European Union Anti-Discrimination Policy:
Annex 1 : Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission against racism and xenophobia, 11 June 1986 (OJ C 158, 25.6.1986)
Annex 2 : Resolution of the European Parliament on racism, xenophobia, and anti-semitism, 27 October 1994 (OJ C 323/154, 20.11.1994)
Annex 3 : Resolution of the European Parliament on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism, 26 October 1995 (OJ C 308/140, 20.11.0995)
Annex 4 : Joint Action adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union, concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia, 15 July 1996 (OJ L 185, 24.7.96)
Annex 5 : Resolution of the European Parliament on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism and the European Year against Racism (1977)[Ford G & Oostlander A], 30 January 1997 (OJ C 55/17, 24.2.97)
Annex 6 : Resolution on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism and the results of the European Year against Racism, 29 January 1998
Annex 7 : Equality Agencies in the Member States
Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission against racism and xenophobia, 11 June 1986 (OJ C 158, 25.6.1986)
The European Parliament, the Council, the Representatives of the Member States meeting within the Council, and the Commission,
Recognizing the existence and growth of xenophobic attitudes, movements and acts of violence in the Community which are often directed against immigrants;
Whereas the Community institutions attach prime importance to respect for fundamental rights, as solemnly proclaimed in the Joint Declaration of 5 April 1977, and to the principle of freedom of movement as laid down in the Treaty of Rome;
Whereas respect for human dignity and the elimination of forms of racial discrimination are part of the common cultural and legal heritage of all the Member States;
Mindful of the positive contribution which workers who have their origins in other Member States or in third countries have made, and can continue to make, to the development of the Member State in which they legally reside and of the resulting benefits for the Community as a whole;
1. vigorously condemn all forms of intolerance, hostility and use of force against persons or groups of persons on the grounds of racial, religious, cultural, social or national differences;
2. affirm their resolve to protect the individuality and dignity of every member of society and to reject any form of segregation of foreigners;
3. look upon it as indispensable that all necessary steps be taken to guarantee that this joint resolve is carried through;
4. are determined to pursue the endeavours already made to protect the individuality and dignity of every member of society and to reject any form of segregation of foreigners;
5. stress the importance of adequate and objective information and of making all citizens aware of the dangers of racism and xenophobia, and the need to ensure that all acts or forms of discrimination are prevented or curbed.
Racism and xenophobia
Resolution on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism
The European Parliament,
- having regard to the Joint Declaration of 11 June 1986 (1) by Parliament, the Council and the Commission and all the resolutions adopted subsequently on this subject,
- having regard to the conclusions of its committees of inquiry into racism and xenophobia (2) and its resolutions of 21 April 1993 (3) and 2 December 1993 (4) on racism and xenophobia and 20 April 1994 (5) on ethnic cleansing, and insisting again on its recommendations made therein,
- having regard to the conclusions of the Corfu European Council of 24-25 June 1994 on racism and xenophobia,
- having regard to Article 14 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950), which stipulates that 'the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in the Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion ..,
- having regard to Article F(2) of the Treaty on European Union,
A. whereas racism, xenophobia, anti-semitism and ethnic cleansing strategies and expulsions, which have caused great conflicts and suffering to various regions and nations of Europe throughout history, have left deep and lasting wounds and yet are still rampant as the 20th century draws to a close,
B. whereas people are more vulnerable to racism and xenophobia at times of revolution, misery and uncertainty in various fields, partly because of political manipulation,
C. whereas persistent structural unemployment is weakening resistance to racism and xenophobia, by causing a rise in economic problems and excluding tens of millions of people in the European Union from participating with any dignity in economic, social and political life,
D. concerned at the electoral success of racist parties in Europe, such as the FPÖ in Austria, the Front National in France, the British National Party in the United Kingdom, the Vlaams Blok and Front National in Belgium, and pleased at the fall in the share of the vote for the Republikaner and the DVU in the elections in the Federal Republic of Germany,
E. deploring the fact that certain political forces are using the existing crisis in employment and the economy to stir up xenophobic and racist sentiments and exploit them for electoral ends,
F. regarding the existence of multi-ethnic and multi-cultural societies as an expression of civilization and as offering support to the European ideal, and observing that a living culture is open to outside cultural influence and thus displays a spontaneous tendency towards mixing, which even determines the character and history of many States and peoples,
G. stressing that the significant progress made in establishing human rights legislation since 1945 has not been matched by practical achievements and that the Universal Declaration on Human Rights is clearly not yet backed up by the necessary political will to apply them universally,
H. stressing that even within the European Union, Member States differ in opinion on the implementation of human rights when individual and group rights are at stake as they have different constitutions and laws based upon these constitutions,
I. deeply regretting that, on the one hand, in spite of its commitment over five years to the fight against racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination, its demands have scarcely been heeded by political decision-makers, and, on the other hand, the incidence of racism has if anything increased,
1. Condemns once more, in even stronger terms, racism in all its forms, xenophobia, antisemitism, flagrant breaches of individual rights directed specifically at women, and the intolerance in any form of religious discrimination;
2. Calls on all the governments of the European Union to condemn any form of intolerance and any racist or xenophobic declaration in their policy and their acts, especially where such attitudes are manifested institutionally;
3. Considers the Consultative Committee a good opportunity to present a reasoned selection of proposals for concrete and urgent action, which can be considered as a draft response by the Council on all the proposals already made by the European Parliament and the Council of Europe, and interprets the committee's mandate accordingly;
4. Considers that incitement to racism, as well as the dissemination and promotion of any type of revisionist thesis concerning the Holocaust or denial that the Holocaust took place, should be considered a criminal offence at Union level and calls on all the Member States accordingly to adapt their legislation against the perpetrators of acts of racism;
5. Notes with concern the increasing sympathy with which the positions of extreme right-wing movements and political parties are being received in several Member States of the Union and a candidate country;
6. Calls on the governments of the Member States and the Commission to give political and financial support to citizens' movements and organizations which play an active part in combating racism and xenophobia;
7. Calls for the implementation of a global non-discrimination policy at Union level which is based on the principle of equality and may function as a useful and effective complement to the policy of and within the Member States;
8. Calls on the Member States to take firm preventive action against racism and ill-treatment by police and other state agents, and to ensure that racist behaviour by law enforcement personnel will not be tolerated, by introducing pre-employment screening, training and when necessary formal disciplinary measures among the police force;
