16

rezultati

Beseda/besede
Vrsta publikacije
Politično področje
Avtor
Ključna beseda
Datum

Rail passengers' rights and obligations in the EU

27-05-2019

In 2007, the EU established a set of basic rights for rail passengers, which became applicable at the end of 2009. These rights provided for all passengers, including those with reduced mobility, a harmonised minimum level of protection, information and assistance. While the implementation of these rights has generally been smooth, recent reports have concluded that this is not done uniformly across the EU. Moreover, other shortcomings have prevented these rights from being used to their full potential ...

In 2007, the EU established a set of basic rights for rail passengers, which became applicable at the end of 2009. These rights provided for all passengers, including those with reduced mobility, a harmonised minimum level of protection, information and assistance. While the implementation of these rights has generally been smooth, recent reports have concluded that this is not done uniformly across the EU. Moreover, other shortcomings have prevented these rights from being used to their full potential. On 27 September 2017, the European Commission presented a new proposal to address these shortcomings and to strike a new balance between keeping rail operators competitive and providing adequate passenger protection. The EP's Committee on Transport and Tourism responsible for the file, adopted its report on 9 October 2018. The Parliament subsequently adopted its first-reading position by a large majority, in plenary on 15 November 2018. In Council, discussions have yet to reach a conclusion. Once the Council adopts its negotiating position, it will be possible to start trilogue negotiations in the new parliamentary term. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Artificial Intelligence and civil law; liability rules for drones

13-12-2018

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management ...

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management approach, the study elaborates recommendations for future policy formulation.

Zunanji avtor

Andrea Bertolini

Action for damages against the EU

07-12-2018

Most legal systems, both of states and of international organisations, provide for the liability of public administrations for damage done to individuals. This area of the law, known as 'public tort law', varies considerably from country to country, even within the European Union (EU). The EU Treaties have, from the outset, provided for liability of the EU for public torts (wrongs), in the form of action for damages against the EU, now codified in the second and third paragraphs of Article 340 of ...

Most legal systems, both of states and of international organisations, provide for the liability of public administrations for damage done to individuals. This area of the law, known as 'public tort law', varies considerably from country to country, even within the European Union (EU). The EU Treaties have, from the outset, provided for liability of the EU for public torts (wrongs), in the form of action for damages against the EU, now codified in the second and third paragraphs of Article 340 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However, these rules are notoriously vague and brief, and refer to the 'general principles common to the laws of the Member States' as the source for the rules of EU public tort law. Since the laws of the Member States on public torts differ significantly, the reference has been treated by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) as empowerment to develop EU public tort law in its own case law. The rules developed by the CJEU have been criticised by some academics as being very complex, non-transparent and unpredictable. Experts have also pointed out that the threshold of liability is set so high that actions for damages prove successful in very few cases only. According to the data available, from the establishment of the EU until 2014, the Court only actually granted compensation to applicants in 39 cases. As a result, some scholars have even pointed out that the principle of EU liability for public torts is 'illusory' and that action for damages is not an effective means of protecting fundamental rights. Other academics add that the question of establishing the principles of EU public tort law is not merely a technical issue, but a political one, as it touches upon fundamental questions of distributive justice and the form of government in the Union, and therefore should be the subject of democratic debate. This Briefing is one in a series aimed at explaining the activities of the CJEU.

Rail passengers' rights and obligations

12-01-2018

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 27 September 2017 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN). The proposal aims to amend Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 in order to strengthen the rights for all EU rail passengers, and to reduce the 'burden on railway undertakings due to the inconsistent application of the regulation' (IA, p. 9). The ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 27 September 2017 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN). The proposal aims to amend Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 in order to strengthen the rights for all EU rail passengers, and to reduce the 'burden on railway undertakings due to the inconsistent application of the regulation' (IA, p. 9). The proposal follows a Commission report (COM(2013) 587 final) on the application of the regulation, which 'highlighted certain problematic areas', and a second Commission report (COM(2015) 117 final) on exemptions granted by Member States, which 'identified the extensive use of exemptions as a major hindrance to the uniform application of the regulation' (explanatory memorandum of the proposal, p. 2). In addition, the proposal follows the ruling of the Court of Justice of the EU of 26 September 2013 in Case C-509/11, which is linked to the 'force majeure' issue described in the following section. The European Parliament has regularly taken a stand on passenger rights, by submitting written questions or by adopting resolutions.

TARGET (IM)BALANCES AT RECORD LEVEL: SHOULD WE WORRY?

16-11-2017

TARGET balances are the claims and liabilities of euro area national central banks (NCBs) with the ECB. TARGET balances add up to zero but the sum of the absolute value of these balances has grown substantially since 2008. The levels of TARGET balances within the Eurosystem has never been so high. In September 2017, Germany’s positive TARGET balance equalled €879 billion, which is over 25 percent of current German GDP. Luxembourg, Netherlands and Finland have also built up large claims relative to ...

TARGET balances are the claims and liabilities of euro area national central banks (NCBs) with the ECB. TARGET balances add up to zero but the sum of the absolute value of these balances has grown substantially since 2008. The levels of TARGET balances within the Eurosystem has never been so high. In September 2017, Germany’s positive TARGET balance equalled €879 billion, which is over 25 percent of current German GDP. Luxembourg, Netherlands and Finland have also built up large claims relative to their levels of GDP. On the other side, Italy (€432 billion) and Spain (€373 billion) have built up large negative balances. The ECB itself had a negative TARGET balance of €215 billion in September 2017.

Emergency Liquidity Assistance - Moving Away from “Constructive Ambiguity”?

