermédiaires qui pourraient mieux répondre aux aspirations populaires, un sursaut plus profond est nécessaire pour bâtir une démocratie au-delà de la façade. Son fondement: un nouveau contrat social entre la population et les élites du pays, basé sur une reformulation commune de la culture politique malgache, entre tradition et modernité.

Migration [What Think Tanks are thinking]

19-10-2018

At the European Council meeting on 18 October, European Union Heads of State or Government vowed to step up the fight against illegal migration, by intensifying efforts to crack down on smuggling networks, protect external borders and cooperate with countries of origin and transit. The EU's southern borders remain under pressure from irregular migrants escaping poverty and conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, although the leaders noted that illegal border crossings into the EU have declined by ...

At the European Council meeting on 18 October, European Union Heads of State or Government vowed to step up the fight against illegal migration, by intensifying efforts to crack down on smuggling networks, protect external borders and cooperate with countries of origin and transit. The EU's southern borders remain under pressure from irregular migrants escaping poverty and conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, although the leaders noted that illegal border crossings into the EU have declined by 95 % from their peak in October 2015. The leaders also said in their conclusions that a joint task force should be established at Europol's European Migrant Smuggling Centre. The European Commission is to propose a comprehensive set of implementation measures by December, and the leaders urged the European Parliament and Council to examine promptly the recent proposals on the Return Directive, the Asylum Agency and the European Border and Coast Guard. This note offers links to commentaries and studies on migration by major international think tanks. Earlier papers on the same topic can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are Thinking', published in June 2018.

Future of Europe debates II: Parliament hosts Heads of State or Government

19-10-2018

Against the background of the many challenges faced by the European Union (EU) in recent years, and with the May 2019 European Parliament elections approaching, the future of the European project has come back on the agenda of public discourse. At the European Council of October 2017, the President of the European Parliament, Antonio Tajani, announced his intention to host a series of Future of Europe debates during plenary sessions, as a democratic and open forum in which the Heads of State or Government ...

Against the background of the many challenges faced by the European Union (EU) in recent years, and with the May 2019 European Parliament elections approaching, the future of the European project has come back on the agenda of public discourse. At the European Council of October 2017, the President of the European Parliament, Antonio Tajani, announced his intention to host a series of Future of Europe debates during plenary sessions, as a democratic and open forum in which the Heads of State or Government of EU Member States would be invited to express their vision of the future, starting in early 2018. Intended to run for the whole of 2018 and beyond, the 'Future of Europe' debates in the European Parliament have thus far featured the leaders of ten Member States. They have used the opportunity to set out their personal vision, highlighting priorities, pointing to areas for better development, and revisiting accomplishments so far. (See the timeline of speakers below.) This is the second edition of a Briefing designed to provide an overview of the Future of Europe debate in a number of key policy areas. While the first edition covered the first six speakers, the present one focuses on the most recent four. It also contains insights on climate change and international trade, in addition to the areas of economic and monetary union (EMU), the EU social dimension, migration policy, security and defence, and the multiannual financial framework (MFF), covered in the first edition.

The US mid-term elections of November 2018

19-10-2018

The forthcoming mid-term elections in the United States, to be held on 6 November 2018, are likely to offer a closely watched political verdict on the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. They will define not only the composition of the 116th US Congress, to meet from 3 January 2019 to 3 January 2021, but also the power balance both within Congress and between Congress and the President. In US mid-term elections, the entire House of Representatives and one third of the Senate are up for ...

The forthcoming mid-term elections in the United States, to be held on 6 November 2018, are likely to offer a closely watched political verdict on the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. They will define not only the composition of the 116th US Congress, to meet from 3 January 2019 to 3 January 2021, but also the power balance both within Congress and between Congress and the President. In US mid-term elections, the entire House of Representatives and one third of the Senate are up for election. The Democratic party, currently the minority in both chambers, aims to regain control of the House of Representatives, at least, although the conditions for its winning back the Senate are less favourable. Any shift in power towards the Democrats will result in increased scrutiny and pressure on the sitting President, and might lead to detailed investigations in Congress into the performance of his Administration, and potentially to an impeachment attempt against President Trump personally. By contrast, if the Republicans succeed in retaining control of both chambers, this will consolidate the President’s power-base within his own party, create a more favourable backdrop to his intended run for re-election in 2020, and exacerbate the identity and leadership crises within the Democratic party. This Briefing provides background to the forthcoming mid-term elections, by offering an overview of how the US Congress is elected, by explaining issues such as voter registration, voting methods, the way the primaries work, election security issues and gerrymandering. It goes on to analyse the potential political implications of the mid-term election results.

Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides

19-10-2018

The study presents the results of evaluation of the implementation of the Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. The study was outsourced and prepared by a consortium led by ÖIR GmbH, in collaboration with Arcadia International, t33 and external experts. The study covers the implementation of the directive as a whole. Furthermore, it concentrates on the implementation of the integrated pest management principles in the individual ...

The study presents the results of evaluation of the implementation of the Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. The study was outsourced and prepared by a consortium led by ÖIR GmbH, in collaboration with Arcadia International, t33 and external experts. The study covers the implementation of the directive as a whole. Furthermore, it concentrates on the implementation of the integrated pest management principles in the individual Member States. In addition, it also provides an analysis concerning of a the development of harmonised risk indicators, the imposition of limitation and bans of on the usage of pesticides in sensitive specific sensitive areas, and the impacts that of the use of pesticides has on drinking water. The analysis is accompanied by recommendations on how to improve the implementation processes.

Das Recht auf Achtung des Privatlebens – Problemstellungen im Digitalbereich, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive: Deutschland

19-10-2018

Die vorliegende Studie ist Teil eines weiter gefassten Projekts, das als Grundlage für den Vergleich der Regelungen unterschiedlicher Rechtsordnungen hinsichtlich des Rechts auf Achtung des Privatlebens sowie der in diesen Rechtsordnungen vorgesehenen unterschiedlichen Ansätze zur Bewältigung der Herausforderungen des „digitalen Zeitalters“ für dieses Recht dienen soll. In diesem Dokument wird dieses Thema in Bezug auf Deutschland behandelt, wobei die geltenden Rechtsvorschriften, die einschlägige ...

Die vorliegende Studie ist Teil eines weiter gefassten Projekts, das als Grundlage für den Vergleich der Regelungen unterschiedlicher Rechtsordnungen hinsichtlich des Rechts auf Achtung des Privatlebens sowie der in diesen Rechtsordnungen vorgesehenen unterschiedlichen Ansätze zur Bewältigung der Herausforderungen des „digitalen Zeitalters“ für dieses Recht dienen soll. In diesem Dokument wird dieses Thema in Bezug auf Deutschland behandelt, wobei die geltenden Rechtsvorschriften, die einschlägige Rechtsprechung und die Art des Rechts auf Achtung des Privatlebens untersucht sowie Schlussfolgerungen hinsichtlich der genannten Herausforderungen gezogen werden. Ein ausdrückliches Recht auf Achtung des Privat- und Familienlebens kennt das deutsche Recht ebenso wenig wie ein verfassungsrechtliches Datenschutzgrundrecht. Gleichwohl wird beides als spezifische Ausprägungen des allgemeinen Persönlichkeitsrechts gerade auch gegenüber Anfechtungen der zunehmenden Digitalisierung garantiert. Dieses Recht weist eine doppelte Schutzrichtung auf: einerseits als Abwehrrecht gegen den Staat vor allem in Gestalt informationeller Selbstbestimmung und andererseits als Achtungsanspruch gegenüber Privaten insbesondere in der digitalen Kommunikation.

Zunanji avtor

Diese Studie wurde von Prof Dr. Bettina Schöndorf-Haubold, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen verfasst, im Auftrag des Referats Bibliothek der Rechtsvergleichung in der Generaldirektion des wissenschaftlichen Dienstes des Europäischen Parlaments (GD EPRS), Generalsekretariat des Europäischen Parlaments.

Prihajajoči dogodki

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How to win Elections: Reflections on the use and misuse of technology in electoral campaigns
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STOA
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Comparative Law Forum - The right to respect for private life: Digital challenges
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EPRS
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European Cultural Heritage
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CULT

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