9. Repeats once more its request to the Commission to draw up as a matter of urgency a directive laying down measures to reinforce the relevant legal instruments in the Member States, using the document 'The Starting Line' as a basis and taking account of Parliament's guidelines for antiracist policy, in particular in the areas of: education, the media, information, culture, youth, citizens' rights, women's rights, the law, social affairs, economic affairs and employment, and immigration and asylum policy;
10. Calls on the budgetary authority to increase the financial aid allocated to anti-racist projects and to finance NGOs whose objectives include a clearly anti-racist dimension;
11. Expresses its grave concern at the particularly restrictive nature of the resolution on immigration adopted by the Ministers of Justice and Home Affairs on 20 June 1994, a resolution which draws a link between the level of unemployment in the European Union and the presence of third country nationals, a decision which can only encourage xenophobic feelings and extreme right-wing movements in the EU;
12. Calls once more for the portfolio of one of the Commissioners to include the fight against racial discrimination and xenophobia and any question of discrimination in general; stresses in this context that extending Union citizenship to citizens of third countries with their residence in the Union is a major step towards granting them equal rights and represents a significant contribution towards the fight against racism, and calls on the Member States to take this into account when they review the Treaty on European Union;
13. Calls on the Council, in close cooperation with the Commission and Parliament, to use the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War to launch concrete actions, especially in the areas of education and information, with a view to promoting the values of freedom, pluralist democracy, tolerance and respect for human rights which have been fundamental to the struggle for the liberation of Europe from Nazi domination and to the philosophy which inspired the founding fathers of the construction of Europe;
14. Calls on the Commission to urge the Member States of the Union to contribute, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and active members of society, in particular youth organizations which play an important role in the fight against racism and xenophobia, to making public opinion more aware and to preventing racist, discriminatory and intolerant attitudes;
15. Believes that, as stated in the 'Strasbourg declaration' (the outcome of the European Conference on 'Vigilance for Democracy' held in Strasbourg on 20 and 21 October 1994), it is very important to establish an annual prize for integration, which could be awarded to neighbourhoods, organizations or institutions which are a positive example of the successful integration of native and foreign citizens;
16. Emphasizes that immigration policy and asylum policy require different solutions, as asylum is not the same as immigration;
17. Calls on the authorities of the European Union and the Member State governments to increase aid to refugee and immigrant associations and associations set up to combat racism and xenophobia;
18. Instructs its President to forward this resolution not only to the Consultative Committee on Racism and Xenophobia but also to the Council, the Commission, the Economic and Social Committee, the Council of Europe and the governments and parliaments of the Member States and applicant countries.
Racism and xenophobia
Resolution on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism
The European Parliament,
- having regard to the Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council, the representatives of the governments of the Member States meeting within the Council and the Commission against racism and xenophobia of 11 June 1986 (6), and all the resolutions adopted subsequently on this subject,
- having regard to the conclusions of its committees of inquiry into racism and xenophobia (7) and its resolutions of 21 April 1993 (8) on the resurgence of racism and xenophobia in Europe and the danger of right-wing extremist violence, 2 December 1993 (9) on racism and xenophobia, 20 April 1994 (10) on ethnic cleansing, 27 October 1994 (11) and 27 April 1995 (12) on racism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia, and 15 June 1995 (13) on a Holocaust Memorial Day, and insisting again on the recommendations made therein,
- having regard to the conclusions on racism and xenophobia of the Corfu European Council of 24-25 June 1994 and of the Cannes European Council of 25-26 June 1995,
- having regard to Article 14 of the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which stipulates that 'the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in the Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion... ',
- having regard to Article F (2) of the Treaty on European Union,
- having regard to the final report of the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia as submitted to the European Council in Cannes in June 1995,
A. whereas the existence of multi-ethnic and multi-cultural societies is in line with the ideals of the European Union and whereas successful measures against intolerance, discrimination and violence caused by racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are essential if the goal of a closer union among the peoples of Europe is to be achieved,
B. whereas, at the same time, racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and ethnic cleansing strategies and expulsions represent the dark side of European history, have left deep and lasting wounds and still persist in many places on our continent,
C. whereas racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism must be met with a package of suitable practical measures, above all where these would be most effective and have most impact, i.e. at local and national level,
D. whereas there is nevertheless a fundamentally European dimension, based on free movement of persons and the fact that differences in legislation mean that behaviour or actions which are not permitted in one Member State can still reach that Member State from across the border of another Member State or from across the external borders of the Community,
E. whereas the Commission has used the Treaty to take measures in the social field to combat racist phenomena and to strive for non-discrimination, and whereas in this respect further measures are contained in the Social Action Programme for the medium term (1995-1997),
F. whereas some citizens of the Union continue to suffer racist, xenophobic and anti-Semitic attacks in their daily lives, in particular when exercising their right to freedom of movement,
1. Welcomes the final report of the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia as an important document to form the basis for the forthcoming work within the Union and its Member States to curb racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism;
2. Regrets that the European Council in Cannes displayed a political unwillingness to adopt an overall strategy against racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism;
3. Urges the Council under the Spanish presidency, which has assumed a positive attitude towards the conclusions in the Commission report, to ensure that the Consultative Commission's work is fully utilized;
4. Calls as a matter of urgency on the Spanish Presidency of the Council to do everything in its power to conclude, in time for the next meeting of the Justice and Home Affairs Council on 23 November 1995, the discussion on the draft joint action by the Member States on measures to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, an action which should include a requirement concerning conduct by the Member States;
5. Welcomes the progress report from the Chairman of the Reflection Group on the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference which stresses the need to ensure full observance of fundamental rights in the Union, and supports the idea of incorporating provisions concerning the following issues into the EU Treaty:
(a) condemnation of racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism and
(b) extension of Article 6 (hitherto of the EC Treaty) to prohibit all forms of discrimination;
