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Research for CULT Committee - The Situation of Artists and Cultural Workers and the post-COVID Cultural Recovery in the European Union : Policy Recommendations Concomitant expertise for INI report

04-05-2021 PE 652.252 CULT
Briefing
Summary : The following recommendations present medium- and long-term policy solutions to address the needs identified in the Background Analysis “The Situation of Artists and Cultural Workers and the post-COVID Cultural Recovery in the European Union”. Its aim is to provide guidelines and principles to structure the contents of the European Framework, and hence improve the situation and working conditions of artists and cultural workers in the EU.
Authors : Mafalda DÂMASO, Culture Action Europe

Research for CULT Committee - Education and youth in post-COVID-19 Europe - crisis effects and policy recommendations

04-05-2021 PE 690.872 CULT
Study
Summary : This paper demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic posed unprecedented and multidimensional challenges to the education systems and youth sector, revealing the lack of preparedness in terms of crisis management and digital education responses, as well as reinforcing structural weaknesses of education delivery. Given that various sectors of education and the youth sector faced distinct challenges, there are valuable lessons to be learnt from policy responses and best practices across Europe. The common goal should be to build more resilient education systems, which are responsive and adaptive to future crises.
Authors : Public Policy and Management Institute: Loes VAN DER GRAAF, Jekatyerina DUNAJEVA, Hanna SIAROVA, Radvile BANKAUSKAITE

Research for CULT Committee - Approaches of the Council and the Commission to the European Education Area

20-04-2021 PE 690.865 CULT
Briefing
Summary : In September 2020, the Commission published a communication on achieving the European Education Area by 2025 with an ambitious strategy revolving around six key dimensions (European Commission, 2020a). In February 2021, in its resolution on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training towards the European Education Area and beyond (2021-2030), the Council welcome the Commission’s proposal (Council of the European Union, 2021). It set out a series of ‘strategic priorities’ bearing some similarities with the key dimensions mentioned above but giving less prominence to inclusion and the geopolitical dimension while putting a stronger focus on lifelong learning and mobility.
Authors : PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - March 2021

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Research for CULT Committee - Making the European Education Area a reality: state of affairs, challenges and prospects

01-03-2021 PE 652.234 CULT
At a Glance
Summary : Conclusions and policy recommendations Against this backdrop, the study proposes a series of 9 policy recommendations: 1) Set up a concrete implementation strategy and draw up a comprehensive evaluation framework, in line with the UN’s sustainable development goal 4 on education, in order to monitor progress and identify shortcomings in the implementation of EEA initiatives.
Authors : Jacques LECARTE, Markus Josef PRUTSCH, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD, SOPHIA THOENES

Research for CULT Committee - Cultural and creative sectors in post-COVID-19 Europe – crisis effects and policy recommendations

25-02-2021 PE 652.245 CULT
At a Glance
Summary : Cultural and creative sectors (CCS) have been hit hard by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyses the so far effects of the crisis on the CCS, as well as the policy responses that are formulated to support the sectors. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are formulated to further improve the resilience of the CCS in Europe in the medium and longer term.
Authors : Jacques LECARTE, Katarzyna Anna ISKRA

Research for CULT Committee - Cultural and creative sectors in post-COVID-19 Europe – crisis effects and policy recommendations

18-02-2021 PE 652.242 CULT
Study
Summary : Cultural and creative sectors (CCS) have been hit hard by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyses the so far effects of the crisis on the CCS, as well as the policy responses that are formulated to support the sectors. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are formulated to further improve the resilience of the CCS in Europe in the medium and longer term.
Authors : IDEA Consult: Isabelle De Voldere, Martina Fraioli, Eveline Durinck Goethe-Institut: Antonia Blau, Sina Lebert Inforelais: Sylvia Amann Values of Culture&Creativity: Joost Heinsius

Research for CULT Committee - Towards a European Education – Critical Perspectives on Challenges Ahead

01-02-2021 PE 652.243 CULT
At a Glance
Summary : This study offers an in-depth exploration of pressing themes for European educators and policymakers in the 21st century: learner mobility, citizenship education and the role of digital and virtual learning. Increased opportunities for all young people to engage in mobility programmes will generate benefits in terms of employability, reduced social inequalities and more open, responsible and environmentally aware European citizens.
Authors : Jacques LECARTE

Research for CULT Committee - Making the European Education Area a reality: state of affairs, challenges and prospects

01-02-2021 PE 652.237 CULT
Study
Summary : This study presents and examines three communications on a future European Education Area published by the European Commission between November 2017 and September 2020, analysing the reception and assessment of these communications by the other EU institutions, Member States and various stakeholders. It highlights existing challenges and makes concrete recommendations as regards the strategy, governance and priorities required to turn the vision of a European Education Area into reality by 2025.
Authors : Markus Josef PRUTSCH, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD, SOPHIA THOENES

