Main Characteristics of the European Union's Legal System
The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is based on its own sources of law. Given the varied nature of these sources, a hierarchy had to be established among them. Primary legislation is at the top of the hierarchy and is represented by the Treaties and general legal principles. This is followed by international agreements concluded by the Union, and secondary legislation, which is based on the Treaties.
Sources and hierarchy of EU law
- Treaty on European Union (TEU); Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU); Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union;
- international agreements;
- general principles of Union law;
- secondary legislation.
The Treaties and the general principles are at the top of the hierarchy, and are known as primary legislation. Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the same value was also given to the Charter of Fundamental Rights. International agreements concluded by the European Union are subordinate to primary legislation. Secondary legislation is the next level down in the hierarchy and is valid only if it is consistent with the acts and agreements which have precedence over it.
Creation of a legal order for the Union to achieve the objectives stipulated in the Treaties.
EU sources of law
a. Primary legislation of the European Union
b. Secondary legislation of the European Union
The legal acts of the Union are listed in Article 288 TFEU. They are regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. EU institutions may adopt legal acts of these kinds only if they are empowered to do so by the Treaties. The limits of Union competences are governed by the principle of conferral, which is enshrined in Article 5(1) TEU. The Treaty of Lisbon defines the scope of Union competences, dividing them into three categories: exclusive competences, shared competences and supporting competences, whereby the EU adopts measures to support or complement Member States’ policies. Articles 3, 4 and 6 TFEU list the areas that come under each category of Union competence. In the absence of the necessary powers to attain one of the objectives set out in the Treaties, the institutions may, in certain circumstances, apply the provisions of Article 352 TFEU.
The Lisbon Treaty simplified the EU legal system by reducing the number of Union legal acts. Effectively, following Lisbon, the Community method applies to all European policy areas, except for common foreign and security policy. Lisbon also did away with the legal instruments in the former ‘third pillar’. As a result, the institutions now adopt only those legal instruments listed in Article 288 TFEU. The only exceptions are the common foreign, security and defence policies, to which the intergovernmental method still applies. In this area, common strategies, common actions and common positions have been replaced by ‘general guidelines’ and ‘decisions defining’ actions to be undertaken and positions to be adopted by the Union, and the arrangements for the implementation of those decisions (Article 25 TEU).
There are, in addition, various forms of action, such as recommendations, communications and acts on the organisation and running of the institutions (including interinstitutional agreements), the designation, structure and legal effects of which stem from various provisions in the Treaties or the rules adopted pursuant to the Treaties. White papers, green papers and action programmes are also important, given that the Commission uses these documents to agree long-term objectives.
Hierarchy of EU secondary legislation
The Lisbon Treaty introduced a hierarchy among secondary legislation by drawing a clear distinction in Articles 289, 290 and 291 TFEU between legislative acts, delegated acts and implementing acts. Legislative acts are legal acts which are adopted through the ordinary or a special legislative procedure. Delegated acts for their part are non-legislative acts of general application which supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of a legislative act. The power to adopt these acts may be delegated to the Commission by the legislator (Parliament and the Council). The objectives, content, scope and duration of the delegation of power are defined in the legislative act, as are any urgent procedures, where applicable. In addition, the legislator lays down the conditions to which the delegation is subject, which may be the authority to revoke the delegation or the right to express an objection.
Implementing acts are generally adopted by the Commission, which is competent to do so in cases where uniform conditions for implementing legally binding acts are needed. Implementing acts are a matter for the Council only in specific cases which are duly justified and in areas of common foreign and security policy. Where a basic act is adopted under the ordinary legislative procedure, the European Parliament or the Council may at any time indicate to the Commission that, in its view, a draft implementing act goes beyond the implementing powers provided for in the basic act. In this case, the Commission must revise the draft act in question.
Types of EU secondary legislation
Regulations are of general application, binding in their entirety and directly applicable. They must be complied with fully by those to whom they apply (private persons, Member States, Union institutions). Regulations are directly applicable in all the Member States as soon as they enter into force (on the date stipulated or, failing this, on the twentieth day following their publication in the Official Journal of the European Union) and do not need to be transposed into national law.
They are designed to ensure the uniform application of Union law in all the Member States. Regulations supersede national laws incompatible with their substantive provisions.