6. Calls once more upon the Commission to submit a proposal for an anti-discrimination directive as a matter of urgency;
7. Calls on the Council to send a clear political signal regarding its commitment to the fight against racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism by complying with the decisions of the European Parliament under the 1996 budgetary procedure which seek to give financial support to measures designed to implement a global policy of non-discrimination at Union level;
8. Calls on the governments of the Member States to:
- ratify all international instruments concerning the fight against all forms of racial discrimination,
- guarantee the protection of persons against any form of discrimination on grounds of race, colour, religion or national or ethnic origin,
- promote equal opportunities for groups of persons who are most vulnerable to discrimination, particularly women, young people and children;
9. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to promote research and production of educational material and the arranging of international courses, 'round table' discussions, youth exchanges, exhibitions, media campaigns etc. on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism;
10. Calls for special training programmes for public servants and especially the police and judiciary in order to promote tolerance and understanding of different cultures and to prevent discriminatory behaviour;
11. Calls on the European Ombudsman to submit an annual report on the complaints of Union citizens and to give special attention to incidents with a racist, anti-Semitic or xenophobic background;
12. Is of the opinion that incitement to racism and the production and distribution of and support for racist, xenophobic and anti-Semitic material and theses as well as any revisionist claims denying the reality of the Holocaust should be treated as criminal offences throughout the European Union and therefore requests all the Member States to adapt their legislation accordingly;
13. Calls on the Council, the Commission and the governments of the Member States to strengthen their support for movements actively participating in the fight against racism and xenophobia;
14. Suggests that the Council transfer the mandate of the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia to the Community institutions in order to ensure adequate co-ordination of the work of the controlling parliamentary body and of the Commission in combating racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism;
15. Considers, however, that this should not occur until the Consultative Commission has completed its current work programme with regard to the establishment of an EU Observatory on Racism and Xenophobia;
16. Urges the Consultative Commission to reiterate its demand for a Treaty change in 1996 to include unambiguously therein the fight against racism and xenophobia;
17. Strongly supports the idea that any EU Observatory on Racism and Xenophobia should be an institution of the EU, that would cooperate with the Council of Europe and be active in combating racism on the basis of its work;
18. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia, the Council, the Commission, the Economic and Social Committee, the Council of Europe and the governments and parliaments of the Member States and applicant countries.
of 15 July 1996
adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union, concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia
THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to Article K.3 (2) (b) of the Treaty on European Union,
Having regard to the initiative from the Kingdom of Spain,
Whereas the Member States regard the adoption of rules in connection with action to combat racism and xenophobia as a matter of common interest, in accordance with Article K.1 (7) of the Treaty in particular;
Whereas regard should be had to the conclusions on racism and xenophobia adopted by the European Council in Corfu on 24 and 25 June 1994, in Essen on 9 and 10 December 1994, in Cannes on 26 and 27 June 1995 and in Madrid on 15 and 16 December 1995;
Whereas the Consultative Commission on Racism and Xenophobia, established by the Corfu European Council, adopted recommendations;
Whereas, despite the efforts made over recent years by the Member States, racism and xenophobia offences are still on the increase;
Concerned at the differences between some criminal law systems regarding the punishment of specific types of racist and xenophobic behaviour, which constitute barriers to international judicial cooperation;
Acknowledging that international cooperation by all States, including those which are not affected at domestic level by the problem of racism and xenophobia, is necessary to prevent the perpetrators of such offences from exploiting the fact that racist and xenophobic activities are classified differently in different States by moving from one country to another in order to escape criminal proceedings or avoid serving sentences and thus pursue their activities with impunity;
Emphasizing that the right to freedom of expression implies duties and responsibilities, including respect for the rights of others, as laid down in Article 19 of the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966;
Determined, in keeping with their common humanitarian tradition, to guarantee that, above all, Articles 10 and 11 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950 are complied with;
Wishing to build upon the work begun within the framework of Title VI of the Treaty during 1994 concerning the criminal aspects of the fight against racism and xenophobia,
HAS ADOPTED THIS JOINT ACTION:
A. In the interests of combating racism and xenophobia, each Member State shall undertake, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Title II, to ensure effective judicial cooperation in respect of offences based on the following types of behaviour, and, if necessary for the purposes of that cooperation, either to take steps to see that such behaviour is punishable as a criminal offence or, failing that, and pending the adoption of any necessary provisions, to derogate from the principle of double criminality for such behaviour:
(a) public incitement to discrimination, violence or racial hatred in respect of a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to colour, race, religion or national or ethnic origin;
(b) public condoning, for a racist or xenophobic purpose, of crimes against humanity and human rights violations;
(c) public denial of the crimes defined in Article 6 of the Charter of the International Military Tribunal appended to the London Agreement of 8 April 1945 insofar as it includes behaviour which is contemptuous of, or degrading to, a group of persons defined by reference to colour, race, religion or national or ethnic origin;
(d) public dissemination or distribution of tracts, pictures or other material containing expressions of racism and xenophobia;
(e) participation in the activities of groups, organizations or associations, which involve discrimination, violence, or racial, ethnic or religious hatred.
B. In the case of investigations into, and/or proceedings against, offences based on the types of behaviour listed in paragraph A, each Member State shall, in accordance with Title II, improve judicial cooperation in the following areas and take appropriate measures for:
(a) seizure and confiscation of tracts, pictures or other material containing expressions of racism and xenophobia intended for public dissemination, where such material is offered to the public in the territory of a Member State;
(b) acknowledgement that the types of behaviour listed in paragraph A should not be regarded as political offences justifying refusal to comply with requests for mutual legal assistance;
(c) providing information to another Member State to enable that Member State to initiate, in accordance with its law, legal proceedings or proceedings for confiscation in cases where it appears that tracts, pictures or other material containing expressions of racism and xenophobia are being stored in a Member State for the purposes of distribution or dissemination in another Member State;
(d) the establishment of contact points in the Member States which would be responsible for collecting and exchanging any information which might be useful for investigations and proceedings against offences based on the types of behaviour listed in paragraph A.
