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Governance of the energy union

16-01-2019

The Commission proposed a regulation on governance of the energy union, as part of its Clean Energy package (30 November 2016). The proposal aims to simplify the process of monitoring progress and help to implement the goals of Energy Union, in particular the 2030 EU targets on renewables, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. National energy and climate plans are to be prepared for the 2021-2030 period, followed by progress reports. Both plans and reports will use binding templates, and ...

The Commission proposed a regulation on governance of the energy union, as part of its Clean Energy package (30 November 2016). The proposal aims to simplify the process of monitoring progress and help to implement the goals of Energy Union, in particular the 2030 EU targets on renewables, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. National energy and climate plans are to be prepared for the 2021-2030 period, followed by progress reports. Both plans and reports will use binding templates, and gain early input from the Commission. The proposed regulation envisages national and EU registries and inventories on greenhouse gas emissions for the post-2020 period, as a means to assess progress in meeting the goals of the Paris Climate Change Agreement. Trilogue negotiations started in February 2018 and concluded with a provisional agreement on 20 June 2018. The final text was formally adopted by Parliament (13 November 2018) and Council (4 December 2018). It was published in the Official Journal on 21 December 2018 and entered into force three days later. Fifth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia

27-04-2018

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘near abroad’ and to make its geopolitical influence felt further afield, including in Europe. It uses gas supplies to punish and to reward, affecting both transit states and end-consumers. This study explores how supply disruptions, price discounts or hikes, and alternative transit routes such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, are used by Russia to further its foreign policy ambitions, feeding suspicions about its geopolitical motives. The lack of transparency about Russia’s energy policy decisions contributes to this. In response, the EU is building an Energy Union based around the Third Energy Package, a more integrated European market and diversified supplies. By investing in new supplies, such as LNG, and completing a liberalised energy market, the EU will be better able to withstand such energy coercion and develop a more effective EU foreign policy.

Zunanji avtor

Rem Korteweg

Vseevropska omrežja – smernice

01-02-2018

Pogodba o delovanju Evropske unije (PDEU) je obdržala vseevropska omrežja v sektorjih prometa, energetike in telekomunikacij, ki so bila prvič omenjena v Maastrichtski pogodbi in katerih namen je povezati vse regije EU. Omrežja naj bi prispevala k rasti notranjega trga in zaposlovanja ter naj bi si prizadevala doseči okoljske cilje in cilje trajnostnega razvoja. Ob koncu leta 2013 je bila opravljena temeljna reforma vseevropskega prometnega omrežja.

Pogodba o delovanju Evropske unije (PDEU) je obdržala vseevropska omrežja v sektorjih prometa, energetike in telekomunikacij, ki so bila prvič omenjena v Maastrichtski pogodbi in katerih namen je povezati vse regije EU. Omrežja naj bi prispevala k rasti notranjega trga in zaposlovanja ter naj bi si prizadevala doseči okoljske cilje in cilje trajnostnega razvoja. Ob koncu leta 2013 je bila opravljena temeljna reforma vseevropskega prometnega omrežja.

Gazprom's controversial Nord Stream 2 pipeline

06-07-2017

In April 2017, European Energy Commissioner, Maroš Šefčovič, commented that no commercial project has ever been so intensely debated as the Nord Stream 2 pipeline. Opponents of the pipeline are above all worried about its geopolitical and energy security implications.

In April 2017, European Energy Commissioner, Maroš Šefčovič, commented that no commercial project has ever been so intensely debated as the Nord Stream 2 pipeline. Opponents of the pipeline are above all worried about its geopolitical and energy security implications.

Governance of the Energy Union

28-02-2017

Overall, the IA presents a comprehensive description and explanation of the problem, and options to resolve it by means of an EU-wide legislative action integrating planning, reporting and monitoring requirements of a range of existing legislation into a single regulation. The lack of quantitative evidence, and the fact that the economic, social and environmental impacts are not assessed to an equal degree, is perhaps understandable, given the nature of the action proposed, which is focused strictly ...

Overall, the IA presents a comprehensive description and explanation of the problem, and options to resolve it by means of an EU-wide legislative action integrating planning, reporting and monitoring requirements of a range of existing legislation into a single regulation. The lack of quantitative evidence, and the fact that the economic, social and environmental impacts are not assessed to an equal degree, is perhaps understandable, given the nature of the action proposed, which is focused strictly on governance aspects of the energy union, i.e. the obligations of Member States and the monitoring activities of the Commission.

What if animal farming were not so bad for the environment?

08-02-2017

What options exist, especially in terms of new technologies, for reducing the carbon footprint of the livestock industry, how effective might they be, and what could be done to encourage their implementation? The livestock industry is responsible for around 14.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude of this percentage is due to the emission of large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide, which both result in greater global warming than carbon dioxide per gram of gas released. The main ...

