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Zero tolerance for female genital mutilation

05-02-2019

The European Union is committed to working collectively to eradicate female genital mutilation (FGM) as part of broader efforts to combat all forms of violence against women and girls, and to support the efforts of its Member States in this field. The European Commission has undertaken to assess EU efforts to combat FGM every year, on or around the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation on 6 February. This publication is a further update of an 'at a glance' note originally ...

The European Union is committed to working collectively to eradicate female genital mutilation (FGM) as part of broader efforts to combat all forms of violence against women and girls, and to support the efforts of its Member States in this field. The European Commission has undertaken to assess EU efforts to combat FGM every year, on or around the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation on 6 February. This publication is a further update of an 'at a glance' note originally published in January 2015, PE 548.971.

Child labour: A priority for EU human rights action

15-01-2019

Despite a comprehensive normative international framework that prohibits child labour, it persists in many areas of the world, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan-Africa, it has even increased in recent years. More efforts are therefore needed to combat child labour. However, not all work performed by children is harmful to their health and development. The first task is therefore to distinguish child labour – which entails harmful forms of work – from other forms of children's involvement ...

Despite a comprehensive normative international framework that prohibits child labour, it persists in many areas of the world, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan-Africa, it has even increased in recent years. More efforts are therefore needed to combat child labour. However, not all work performed by children is harmful to their health and development. The first task is therefore to distinguish child labour – which entails harmful forms of work – from other forms of children's involvement with work that are acceptable and have an educational component. While international conventions provide a broad definition of child labour, they leave the task of defining more precise criteria, such as the acceptable number of working hours per week or what constitutes hazardous work, to national legislation. Child labour is a complex phenomenon that has a multiplicity of causes, among which poverty usually features first. It requires a comprehensive approach to fight it, including awareness-raising among families and local communities, due diligence by companies involved in global supply chains, and action by governments, international organisations and civil society. The European Union protects children's rights through both its internal and external policies. It has deployed measures to fight child labour through cooperation with international organisations and has funded development projects whose aim is to counter it. The human rights conditionality enshrined in the EU's trade arrangements provides another path for tackling child labour. Nevertheless, there are numerous calls from civil society and the European Parliament to impose binding legal obligations on EU-based companies, to make sure their imports of goods from developing countries are free of child labour.

Domestic Sexual Abuse of Girls

19-11-2018

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. The study provides a definition and conceptual model of domestic sexual abuse of girls, as well as analyses of prevalence and risk factors across the EU. It goes on to review policies and actions to address domestic sexual abuse of girls at the EU and Member State levels, and sets out case studies of four countries. It ends by providing recommendations ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. The study provides a definition and conceptual model of domestic sexual abuse of girls, as well as analyses of prevalence and risk factors across the EU. It goes on to review policies and actions to address domestic sexual abuse of girls at the EU and Member State levels, and sets out case studies of four countries. It ends by providing recommendations for Member States and EU institutions.

Zunanji avtor

Katie MCCRACKEN, Dr Ana FITZSIMONS, Sergio MARQUEZ, Małgorzata DRUCIAREK (Opcit Research), Prof Michelle LEFEVRE (University of Sussex)

Acquisition and loss of citizenship in EU Member States: Key trends and issues

09-07-2018

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although ...

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although the legal rules on the acquisition and loss of citizenship in the EU Member States remain fairly divergent, one can identify a number of key trends and issues. The need to integrate long-term immigrants has pushed EU countries to amend their citizenship laws. This often resulted in making citizenship both more liberal (lowering residence requirements and tolerating dual citizenship) and more restrictive (introducing integration clauses and citizenship tests). The surge in terrorist activities in the EU, which involve citizens, prompted several Member States to revise or reactivate citizenship provisions allowing for citizenship to be revoked. Concerns about immigrants' integration, allegiance and belonging, as well as about the cultural and economic consequences of regional integration and globalisation are at the heart of recent debates about citizenship in Europe. As the Maltese case of investor citizenship shows, the issue of access to citizenship is no longer a matter that concerns Member States alone. The bundling of national and EU citizenship means that Member States have a certain responsibility towards each other when taking decisions over who to accept (or reject) as citizens.

The return of foreign fighters to EU soil: Ex-post evaluation

15-05-2018

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to ...