C. Nothing in this Joint Action may be interpreted as affecting any obligations which Member States may have under the international instruments listed below. Member States shall implement this Joint Action consistently with such obligations and will refer to the definitions and principles contained in such instruments when so doing:
- the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950,
- the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951, as amended by the New York Protocol of 31 January 1967,
- the United Nations Convention on Genocide of 9 December 1948,
- the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 7 March 1966,
- the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Protocols I and II of 12 December 1977 to those Conventions,
- Resolutions 827(93) and 955(94) of the United Nations Security Council,
- Council Resolution of 23 November 1995 on the protection of witnesses in the fight against international organized crime (1), in cases of criminal proceedings for the types of behaviour listed in paragraph A, if witnesses have been summoned in another Member State.
Each Member State shall bring forward appropriate proposals to implement this Joint Action for consideration by the competent authorities with a view to their adoption. The Council will assess the fulfilment by Member States of their obligations under this Joint Action, taking into account the declarations annexed to it, by the end of June 1998. This Joint Action and the annexed declarations, which are approved by the Council and are without prejudice to the application of this Joint Action by Member States other than those whom these declarations concern, will be published in the Official Journal.
Done at Brussels, 15 July 1996.
For the Council
(1) OJ No C 327, 7. 12. 1995, p. 5.
DECLARATIONS REFERRED TO IN TITLE II
1. Declaration by the Greek delegation re Title I.B (b):
'Greece interprets Title I.B (b) in the light of those provisions of its Constitution which prohibit any action being taken against persons facing prosecution on political grounds.`
2. Declaration by the French delegation re Title I.C, fifth indent:
'France points out that Additional Protocol I of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 cannot be invoked against it, in that France has neither ratified nor signed that instrument and that it cannot be taken as a translation of international customary law applicable in armed conflicts.`
3. Declaration by the United Kingdom delegation re Title I:
'The United Kingdom delegation declares that for the purposes of the application of the Joint Action by the United Kingdom, and taking into account the provisions and general principles of United Kingdom criminal law, the United Kingdom will apply Title I, paragraph A, points (a) to (e) and references thereto where the relevant behaviour is threatening, abusive or insulting and is carried out with the intention of stirring up racial hatred or is likely to do so.
This would include, in accordance with Title I.B and Title II, enabling the relevant United Kingdom authorities in this context to search for and seize tracts, pictures or other material in the UK which is intended for dissemination in another Member State and which is likely to incite racial hatred there.
If problems arise from the application of this declaration, the UK will consult with the Member State concerned with a view to overcoming the problems raised.`
4. Declaration by the Danish delegation re Title I:
'The Danish delegation declares that for the purposes of the application of the Joint Action by Denmark, and taking into account the provisions and general principles of Danish criminal law, Denmark will apply Title I, paragraph A, points (a) to (e) and references thereto only where the relevant behaviour is threatening, insulting or degrading.`
Racism and xenophobia
Resolution on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism and the European Year against Racism (1997)
The European Parliament,
- having regard to Article 14 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) which states that 'the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status',
- having regard to Article 19 on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted within the framework of the United Nations which states that the exercise of the right of freedom of expression carries with it special duties and responsibilities, including respect for the rights of others,
- having regard to the 1966 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
- having regard to Article F.2. of the Treaty on European Union which states that 'the Union shall respect fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms... and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, as general principles of Community law',
- having regard to the joint declaration against racism and xenophobia (14) of the European Union, the Council, the representatives of the Member States meeting within the Council, and the Commission of 11 June 1986 and all the resolutions adopted on this subject,
- having regard to the conclusions of its Committee of Inquiry into Racism and Xenophobia (A2-160/85 and A3-0195/90) and having regard to its resolutions of 21 April 1993 on the resurgence of racism and xenophobia in Europe and the danger of right-wing extremism (15), of 2 December 1993 on racism and xenophobia (16) of 20 April 1994 on ethnic 'cleansing' (17), of 21 April 1994 on the situation of gypsies in the Community (18), of 27 October 1994 (19) and of 27 April 1995 (20) on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism, of 15 June 1995 on a day to commemorate the Holocaust (21), of 13 July 1995 on discrimination against the Roma (22), of 26 October 1995 on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism (23)and of 9 May 1996 on the Commission's communication on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism (24) and in particular the recommendations contained therein,
- having regard to the conclusions adopted by the European Council at its meetings in Corfu (24-25 June 1994), Essen (9-10 December 1994), Cannes (25-26 June 1995), Madrid (15-16 December 1995), Florence (21-22 June 1996) and Dublin (13-14 December 1996) on the subject of racism and xenophobia,
- having regard to the resolutions of the Council and the representatives of the governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 5 October 1995 on combating racism and xenophobia in the field of employment and the social field (25) and of 23 July 1996 on the European Year against Racism (1997) (26) and the Joint Action of 15 July 1996 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union, concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia (27),
- having regard to the reports of the Consultative Committee on Racism and Xenophobia (the Kahn Committee) drawn up for the meetings of the European Council in Essen, Cannes, Madrid and Florence, and the feasibility study submitted by the consultative committee with a view to establishing a European observatory for racism and xenophobia (May 1996),
A. whereas one of the main raisons d'être of the European Union is to prevent racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism,
B. whereas 1997 has been designated European Year Against Racism by the European Union, and the Commission has begun planning activities for this year,
C. whereas the United Nations designated 1995 International Year of Tolerance and the Council of Europe launched a European youth campaign against racism, xenophobia, anti-semitism and intolerance, under the slogan 'All different all equal',
