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Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP), Švica in severne države

01-05-2018

Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP) je bil ustanovljen leta 1994, da bi določbe EU o notranjem trgu razširili na države Evropskega združenja za prosto trgovino (EFTA). Norveška, Islandija in Lihtenštajn so članice EGP. Švica je članica združenja EFTA, vendar ni v EGP. EU in države partnerice EGP (Norveška in Islandija) so prav tako povezane s številnimi „severnimi politikami“ in forumi, ki se osredotočajo na hitro razvijajoča se severna območja Evrope in območje Arktike kot celoto.

Evropski gospodarski prostor (EGP) je bil ustanovljen leta 1994, da bi določbe EU o notranjem trgu razširili na države Evropskega združenja za prosto trgovino (EFTA). Norveška, Islandija in Lihtenštajn so članice EGP. Švica je članica združenja EFTA, vendar ni v EGP. EU in države partnerice EGP (Norveška in Islandija) so prav tako povezane s številnimi „severnimi politikami“ in forumi, ki se osredotočajo na hitro razvijajoča se severna območja Evrope in območje Arktike kot celoto.

Širitev Unije

01-02-2018

Julija 2013 je Hrvaška postala 28. država članica Evropske unije. Pristop Hrvaške, ki je sledil pristopu Romunije in Bolgarije 1. januarja 2007, je bil šesta širitev. Pogajanja potekajo s Črno goro, Srbijo in Turčijo. Kandidatki sta tudi Albanija in Republika Severna Makedonija, Bosna in Hercegovina ter Kosovo pa sta potencialni kandidatki.

Julija 2013 je Hrvaška postala 28. država članica Evropske unije. Pristop Hrvaške, ki je sledil pristopu Romunije in Bolgarije 1. januarja 2007, je bil šesta širitev. Pogajanja potekajo s Črno goro, Srbijo in Turčijo. Kandidatki sta tudi Albanija in Republika Severna Makedonija, Bosna in Hercegovina ter Kosovo pa sta potencialni kandidatki.

Russia and security [What Think Tanks are thinking]

07-07-2017

Relations between the European Union and Russia remain strained after, late in June, the EU extended its sanctions against the country until 31 January 2018, citing a lack of progress in the implementation of the Minsk agreements aimed at ending the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Russia's annexation of Crimea and its conflict with Ukraine have challenged the post-Cold War security order in Europe. Russia's other assertive foreign policy moves, such as its role in the Syrian war and steps to extend its ...

Relations between the European Union and Russia remain strained after, late in June, the EU extended its sanctions against the country until 31 January 2018, citing a lack of progress in the implementation of the Minsk agreements aimed at ending the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Russia's annexation of Crimea and its conflict with Ukraine have challenged the post-Cold War security order in Europe. Russia's other assertive foreign policy moves, such as its role in the Syrian war and steps to extend its sphere of influence in Europe, also worry many Western security analysts. This note offers links to commentaries, studies by major international think tanks, which discuss Russia's policies and how to respond to them.

Iceland ahead of the parliamentary elections

26-10-2016

The financial storm that swept Iceland in 2008 has had long-lasting effects on the country's domestic political climate. Despite the remarkably speedy economic recovery, the post-crash political crisis has continued to evolve. New, alternative political movements have mushroomed, and the anti-establishment Pirate Party is expecting a big boost in the 29 October snap elections.

The financial storm that swept Iceland in 2008 has had long-lasting effects on the country's domestic political climate. Despite the remarkably speedy economic recovery, the post-crash political crisis has continued to evolve. New, alternative political movements have mushroomed, and the anti-establishment Pirate Party is expecting a big boost in the 29 October snap elections.

EU Arctic Policy in Regional Context

06-07-2016

EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does ...

EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does not focus on security issues or on hydrocarbon development. Arctic oil and gas are not the primary keys to EU energy security, but do play a role, and are important for the EU’s two main suppliers, Norway and Russia – sustainable management of these resources is in the EU’s interest. While the region has been a model for cooperation – Arctic collaboration with Russia continues via multiple mechanisms, despite wider tensions. That it will remain so cannot be taken for granted. The EU supports peaceful Arctic cooperation via multiple mechanisms, including the Arctic Council, the Barents-Euro Arctic Council, and via multiple cross-border collaboration platforms. As the EU becomes increasingly engaged in Arctic issues, continued focus on policy coherence, engagement with other Arctic stakeholders, and the priorities of the region’s citizens will be essential.

Comparing EU and EFTA Trade Agreements: Drivers, Actors, Benefits, and Costs

30-05-2016

EFTA states have built up a network of 26 preferential trade agreements (PTAs) with 37 partners, compared to more than 120 trade agreements concluded by the EU with more than 45 partners. There are substantial differences between EU and EFTA PTAs in terms of scope and ambition. EFTA agreements still focus on traditional areas of market access, while the post-1990 EU agreements are more elaborate, values-driven, political and comprehensive. As a bloc, the EU has more leverage when it negotiates ...