What options exist, especially in terms of new technologies, for reducing the carbon footprint of the livestock industry, how effective might they be, and what could be done to encourage their implementation? The livestock industry is responsible for around 14.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude of this percentage is due to the emission of large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide, which both result in greater global warming than carbon dioxide per gram of gas released. The main cause of livestock methane emissions is the digestive process in ruminants, such as cattle and sheep. In these animals, food is fermented, generating methane which is burped out. Nitrous oxide is generated through the application of fertilisers for animal feed production. This is also the case with crops grown for human consumption, but, as most of the energy stored in crops is lost when they are fed to animals, emissions due to fertilisers are much greater per calorie of animal produce than of plant produce. Both gases are produced by the storage of manure and its application as a fertiliser. In addition, carbon dioxide is emitted through burning fossil fuels for purposes such as fertiliser production, operation of farm machinery and transport of goods.

Perspectives on transatlantic cooperation: Energy and EU-US relations

02-12-2016

Energy as a subject of relations between the EU and the USA has been characterised by considerable synergy on security of supply issues, and efforts to enhance free trade in energy products and services, cooperate on geopolitical challenges and nuclear safety, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote renewable energy sources. The recent lifting of US export restrictions on crude oil and natural gas is likely to increase energy trade with the EU, and allow Member States to benefit from lower energy ...

Energy as a subject of relations between the EU and the USA has been characterised by considerable synergy on security of supply issues, and efforts to enhance free trade in energy products and services, cooperate on geopolitical challenges and nuclear safety, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote renewable energy sources. The recent lifting of US export restrictions on crude oil and natural gas is likely to increase energy trade with the EU, and allow Member States to benefit from lower energy prices and more diversified supply. Bilateral EU US cooperation on energy issues could be further enhanced, perhaps by building on the framework of the EU-US Energy Council. There is also potential for more systematic EU-US cooperation on energy research and new technologies. Greater coordination of EU and US positions in multilateral fora negotiating energy issues could help these organisations to achieve more ambitious goals, complementing a stronger EU-US bilateral relationship. This briefing continues a series which formed part of a broader research project on perspectives on transatlantic cooperation in the US election year, requested by the Chair of the European Parliament’s delegation for relations with the United States.

Towards an EU strategy for LNG and gas storage

19-10-2016

In February 2016 the European Commission published a communication on an 'EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage' as part of its sustainable energy security package. The Commission considers that improving the access of EU Member States to imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as developing more effective cross-border gas storage, would help to increase security of gas supply, reduce dependence on pipeline gas from a single supplier, and allow EU Member States to take advantage ...

In February 2016 the European Commission published a communication on an 'EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage' as part of its sustainable energy security package. The Commission considers that improving the access of EU Member States to imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as developing more effective cross-border gas storage, would help to increase security of gas supply, reduce dependence on pipeline gas from a single supplier, and allow EU Member States to take advantage of low global prices for LNG. In the October II plenary session the European Parliament is due to vote on an own-initiative resolution concerning this strategy document.

The quest for natural gas pipelines - EU and Eastern Partner energy policies: Security versus transit benefits

14-07-2016

The European Union has been increasing efforts to maintain gas supply security especially vis-à-vis its main gas supplier, Russia. In that context, Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, serving either as gas suppliers (Azerbaijan) or transit/corridor countries (all the others except Armenia), have an undeniable role for the EU. Security of gas supply depends on close EU cooperation with its EaP partners and interconnections between them. There have been some welcome developments, such as the Southern ...

The European Union has been increasing efforts to maintain gas supply security especially vis-à-vis its main gas supplier, Russia. In that context, Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, serving either as gas suppliers (Azerbaijan) or transit/corridor countries (all the others except Armenia), have an undeniable role for the EU. Security of gas supply depends on close EU cooperation with its EaP partners and interconnections between them. There have been some welcome developments, such as the Southern Gas Corridor that transports Caspian gas to the EU, which reflects the importance of the EaP partners and also contributes to EU energy security and the ambitious Energy Union project. On the other hand, a project aimed at doubling the capacity of the Nord Stream gas pipeline directly connecting Germany and Russia under the Baltic Sea has raised some criticism.

The EU’s Energy Diplomacy: Transatlantic and Foreign Policy Implications

16-06-2016

Energy security is increasingly occupying a top spot on the EU’s foreign policy agenda. The unconventional oil and gas revolution, OPEC’s supply response, increased global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) trade, persistent concerns about the reliability of Russian gas supplies and the need to expand low carbon energies such as renewables to address climate change pose opportunities and challenges to European energy security. The EU has upgraded the issue with its flagship Energy Union communication and ...

Energy security is increasingly occupying a top spot on the EU’s foreign policy agenda. The unconventional oil and gas revolution, OPEC’s supply response, increased global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) trade, persistent concerns about the reliability of Russian gas supplies and the need to expand low carbon energies such as renewables to address climate change pose opportunities and challenges to European energy security. The EU has upgraded the issue with its flagship Energy Union communication and its EU Energy Diplomacy Action Plan. The United States has developed into a major exporter of Natural Gas Liquids and refined petroleum products as a result of its unconventional oil and gas revolution. It might develop export capacities for LNG and continues to be a major coal exporter. The mutual energy trade could expand if the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) were concluded successfully. The United States is also a crucial partner of the EU for transport security and the protection of critical energy infrastructure. Against this backdrop, this study analyses opportunities and challenges of transatlantic energy cooperation in a changing global energy landscape.

Zunanji avtor

Eckart Woertz

Prihajajoči dogodki

01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
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