D. whereas despite the efforts taken over the last few years by the European Union, its Member States, the Council of Europe and the United Nations, racist and xenophobic attitudes continue to prevail within the European Union, and many citizens of the Union are still subjected in their daily lives to racist, xenophobic and anti-semitic attacks and insults, many of which result in death or permanent injury,
E. whereas this terrible situation is set to deteriorate further owing to the resurgence of egotistical attitudes and the loss of community values and principles,
F. whereas owing to its role in shaping awareness and in nurturing a sense of social responsibility, education plays an important role in combating racism,
G. whereas the situation is such that individual governments have based their foreign policies quite clearly on ethnic considerations,
H. whereas the European Union should itself set a convincing example in combating racism, by carefully scrutinizing its own policies to see whether they contain racist, xenophobic or ethnic tendencies, but above all by promoting initiatives aimed at mutual knowledge and understanding,
I. whereas the economic problems facing the Member States are being exploited by irresponsible politicians and opinion-shapers to fan racism and xenophobia,
J. whereas in the last few decades integration policy in the Member States has been insufficient and ineffective, to the detriment of tolerance, harmony and cooperation in society,
K. whereas the institutions of the European Union and the relevant authorities of the Member States should adopt appropriate and effective practical measures, particularly at local, regional and national level, and coordinate them with other institutions and government authorities,
L. whereas organizations which are independent of government control, such as trade unions, employers' associations, the media, schools and churches have played a key role in combating racism,
M. whereas racism cannot be successfully combated by a political debate alone; whereas what is needed is a comprehensive debate encompassing all reaches of society and the active participation of civil society,
N. whereas it is very important in this connection that representatives of institutions and bodies engaged in combating racism and xenophobia should pool their experience regarding the measures already taken to combat intolerance, discrimination and violence, especially if solidarity within the Community is to be further developed and a close union is to be established between the peoples of Europe,
O. whereas the Union should insist that the candidate countries for accession attach the greatest possible importance to protecting minorities on their sovereign territory, bearing in mind that this is a key criterion for accession to the European Union,
P. whereas in its 1997 Budget the European Parliament set aside resources for measures to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism and for the successful organization of a European Year Against Racism (1997),
Q. whereas the purpose of the European Year Against Racism (1997), is to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism in the long term and to promote the European Idea, namely that harmonious societies characterized by ethnic and cultural diversity are an expression of civilization and that the diversity of the various cultures and traditions constitutes a positive and enriching factor,
R. whereas the consultative committee on racism and xenophobia (the Kahn committee) has demanded the immediate establishment of a European observatory for racism and xenophobia,
S. whereas the Intergovernmental Conference is urged to review the Treaties to see if they contain racist, xenophobic or anti-semitic elements,
1. Welcomes the European Union's official designation of 1997 as 'European Year Against Racism' and hopes that this year will provide an opportunity to combat racism and xenophobia more effectively through the establishment of a European action framework;
2. Wishes, nevertheless, that the funding of the European Year Against Racism should not be carried out at the expense of the initiatives so far supported by the Commission;
3. Condemns in the strongest terms all kinds of racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism as flagrant violations of individual rights and as an expression of intolerance and calls on the governments of the Member States to ensure that foreign communities are protected against racist violence and any form of discrimination;
4. Condemns political leaders who stir up racism and xenophobia for electoral reasons, and expects political parties to remove any kind of racist propaganda from their election programmes;
5. Condemns vehemently any racist statement or publication in the European Parliament;
6. Expresses its profound compassion with the families of those who have died following racist or xenophobic attacks and with persons injured in such attacks;
7. Expresses its regret at racist and xenophobic statements by politicians and parties at national and at European level, and points out that such statements only exacerbate the problem of racism within the Union; distances itself from such politicians and their views and calls on all democratic parties to use all democratic means to ostracize racist movements and groups;
8. Would like to see a further increase in public awareness of the dangers of racism and xenophobia, since these attitudes are diametrically opposed to all the values embodied in Europe, namely the protection of human dignity and the promotion of mutual respect, understanding and solidarity between peoples;
9. Expresses its high regard for the various initiatives launched by the Commission in this sphere, and calls for a reinforcement of the legal instruments, in accordance with its declared desire for measures to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism in all areas;
10. Draws attention to the vital role the media should be playing in denouncing racism and intolerance and promoting tolerance and solidarity, in particular by pointing out the positive contribution which immigrants are making to European society;
11. Considers that the notion of race has no scientific, genetic or anthropological basis, and that this concept can therefore only serve to underpin ethnic, national and cultural discrimination or discrimination linked to colour, since it is based on the erroneous idea that there are separate 'races' which are hierarchically structured;
12. Urges the Council and the Member States to square their immigration and asylum policy with the objectives of European Year Against Racism; takes the view that many of the recent decisions by the Council and the Member States in the field of immigration and asylum policy have contributed towards exacerbating the climate of suspicion towards nationals of third countries and applicants for asylum;
13. Calls on the Member States and the European Union to develop their asylum and immigration policy in close connection with an adequate integration policy in order to avoid inter-ethnic tensions and to promote mutual acceptance;
14. Notes the intention to incorporate in the Treaty measures to prevent and combat racism and xenophobia as a field of activity of Community significance within the framework of the Intergovernmental Conference; remarks however that, within the framework of the first pillar, the European Union should be given responsibility for the development of measures against racism and xenophobia, so that the Commission is given the right to initiate measures, the Council decides by majority voting and the European Parliament acquires powers of co-decision, in order that, within the framework of the first pillar, an anti-discrimination directive can be drawn up as soon as possible; calls once more for binding legal instruments to combat racism and xenophobia at European level;