Directives are binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon any or all of the Member States to whom they are addressed, but leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods. National legislators must adopt a transposing act or ‘national implementing measure’ to transpose directives and bring national law into line with their objectives. Individual citizens are given rights and bound by the legal act only once the transposing act has been adopted. Member States are given some discretion, in transposing directives, to take account of specific national circumstances. Transposition must be effected within the period laid down in the directive. In transposing directives, Member States guarantee the effectiveness of EU law, in accordance with the principle of sincere cooperation established in Article 4(3) TEU.
In principle, directives are not directly applicable. The Court of Justice of the European Union, however, has ruled that certain provisions of a directive may, exceptionally, have direct effects in a Member State even if the latter has not yet adopted a transposing act in cases where: (a) the directive has not been transposed into national law or has been transposed incorrectly; (b) the provisions of the directive are imperative and sufficiently clear and precise; and (c) the provisions of the directive confer rights on individuals.
If these conditions have been met, individuals may invoke the provision in question in their dealings with the public authorities. Even when the provision does not confer any rights on the individual, and only the first and second conditions have been met, Member State authorities are required to take account of the untransposed directive. This ruling is based chiefly on the principles of effectiveness, the prevention of Treaty violations and legal protection. On the other hand, an individual may not rely on the direct effect of an untransposed directive in dealings with other individuals (the ‘horizontal effect’; Faccini Dori Case C-91/92, ECR, p. I-3325 et seq., point 25).
According to the case-law of the Court (Francovich case, joined cases C-6/90 and C-9/90), an individual citizen is entitled to seek compensation from a Member State which is not complying with Union law. This is possible, in the case of a directive which has not been transposed or which has been transposed inadequately, where: (a) the directive is intended to confer rights on individuals; (b) the content of the rights can be identified on the basis of the provisions of the directive; and (c) there is a causal link between the breach of the obligation to transpose the directive and the loss and damage suffered by the injured parties. Fault on the part of the Member State does not then have to be demonstrated in order to establish liability.
Decisions, recommendations and opinions
Decisions are binding in their entirety. Where those to whom they are addressed are stipulated (Member States, natural or legal persons), they are binding only on them, and address situations specific to those Member States or persons. An individual may invoke the rights conferred by a decision addressed to a Member State only if that Member State has adopted a transposing act. Decisions may be directly applicable on the same basis as directives.
Recommendations and opinions do not confer any rights or obligations on those to whom they are addressed, but may provide guidance as to the interpretation and content of Union law.
Provisions on competences, procedures, implementation and enforcement of legal acts
a.Legislative competence, right of initiative and legislative procedures: 1.3.6, 1.3.8 and 1.4.1
b.Implementation of Union legislation
Under primary law, the EU has only limited powers of enforcement, as EU law is usually enforced by the Member States. Furthermore, Article 291(1) TFEU adds that Member States shall adopt all measures of national law necessary to implement legally binding Union acts. Where uniform conditions for implementing legally binding Union acts are needed, the Commission exercises its implementing powers (Article 291(2) TFEU).
c.Choice of type of legal act
In many cases, the Treaties lay down the type of legal act to be adopted. In many other cases, however, no type of legal act is specified. In these cases, Article 296(1) TFEU states that the institutions must select it on a case-by-case basis, ‘in compliance with the applicable procedures and with the principle of proportionality’.
d.General principles of Union law and fundamental rights
The Treaties make very few references to the general principles of Union law. These principles have mainly been developed in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (legal certainty, institutional balance, legitimate expectation, etc.), which is also the basis for the recognition of fundamental rights as general principles of Union law. These principles are now enshrined in Article 6(3) TEU, which refers to the fundamental rights as guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (1.1.6).
e.International agreements concluded by the European Union
The Union may, within its sphere of competence, conclude international agreements with third countries or international organisations (Article 216(1) TFEU). These agreements are binding on the Union and the Member States, and are an integral part of Union law.
The role of the European Parliament
Under Article 14(1) TEU: ‘The European Parliament shall, jointly with the Council, exercise legislative and budgetary functions’. The Lisbon Treaty gave Parliament significantly more legislative powers by extending the scope of the codecision procedure (under which Parliament has equal rights with the Council) to many more policy areas. Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, codecision is now known as the ‘ordinary legislative procedure’. Parliament is seeking to simplify the legislative process, improve the drafting quality of legal texts and ensure that more effective penalties are imposed on Member States that fail to comply with Union law.