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to the prevention of radicalisation; to information exchange at EU level; to criminal justice responses to returnees; to disengagement/deradicalisation inside and outside prisons. This study aims at outlining the EU response to the issue of returning foreign fighters and their families. It furthermore examines how six Member States have responded to this phenomenon so far (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK). These Member States are confronted with significant challenges in dealing with foreign fighters that combine legal, ethical and practical questions regarding their obligations and capabilities as regards the handling of the foreign fighters still abroad and the returnees already on EU soil. Meanwhile, Member States' existing programmes aiming at tackling radicalisation are difficult to evaluate, leading to uncertainties as regards the efficiency of current practices.

Zunanji avtor

The external study was written by Dr Francesco Ragazzi (Assistant Professor at Leiden University, the Netherlands) and Josh Walmsley (Independent Researcher) at the request of the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Research for CULT Committee - Child Safety Online: Definition of the Problem

07-02-2018

This briefing paper addresses the definition and scope of children’s online safety as a policy issue and process. The paper draws on evidence of risks that children may encounter in the course of their use of the Internet. This is one of three briefing papers requested by the CULT Committee to assist in its assessment of the requirements to ensure adequate support for protection of minors and children’s wellbeing in the digital age.

This briefing paper addresses the definition and scope of children’s online safety as a policy issue and process. The paper draws on evidence of risks that children may encounter in the course of their use of the Internet. This is one of three briefing papers requested by the CULT Committee to assist in its assessment of the requirements to ensure adequate support for protection of minors and children’s wellbeing in the digital age.

Zunanji avtor

Brian O’Neill

Research for CULT Committee - Recommendations for EU policy developments on the protection of minors in the digital age

07-02-2018

This briefing paper provides information, analysis and recommendations regarding future EU policy developments on the protection of minors in the digital age to support the CULT Committee’s deliberations. Focusing on developments since 2012, it identifies recent policy developments at EU level, evaluates existing EU initiatives and instruments, and recommends further action by the European Commission and other stakeholders.

This briefing paper provides information, analysis and recommendations regarding future EU policy developments on the protection of minors in the digital age to support the CULT Committee’s deliberations. Focusing on developments since 2012, it identifies recent policy developments at EU level, evaluates existing EU initiatives and instruments, and recommends further action by the European Commission and other stakeholders.

Zunanji avtor

London School of Economics and Political Science: Sonia Livingstone, Damian Tambini and Nikola Belakova

The situation of indigenous children with disabilities

18-12-2017

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote ...

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote their human rights. This study seeks to identify these gaps, point to certain patterns and recommend ways of improving data collection and the situation of ICwD in future.

Zunanji avtor

Isabel Inguanzo

United Nations Universal Children’s Day and the protection of children’s rights by the EU

16-11-2017

The United Nations established Universal Children’s Day in 1954. The UN adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child on 20 November 1959, and since 1990, the day has also marked the anniversary of the date that the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Though the European Union is not a party to the CRC, it is guided by the principles set out in the Convention, which has been ratified by all EU Member States, as well as by Article 3 ...

The United Nations established Universal Children’s Day in 1954. The UN adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child on 20 November 1959, and since 1990, the day has also marked the anniversary of the date that the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Though the European Union is not a party to the CRC, it is guided by the principles set out in the Convention, which has been ratified by all EU Member States, as well as by Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union, which explicitly calls for promoting the protection of the rights of the child. To this end, the EU has adopted guidelines on children’s rights, updated in 2017 in order to address new developments. Three innovative aspects stand out in the new guidelines: rights of unaccompanied and separated migrant children, digital rights of children, and the need for internal-external policy coherence for the rights of the child.

World Refugee Day: Focus on migrant children

19-06-2017

In December 2000, in a resolution to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the UN General Assembly designated 20 June as World Refugee Day. UN estimates place the global number of forcibly displaced persons at 65.3 million. Nearly 21.3 million of these persons are refugees, over half of them under the age of 18.

In December 2000, in a resolution to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the UN General Assembly designated 20 June as World Refugee Day. UN estimates place the global number of forcibly displaced persons at 65.3 million. Nearly 21.3 million of these persons are refugees, over half of them under the age of 18.

Prihajajoči dogodki

05-11-2019
The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
Drug dogodek -
EPRS
06-11-2019
Where next for Europe’s economy? The latest IMF European Regional Economic Outlook[.]
Drug dogodek -
EPRS
06-11-2019
EPRS Annual Lecture: Clash of Cultures: Transnational governance in post-war Europe
Drug dogodek -
EPRS

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