15. Looks to the Member States to make intensive efforts to honour their commitments on the basis of the above Joint Action of 15 July 1996 concerning measures to combat racism and xenophobia and to implement the recommendations set out in the various resolutions in question;
16. Calls on the Member States to take initiatives on the basis of Article K.1(7) of the TEU in order effectively to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, and the dissemination of negationist theories, by introducing or strengthening penalties and improving the opportunities for prosecution;
17. Calls for non-Community immigrants to enjoy equal treatment with regard to economic and social rights, and the recognition of civic, cultural and political rights, including the right to vote in local elections, for those who have been resident in a Member State for more than five years, in accordance with the Council of Europe convention;
18. Regrets the delays and postponements between the adoption and implementation of legislation, as listed in a comparative study carried out at the behest of the Council of Europe on national legal provisions against racism and xenophobia - in particular in view of the 1966 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and reminds the Member States of their obligation to implement the Convention in its entirety in national legal provisions;
19. Expresses its satisfaction at the proposal to include an anti-discrimination article in the Treaty, but is opposed to the unanimity needed to introduce measures at European level; urges that the Commission should receive the right of initiative in this field, that the Council should decide by majority voting and that the European Parliament should acquire co-decision rights;
20. Calls on the Council to submit to the European Parliament a report setting out which practical measures and strategies it has so far developed with a view to implementing the recommendations contained in the final report of the consultative committee on racism and xenophobia (the Kahn committee), in particular as regards the fields of education, training, the media and information policy,
21. Urges the Council, under the Dutch Presidency, which has adopted a positive attitude towards the conclusions of the report of the consultative committee, to ensure that full use is made of the committee's work;
22. Supports the establishment of a European observatory for racism and xenophobia which will act as the centre of a network of existing organizations and promote the research of these independent organizations, while at the same time ensuring that the duplication of work can be avoided;
23. Welcomes the decision unanimously adopted by the General Affairs Council of 6 December 1996 to set up the observatory for racism and xenophobia (RAXEN) as rapidly as possible; welcomes the fact that the Commission has submitted a proposal in this connection; intends to deliver its opinion on this proposal as soon as possible, and calls on the Council thereafter to make a rapid decision on this matter in accordance with the wishes expressed by Parliament;
24. Expects the observatory to be set up very shortly as a permanent and independent institution of the European Union which will work closely with the Council of Europe, and urges the Council rapidly to reach decisions on budgetary matters and the legal basis for the observatory;
25. Expresses its disappointment at the British Government's objection to a Community basis for the European Union Observatory to monitor racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism; asks it to reconsider its stance;
26. Urges the Council and Commission to consider the possibility of setting aside small sums in the 1997 Budget during the second half of the year, in order to provide for the establishment of the observatory (RAXEN) in 1998 - which depends on Parliament's approval of the Commission proposal;
27. Confirms that the Commission must be accountable to the European Parliament, not least for financial matters, in respect of the observatory and that it must submit a detailed annual report on the activities of the observatory;
28. Takes the view that the observatory, as the centre of a network of existing organizations, should undertake a survey of racist, xenophobic and fascist phenomena and their causes and evaluate existing policies, in order successfully to contribute to an exchange of information and pooling of experience; considers that the observatory should also assume the task of coordination and consultation in respect of appropriate measures and strategies which can be developed and implemented by local authorities, national governments and the European Union;
29. Expresses its satisfaction at the fact that the consultative committee on racism and xenophobia (the Kahn committee) will continue its work until the establishment of the European Observatory for Racism and Xenophobia (RAXEN) in 1998;
30. Urges all those Member States which have so far failed to do so to follow Denmark's example and increase the national resources set aside for combating racism and xenophobia;
31. Takes the view that the European Year Against Racism will only be taken seriously if the institutions of the European Union are themselves prepared to make available the necessary resources;
32. Hopes that, in order to reach the largest possible number of persons, practical measures are taken at various levels, based on the principle of communication, partnership and cooperation with non-government organizations, the media, trade unions, employers' organizations, local and regional authorities, religious organizations, educational institutions, etc.;
33. Calls on the Commission to carefully scrutinize its policy of project funding - in particular in view of the European Year Against Racism - in order to ensure that priority is given to projects which actually reach citizens where they live and actively involve them in combating racism;
34. Urges the implementation of a broad range of activities to combat racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism in the Member States and at European level, including various events concerned with the topics of the European Year which will attract substantial publicity, for example:
- the preparation of practical projects on a local and regional basis,
- high-profile events involving pop groups, sportsmen and other prominent personalities which could take place at the same time in various places in Europe,
- the public award of special prizes for tolerance and understanding,
- ambitious political and cultural events with a trans-border dimension,
- the preparation of exhibitions,
- the promotion of campaigns in the fields of information and communication, including the use of telematic sites,
- the development of pedagogical material,
- youth exchanges,
- the organization of round-table discussions,
- a hearing in the European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties and Internal Affairs involving non-governmental organizations and persons concerned on the subject of racism and xenophobia within the first four months of 1997 as a contribution towards the Year Against Racism (1997);
35. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the consultative committee on racism and xenophobia (the Kahn committee), the Council of Europe and the governments and parliaments of the Member States and the countries which have applied to join the Union.
