Latest documents

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Recent Studies on Artificial Intelligence

22-02-2022 PE 703.351 AIDA
At a Glance
Summary : DG IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies published the following documents to assist the Special Committee on Artificial Intelligence in a Digital Age (AIDA) in its parliamentary work.
Authors : MATTEO CIUCCI, FABIAN SOFSKY

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - February 2022

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Identification and assessment of existing and draft EU legislation in the digital field

31-01-2022 PE 703.345 AIDA
Study
Summary : This study aims to deliver to the AIDA committee an overview of all existing and planned EU legislation in the digital field, together with an assessment of the interactions amongst these pieces of legislation. The analysis of the interplay between the legal acts, which regulate the development, placing on the market, and use of AI systems, or other AI-related aspects, has revealed intended or inadvertent regulatory gaps that should be addressed. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the special committee on Artificial Intelligence in a Digital Age (AIDA).
Authors : C. CODAGNONE, G. LIVA, T. RODRIGUEZ DE LAS HERAS BALLELL

European Union data challenge

28-07-2021 PE 662.939 AIDA
Briefing
Summary : The exponential growth and importance of data generated in industrial settings have attracted the attention of policymakers aiming to create a suitable legal framework for its use. While the term ‘industrial data’ has no clear definition, such data possess certain distinctive characteristics: they are a subset of big data collected in a structured manner and within industrial settings; they are frequently proprietary and contain various types of sensitive data. The GDPR rules remain of great relevance for such data, as personal data is difficult to be filtered out from mixed datasets and anonymisation techniques are not always effective. The current and planned rules relevant for B2B sharing of industrial data exhibit many shortcomings. They lack clarity on key issues (e.g. mixed datasets), increase the administrative burden for companies, yet not always provide the data protection that businesses need. They do not provide an additional value proposition for B2B data sharing and hinder it in some cases. While this situation warrants policy intervention, both the instrument and its content should be carefully considered. Instead of a legal instrument, soft law could clarify the existing rules; model terms and conditions could be developed and promoted and data standardisation and interoperability efforts supported.
Authors : Olga BATURA and Roel PEETERS

Artificial Intelligence in smart cities and urban mobility

23-07-2021 PE 662.937 AIDA
Briefing
Summary : Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabling smart urban solutions brings multiple benefits, including more efficient energy, water and waste management, reduced pollution, noise and traffic congestions. Local authorities face relevant challenges undermining the digital transformation from the technological, social and regulatory standpoint, namely (i) technology and data availability and reliability, the dependency on third private parties and the lack of skills; (ii) ethical challenges for the unbiased use of AI; and (iii) the difficulty of regulating interdependent infrastructures and data, respectively. To overcome the identified challenges, the following actions are recommended: • EU-wide support for infrastructure and governance on digitalisation, including high performance computing, integrated circuits, CPUs and GPU’s, 5G, cloud services, Urban Data Platforms, enhancing efficiency and ensuring at the same time unbiased data collection. • Inclusion of urban AI in EU research programs addressing data exchange, communication networks and policy on mobility and energy, enhancing capacity building initiatives, also through test and experimentation facilities. • Harmonising AI related policies in the EU, taking into account the context specificity: necessary research. • Adoption of innovative procurement procedures, entailing requirements for technical and ethically responsible AI.
Authors : Devin DIRAN, Anne Fleur VAN VEENSTRA, Tjerk TIMAN, Paola TESTA and Maria KIROVA

Artificial Intelligence and public services

22-07-2021 PE 662.936 AIDA
Briefing
Summary : AI has become a key enabling technology in public services and its use has increased over the past two years.Ensuring explainabilty of AI systems in public services is crucial but difficult to achieve in case of black-box algorithms. In AI applications in public services, focus is on law enforcement, surveillance and process optimisation. AI for front-end public services seems less of a priority. There is a growing public concern over the development and use of AI in society. With the increase of its use, the potential for errors and harms also increases.The public sector should lead the way in creating trustworthy AI. Regulatory sandboxing and pre-procurement are key for creating trustworthy AI for public services.
Authors : Tjerk TIMAN, Anne Fleur VAN VEENSTRA and Gabriela BODEA

Monthly Highlights Newsletter - July 2021

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Artificial Intelligence diplomacy | Artificial Intelligence governance as a new European Union external policy tool

21-06-2021 PE 662.926 AIDA
Study
Summary : Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a tool of power politics, and an element of state diplomacy. The European Union, however, approaches AI primarily from an economic, social, and regulatory angle. This paper discusses the way that AI impacts the European Union’s geopolitical power, and its relationship with other countries. It presents possible scenarios for how AI may change the international balance of power and recommends ways for the EU and its members to respond.
Authors : Ulrike FRANKE

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - June 2021

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Artificial Inteligence market and capital flows - AI and the financial sector at crossroads

28-05-2021 PE 662.912 AIDA
Study
Summary : This paper studies the transformation that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is bringing to the financial sector and how this sector can contribute to developments of AI applications. The study addresses the contribution of AI to a more efficient, open, and inclusive financial sector and the challenges of the AI transformation, and it provides recommendations for policies and regulations of AI and financial services.
Authors : Giacomo CALZOLARI

Improving working conditions using Artificial Intelligence

25-05-2021 PE 662.911 AIDA
Study
Summary : The analysis considers evidence on the expected impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on jobs, discusses the potential of AI to create decent jobs and explores the extent to which AI offers opportunities and poses risks to working conditions. The analysis examines current policies at the European Union (EU) and Member State level and recommends some areas for action at the EU level.
Authors : Advait DESHPANDE, Natalie PICKEN, Linda KUNERTOVA, Annemari DE SILVA, Giulia LANFREDI and Joanna HOFMAN

The Role of AI in the European Green Deal

30-04-2021 PE 662.906 AIDA
Study
Summary : AI can be deployed for a wide range of applications to promote the goals of the European Green Deal. However, adverse environmental impacts of AI could jeopardise the attainment of these goals. The report describes environmental potentials, clarifies characteristics and causes of environmental risks, and outlines initiatives and best practices for environmental policies. It illustrates the need for regulatory action to align design and deployment of AI with the goals of the European Green Deal and concludes with specific recommendations.
Authors : Peter GAILHOFER, Anke HEROLD, Jan Peter SCHEMMEL, Cara-Sophie SCHERF, Cristina URRUTIA, Andreas R. KÖHLER and Sibylle BRAUNGARDT

Challenges and limits of an open source approach to Artificial Intelligence

30-04-2021 PE 662.908 AIDA
Study
Summary : Coupled with the numerous opportunities emerging from the use of artificial intelligence, open source comes with the potential for innovation capacity in both the public and private sector. Advantages include the ability to enhance transparency, facilitate the auditing of AI and thereby enhance citizen trust, while stimulating economic activities and domain-specific expertise. Disadvantages and limits include legal, technical, data, risk management, societal and ethical challenges. This analysis examines all main open source artificial intelligence pro and cons and proposes seven recommendations to boost its uptake.
Authors : Alexandra THEBEN, Laura GUNDERSON, Laura López FORÉS, Gianluca MISURACA, Francisco LUPIÁÑEZ-VILLANUEVA.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - April 2021

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.