EFTA states have built up a network of 26 preferential trade agreements (PTAs) with 37 partners, compared to more than 120 trade agreements concluded by the EU with more than 45 partners. There are substantial differences between EU and EFTA PTAs in terms of scope and ambition. EFTA agreements still focus on traditional areas of market access, while the post-1990 EU agreements are more elaborate, values-driven, political and comprehensive. As a bloc, the EU has more leverage when it negotiates around the world. The size of its market and its highly developed common policies mean that the EU can bring more to the negotiating table and has stronger tools to enforce its economic interests and political conditions compared to the smaller EFTA states whose political and economic cooperation is limited. Although the EFTA states do not form a customs union like the EU, they usually negotiate PTAs as a group, bringing their combined economic and political weight to bear. However, they retain the right to reach bilateral trade agreements with third countries outside the EFTA framework, such as Switzerland's PTAs with Japan and China, and Iceland's bilateral PTA with China. EFTA's small size nonetheless has some benefits. Since EFTA states are not so constrained by — often diverging — interests they can be more flexible in their negotiations. In some cases EFTA has concluded trade deals relatively quickly compared to the EU, but this has been at the expense of relatively shallow trade agreements.

Zunanji avtor

Andreas MAURER

Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol

29-05-2015

The European Parliament is asked to give its consent to the European Union's ratification of two climate-related agreements: the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol and an agreement between the EU and Iceland concerning the joint fulfilment of commitments under the Protocol. The Doha Amendment establishes a second commitment period (2013–20) for the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases.

The European Parliament is asked to give its consent to the European Union's ratification of two climate-related agreements: the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol and an agreement between the EU and Iceland concerning the joint fulfilment of commitments under the Protocol. The Doha Amendment establishes a second commitment period (2013–20) for the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases.

Best Practice in the Use of Rights-Based Management to Reduce Discards in Mixed Fisheries

14-03-2014

Rights-based fisheries management systems alter the incentives for discarding and harvesting selectivity compared to the alternatives. Nations that have adopted individual transferable quotas (ITQs) in their fisheries generally have comparatively low discard rates. This is partly due to the attributes of the ITQ system and partly due to clever methods adopted by these nations in order to reduce discards in their fisheries.

Rights-based fisheries management systems alter the incentives for discarding and harvesting selectivity compared to the alternatives. Nations that have adopted individual transferable quotas (ITQs) in their fisheries generally have comparatively low discard rates. This is partly due to the attributes of the ITQ system and partly due to clever methods adopted by these nations in order to reduce discards in their fisheries.

Zunanji avtor

Ragnar Arnason (Department of Economics University of Iceland, Iceland)

Iceland: On the Verge of Withdrawing its EU Accession Application?

07-03-2014

Iceland's application for EU membership, launched in the aftermath of the financial crisis, is today at a turning point. A new government, elected in April 2013, has presented the country’s parliament with a proposal to withdraw the accession application. While the move has triggered protests and petitions against the proposal, the government has also rejected a widely requested referendum on whether to pursue accession. The government’s position reflects two thorny issues in the bilateral relationship ...

Iceland's application for EU membership, launched in the aftermath of the financial crisis, is today at a turning point. A new government, elected in April 2013, has presented the country’s parliament with a proposal to withdraw the accession application. While the move has triggered protests and petitions against the proposal, the government has also rejected a widely requested referendum on whether to pursue accession. The government’s position reflects two thorny issues in the bilateral relationship: the 'mackerel war' – in which the EU has argued that Iceland has overfished the mackerel in Icelandic waters – and Iceland’s refusal to reimburse the British and Dutch depositors holding accounts with Icelandic banks before the banks collapsed. Iceland's position, which favoured domestic over foreign depositors, was backed in January 2013 by a decision issued by the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) court. The new government in Reykjavik may also be sensitive to more general concerns about EU membership and the adoption of the euro. The small Nordic country has largely recovered from its deep economic crisis, thanks to a devalued currency and a strong trade surplus – a turnaround made possible in part by the country's distance from the euro area.

Iceland: enlargement talks on hold

09-01-2014

In May 2013, Iceland's new coalition government put on hold the accession talks with the EU, opened in June 2010. It dissolved the country's EU Negotiation Committee and announced that an assessment of the negotiations would be submitted to the Parliament – the Althingi.

In May 2013, Iceland's new coalition government put on hold the accession talks with the EU, opened in June 2010. It dissolved the country's EU Negotiation Committee and announced that an assessment of the negotiations would be submitted to the Parliament – the Althingi.

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