Resolution on racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism and the results of the European Year against Racism (1997)
The European Parliament,
- having regard to Article 14 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,
- having regard to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination adopted in 1966,
- having regard to the new Article 29 of the EU Treaty and the new Article 13 of the EC Treaty, as incorporated into those treaties by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which establish the fight against racism and xenophobia and against the many forms of discrimination as a European Union objective,
- having regard to the conclusions of its committees of inquiry on racism and xenophobia (A2-0160/85 and A3-0195/90), and its resolutions of 21 April 1993 on the resurgence of racism and xenophobia in Europe and the danger of right-wing extremist violence (28), 2 December 1993 on racism and xenophobia (29), 20 April 1994 on ethnic cleansing (30), 21 April 1994 on the situation of gypsies in the Community (31), 27 October 1994 (32) and 27 April 1995 (33) on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, 15 June 1995 on a day to commemorate the Holocaust (34), 13 July 1995 on discrimination against the Roma (35), 26 October 1995 on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism (36), 9 May 1996 on the communication from the Commission on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism (37) and 30 January 1997 on racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism and the European Year Against Racism (1997) (38),
- having regard to the declaration 'Europe Against Racism', issued on 30 January 1997 in The Hague by the Dutch Prime Minister and then President-in-Office of the Council, the President of the Commission and the President of the European Parliament, on the occasion of the conference inaugurating European Year Against Racism (1997),
- having regard to the public hearing on the topic 'European Year Against Racism 1997: an interim assessment', held by the Committee on Civil Liberties and Internal Affairs on 1 July 1997,
- having regard to the Council Joint Action of 15 July 1996 concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia (39), Council Regulation (EC) No 1035/97 establishing a European Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia (40) and the Council declarations of 24 November 1997 on the fight against racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism in the youth field (41) and of 16 December 1997 on respecting diversity and combating racism and xenophobia (42),
- having regard to the undertaking given by Commissioner Flynn that relevant legal provisions would be introduced by the end of 1998,
A. whereas the European Union specifically undertakes in the Treaty of Amsterdam to respect human rights, fundamental freedoms and fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States (new Article 6 of the EU Treaty),
B. whereas the Treaty of Amsterdam also for the first time expressly lays down as an objective of the European Union the prevention and combating of racism and xenophobia in order to provide citizens with a high level of safety within an area of freedom, security and justice (new Article 29, first paragraph, of the Treaty on European Union),
C. whereas the Treaty of Amsterdam provides for the possibility that 'within the limits of the powers conferred by it upon the Community, the Council, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Parliament, may take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on ... racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief ...' (new Article 13 of the EC Treaty),
D. warmly welcoming the new Article 13 of the EC Treaty, but calling for the prompt ratification of the Treaty of Amsterdam and urging the Commission and the Council meanwhile to make the appropriate preparations so that the article concerned can enter into force immediately after that ratification,
E. whereas the basic principles of democracy and fundamental freedoms include respect for the cultural diversity of citizens, respect for the dignity of different cultures and the acceptance of cultural diversity as part of the democratic legal order, so that meetings and exchanges between the cultures should be fostered with a view to achieving better mutual understanding,
F. whereas cultural diversity must be seen as a source of social and cultural enrichment, and not as a danger to security and public order,
G. whereas appropriate forms of education, which foster tolerance, coexistence between cultures and non-discrimination, must form the basis of any policy which seeks to combat racism,
H. whereas the fight against anti-Semitism must be at the forefront of the policy to combat racism and xenophobia,
I. whereas today measures to combat xenophobia must focus in particular on discrimination against immigrants and religious minorities,
J. whereas, despite the many international initiatives against racism and xenophobia launched in recent years (United Nations 'International Year of Tolerance'; 'All different, all equal' - European youth campaign organized by the Council of Europe against racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance; the European Union's 'European Year Against Racism'), some sections of the population continue to hold racist and xenophobic views, views which sometimes even find expression in insults and violent attacks which leave the victims with psychological and physical injuries and permanent disabilities and in some cases even result in their death,
K. applauding the general activities undertaken by the European Commission as part of the European Year Against Racism,
L. having regard to the "Charter on European political parties for a non-racist society" adopted on 5 December 1997 by the EU Advisory Committee on Racism and Xenophobia (Kahn Committee) and the Conference "A code of good practice - political parties and non-discrimination" to be held from 26 to 28 February 1998 in Utrecht,
M. convinced that, if they are to have a sustainable positive impact, the wide range of measures launched to combat racism must be continued and further developed now that the European Year Against Racism has ended, and mindful of the fact that the Year should be seen as a basis for further measures, and not simply as a reminder of a problem,
N. whereas the European Union itself should set a convincing example in the fight against racism and xenophobia by constantly reviewing its own policies to check for possible racist, xenophobic or ethnic tendencies,
O. noting that economic problems in the Member States are being exploited by some politicians and opinion-leaders in order to incite people to racism and xenophobia, and urging all politicians and commentators to refrain from manipulating xenophobic instincts and, in their actions and political activities, to condemn all forms of intolerance and racist remarks,
P. whereas Parliament itself, as the Community institution which has been democratically elected and therefore represents the cultural diversity of Europe, must commit itself to the fight against racism and xenophobia,
Q. welcoming the formal establishment of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia in Vienna on 20 January 1998 and hoping that it can embark on the tasks entrusted to it as soon as possible,
R. welcoming the Monitoring Centre, but noting the composition of the Board and concerned that great care be taken to ensure that its staff represent Europe's residents,
S. welcoming the above-mentioned Regulation (EC) No 1035/97; regretting that the Centre's tasks have been confined to specific areas under the first pillar and hoping that these restrictions will be removed when the Centre's tasks are reviewed, as they are due to be three years after its establishment,
T. hoping that the preparations for the work of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (recruitment of personnel, fitting-out of premises, provision of the requisite resources) can be quickly completed, so that the Centre can take on the tasks entrusted to it as soon as possible,
U. firmly believing that the European Union should require applicants for membership to guarantee the protection of minorities on their territories prior to accession,