02-03-2017

This briefing prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit gives an overview of the objectives and nature of emergency liquidity assistance that may be provided by central banks for banks facing sudden liquidity problems. It also provides a short description on how this is done by the European System of Central Banks inside the Banking Union and raises some questions on how this could evolve in the future.

This briefing prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit gives an overview of the objectives and nature of emergency liquidity assistance that may be provided by central banks for banks facing sudden liquidity problems. It also provides a short description on how this is done by the European System of Central Banks inside the Banking Union and raises some questions on how this could evolve in the future.

Research For TRAN Committee - The EU Maritime Transport System: Focus on Ferries

16-11-2016

This study provides a concise overview of passenger ferries as part of the EU Maritime Transport System, focussing on their role in contributing to multimodality. It outlines the ferry industry from a wide perspective, with analysis across spatial scales, from urban to long distance, and with respect to its implications within an economic context. Technological developments and innovations are addressed in view of applicable environmental Regulations.

This study provides a concise overview of passenger ferries as part of the EU Maritime Transport System, focussing on their role in contributing to multimodality. It outlines the ferry industry from a wide perspective, with analysis across spatial scales, from urban to long distance, and with respect to its implications within an economic context. Technological developments and innovations are addressed in view of applicable environmental Regulations.

Automated vehicles in the EU

07-01-2016

Automated vehicle technologies allow the transfer of driving functions from a human driver to a computer. Automation, and in particular digitalisation, of driving will change road transport in a way which is viewed as a revolution in the field of mobility. As human error is the main reason for road traffic accidents, driving which is automatically controlled by a computer is expected to make future road transport safer and more secure. It has also the potential to be more environmentally friendly ...

Automated vehicle technologies allow the transfer of driving functions from a human driver to a computer. Automation, and in particular digitalisation, of driving will change road transport in a way which is viewed as a revolution in the field of mobility. As human error is the main reason for road traffic accidents, driving which is automatically controlled by a computer is expected to make future road transport safer and more secure. It has also the potential to be more environmentally friendly, efficient and accessible. Worldwide, automobile manufacturers and technology firms are working on driving system innovation. Agreement by all stakeholders on the desired deployment of the new technologies will provide developers with the certainty they need for investments. For an effective communication between the technological and political spheres, categorisation and terminology are being developed which define different levels of vehicle automation. Motor vehicles are highly complex systems which need advanced technical and legal standards in terms of road safety requirements. The technical requirements as well as international traffic rules are agreed at United Nations level and are currently in the process of being assessed with a view to the increasing automation of vehicles. The European Union and its Member States participate in international working groups which are revising the regulations as prerequisites for the deployment of automated vehicles. Furthermore the European Union is funding research on automated road transport as a priority in the Horizon 2020 Transport Research programme. Some key elements of the discussions on political and technical aspects are the questions of how data protection and cyber security can be secured and liability issues can be solved.

Implementation and effects of the Third Maritime Safety Package: Ex-Post Impact Assessment

28-10-2015

Maritime safety remains high on the political agenda for the European Union, being the driving force behind the adoption of the three Maritime Safety Packages and including it as one of the main themes of the Parliament's recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018.This study provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the measures included in the Third Maritime Safety Package. It illustrates (through simplified intervention logic tables), the extent to which the anticipated ...

Maritime safety remains high on the political agenda for the European Union, being the driving force behind the adoption of the three Maritime Safety Packages and including it as one of the main themes of the Parliament's recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2018.This study provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the measures included in the Third Maritime Safety Package. It illustrates (through simplified intervention logic tables), the extent to which the anticipated effects have materialised and the challenges encountered during the first years of implementation.The report concludes that the majority of the anticipated short- and mid-term effects have materialised, while the assessment of the longer term effects led to a more cautious conclusion. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Zunanji avtor

Annex I of this Report has been prepared by Milieu Ltd., by Gijs Nolet, Lise Oulès, Valentina Mabilia and Nienke van der Burgt from Milieu Ltd at the request of the Ex-post Impact Assessment Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS) of the European Parliament. Feedback to the research paper has been provided by Prof. Henrik Ringbom, Prof. Eduard Somers, Jasmine Coppens and Sarah Fiona Gahlen.

Human rights applied to CSDP operations and missions

21-01-2014

The European Union must not only promote the observance of human rights by other international actors, but also respect them itself in the course of all its actions abroad. However, the applicability of international human rights instruments to EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) operations is problematic since the EU itself, as opposed to its Member States, is not party to these instruments.

The European Union must not only promote the observance of human rights by other international actors, but also respect them itself in the course of all its actions abroad. However, the applicability of international human rights instruments to EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) operations is problematic since the EU itself, as opposed to its Member States, is not party to these instruments.

Prihajajoči dogodki

01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
Drug dogodek -
EPRS

Partnerji

Ostanite povezani

email update imageObveščanje po elektronski pošti

Sistem opozarjanja prek e-pošte, ki na vaš elektronski naslov neposredno pošlje najnovejše informacije, vam omogoča, da sledite vsem osebam in dogodkom, povezanim s Parlamentom. Vključuje zadnje novice o poslancih, informativne storitve in Think Tank.

Sistem je dostopen kjer koli na spletišču Parlamenta. Za prijavo in prejemanje obvestil Think Tanka je dovolj, da sporočite svoj elektronski naslov, izberete temo, ki vas zanima, navedete pogostost (dnevno, tedensko ali mesečno) ter potrdite prijavo s klikom na povezavo, ki jo prejmete po e-pošti.

RSS imageRSS-novice

Ne zamudite nobene informacije ali posodobitve na spletišču Evropskega parlamenta z našim virom RSS.

Kliknite na spodnjo povezavo in nastavite svoj spletni vir.