1. Welcomes the fact that the new Article 29 of the EU Treaty expressly states for the first time that the fight against racism and xenophobia makes a vital contribution to creating an area of freedom, security and justice;
2. Calls on the Council and Commission to forward to Parliament, as soon as it has been completed, the assessment of the Member States' efforts to honour their obligations under the above-mentioned Joint Action of 15 July 1996, an assessment which must be carried out before the end of June 1998;
3. Calls on the Commission to propose an action programme under Title VI of the EU Treaty, using the above-mentioned Parliament and Council assessment as a basis, which sets out appropriate measures whereby the following actions can be categorized as criminal offences and punished effectively in all the EU Member States:
- incitement to racism and xenophobia and to commit racist and xenophobic acts,
- denial of the Holocaust and crimes against humanity,
- production, printing and dissemination of racist, xenophobic and revisionist material,
- participation in the activities of groups involved in racist or xenophobic actions or which advocate racist, xenophobic and revisionist doctrines;
4. Regrets that the Treaty of Amsterdam fails to enshrine non-discrimination as a fundamental principle with immediate effect under Community law and that the provisions of the new Article 13 of the EC Treaty first require implementing measures to be taken, which must furthermore be adopted unanimously by the Council;5. Calls on the Commission, immediately after the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, to propose 'appropriate action' on the basis of the provisions on non-discrimination set out in the new Article 13 of the EC Treaty, in order to prevent and combat discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnic origin or religion;
6. Urges the Member States to treat racist, xenophobic or anti-Semitic motives for offences as aggravating circumstances;
7. Urges the European institutions and the Member States to develop their immigration policies in close coordination with a proper integration policy designed to promote mutual inter-ethnic acceptance and to harmonize the Member States' laws on immigration, coordinating the rights of immigrants in the various Member States; in this connection, consideration should be given to drawing up a European charter of immigrants' rights, so as finally to reach agreement on immigration into the European Union; accordingly, supports and highlights the good results of the work carried out by local NGOs regarding the status of immigrants, who often have no relevant documentation, such as the "sans papiers", as a first step towards their integration;
8. Believes that the directives prohibiting discrimination, in particular in the fields of employment, education, health care, social security, housing and public and private services, could make a major contribution to curbing racism and xenophobia in the European Union; believes that consideration should also be given, in this connection, to whether and how the experience gained with regard to positive discrimination for women could be applied to other groups affected by ingrained discriminatory attitudes;
9. Calls on the Council and the Member States to draw up special programmes for female immigrants and asylum-seekers, since as a rule they find themselves exposed not only to racism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia, but also to discrimination on grounds of sex;
10. Calls on the Member States to structure school curricula appropriately and require exemplary behaviour from teachers, so as to encourage school children to tolerate and accept all their fellow human beings;
11. Welcomes the many measures and projects adopted or launched during the European Year Against Racism, particularly by the Commission, as important contributions to strengthening and consolidating public awareness of the dangers posed by racism and xenophobia;
12. Calls on the Commission to expand and consolidate the networks to combat racism set up during the European Year Against Racism, so as to ensure that the many positive initiatives launched during that year in the Member States have a long-term future;
13. Calls on the Commission to ensure that the programmes and experience of local and regional authorities and the NGOs are exploited and built on;
14. Distances itself from and unequivocally rejects politicians and parties that make racist and xenophobic statements at either national or European level and calls on all democratic parties to combat racist movements and groups and xenophobic tendencies in their own ranks with all the democratic means at their disposal;
15. Takes note of the Charter on European political parties for a non-racist society, referred to above and now to be submitted to the European political parties; calls on all political parties within the EU, and in particular in the European Parliament, to approve the Charter and use it as the basis for their work;
16. Recommends that, during accession negotiations, the applicant countries should be urged to guarantee the protection of minorities resident on their territories prior to accession and calls on the Commission to pay special attention to this point in its annual reports;
17. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the governments and parliaments of the Member States and of the applicant countries and the Council of Europe.
Equality Agencies in the Member States
One of the main recommendations of this paper is that the Member States consider establishing specialist equality agencies to provide assistance to individual victims of discrimination. In several Member States, there already exist such bodies, and they are listed below. Public bodies, such as the Danish Board for Ethnic Equality, or the Finnish Advisory Board for Refugee and Migration Affairs which combat discrimination in general, but do not deal with individual victims of discrimination, have not been included.
Centre pour l'Egalité des Chances et la Lutte contre le Racisme
Rue de la Loi, 155 (8ème étage)
Tel. +32 2 2330611
Fax. +32 2 2330704
Dutch Commission for Equal Treatment
PO Box 16001
3500 DA Utrecht
Tel. +31 30 23 35 111
Fax. +31 30 23 00 606
Ombudsmannen for etnisk diskriminering (DO)
Tel. +46 8 23 74 50
Fax. +46 8 21 74 14
Commission for Racial Equality (Great Britain)
10 Allington Street
London SW1E 5EF
Tel. +44 171 932 5380
Fax. +44 171 931 0429
Commission for Racial Equality for Northern Ireland
Scottish Legal House
65-67 Chichester Street
Belfast BT1 4JT
Tel. +44 1232 315996
Fax. +44 1232 315993
1. OJ C 158, 25.6.1986, p. 1.
2. A2-0160/85 and A3-0195/90.
3. OJ C 150, 31.5.1993, p. 127.
4. OJ C 342, 20.12.1993, p. 19.
5. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 221.
6. OJ C 158, 25.6.1986, p. 1.
7. A2-0260/85 and A3-0195/90.
8. OJ C 150, 31.5.1993, p. 127.
9. OJ C 342, 20.12.1993, p. 19.
10. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 221.
11. OJ C 323, 21.11.1994, p. 154.
12. OJ C 126, 22.5.1995, p. 75.
13. Minutes of 15.6.1995, Part II, Item 17.
14. OJ C 158, 25.6.1986, p. 1.
15. OJ C 150, 31.5.1993, p. 127.
16. OJ C 342, 20.12.1993, p. 19.
17. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 221.
18. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 372.
19. OJ C 323, 21.11.1994, p. 154.
20. OJ C 126, 22.5.1995, p. 75.
21. OJ C 166, 3.7.1995, p. 132.
22. OJ C 249, 25.9.1995, p. 156.
23. OJ C 308, 20.11.1995, p. 140.
24. OJ C 152, 27.5.1996, p. 57.
25. OJ C 296, 10.11.1995, p. 13.
26. OJ C 237, 15.8.1996, p. 1.
27. OJ L 185, 24.7.1996, p. 5.
28. OJ C 150, 31.5.1993, p. 127.
29. OJ C 342, 20.12.1993, p. 19.
30. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 221.
31. OJ C 128, 9.5.1994, p. 372.
32. OJ C 323, 21.11.1994, p. 154.
33. OJ C 126, 22.5.1995, p. 75.
34. OJ C 166, 3.7.1995, p. 132.
35. OJ C 249, 25.9.1995, p. 156.
36. OJ C 308, 20.11.1995, p. 140.
37. OJ C 152, 27.5.1996, p. 57.
38. OJ C 55, 14.2.1997, p. 17.
39. OJ L 185, 24.7.1996, p. 5.
40. OJ L 151, 10.6.1997, p. 1.
41. OJ C 368, 5.12.1997, p. 1.
42. OJ C 1, 3.1.1998, p. 1.
European Parliament: 12/1997