Research for CULT Committee - The Situation of Artists and Cultural Workers and the post-COVID-19 Cultural Recovery in the European Union - Background Analysis

01-02-2021 PE 652.250 CULT
Study
Summary : This background analysis on the situation of artists and cultural workers and the post-COVID-19 cultural recovery in the European Union is prepared for the European Parliament. It provides an overview of key characteristics of artists' and cultural workers’ status across Europe, their working conditions, precariousness and career paths. It outlines the justification for specific policy solutions and provides a mapping of key challenges for a European framework for working conditions in the cultural and creative sectors and industries.
Authors : Dr Mafalda DÂMASO Culture Action Europe: Tere BADIA, Gabriele ROSANA, Kornelia KISS, Sebastiano BERTAGNI, Maya WEISINGER

Research for CULT Committee - Shaping digital education policy

27-11-2020 PE 652.231 CULT
At a Glance
Summary : This research project assesses the Digital Education Action Plan published in 2018 in terms of organisational and content-related challenges. It outlines concrete recommendations on how an updated Digital Education Action Plan could mitigate the weaknesses of the current plan, through a more holistic vision of the digital transformation in education, a focus on quality infrastructure for digital education for all, the further empowerment of educators and the further development of ‘whole-school’ approaches to digital education.
Authors : Jacques LECARTE, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024

At a Glance
Summary : This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Research for CULT Committee - Towards a European education - Critical perspectives on challenges ahead

01-10-2020 PE 652.217 CULT
Study
Summary : This study offers an in-depth exploration of pressing themes for European educators and policymakers in the 21st century: learner mobility, citizenship education and the role of digital and virtual learning. Increased opportunities for all young people to engage in mobility programmes will generate benefits in terms of employability, reduced social inequalities and more open, responsible and environmentally aware European citizens.
Authors : Régis MALET

Research for CULT Committee - Shaping digital education policy Concomitant expertise for INI report

15-09-2020 PE 652.209 CULT
In-Depth Analysis
Summary : This research project assesses the Digital Education Action Plan published in 2018 in terms of organisational and content-related challenges. It outlines concrete recommendations on how an updated Digital Education Action Plan could mitigate the weaknesses of the current plan, through a more holistic vision of the digital transformation in education, a focus on quality infrastructure for digital education for all, the further empowerment of educators and the further development of ‘whole-school’ approaches to digital education.
Authors : Simon BROEK; Bert-Jan BUISKOOL

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - September 2020

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Research for CULT Committee - The Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Cultural and Creative Sectors

15-05-2020 PE 629.220 CULT
Briefing
Summary : In this introductory in-depth analysis, we report six key findings on the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the cultural and creative sectors (CCS). Finding 1: AI challenges the creative value-chain in two ways: shifting services performed by humans to algorithms and empowering the individual creator. Finding 2: AI-generated content challenges authorship, ownership and copyright infringement. New exclusive rights on datasets must be designed in order to better incentivise innovation and research. Finding 3: European cultural institutions have rich datasets of cultural artefacts that could be made accessible to a larger audience. AI has the potential to create rich ways for users to navigate through cultural content. Good practices in AI for cultural heritage accessibility need to be formalised and shared among the European cultural networks. Finding 4: The use of AI for media content brings up issues regarding cultural and linguistic diversity. Public policies and measures are required to prevent discrimination in AI-based distribution platforms. Finding 5: AI governance is centralised, which has an impact in the CCS. Funding instruments are needed to support less-centralised, human-centred AI. Finding 6: The Union supports a rich environment for AI-Art, resulting in the development of critical discourse on technology and AI by the public, which should be sustained in the long run.
Authors : Baptiste Caramiaux

Research for CULT Committee - The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education

15-05-2020 PE 629.222 CULT
Briefing
Summary : There are two different types of AI in wide use today. Recent developments have focused on data-driven machine learning, but in the last decades, most AI applications in education (AIEd) have been based on representational / knowledge-based AI. Data-driven AI uses a programming paradigm that is new to most computing professionals. It requires competences which are different from traditional programming and computational thinking. It opens up new ways to use computing and digital devices. But the development of state-of-the-art AI is now starting to exceed the computational capacity of the largest AI developers. The recent rapid developments in data-driven AI may not be sustainable. The impact of AI in education will depend on how learning and competence needs change, as AI will be widely used in the society and economy. AIEd should be used to help schools and educational institutions in transforming learning for the future. Many AIEd systems have been developed over the years, but few of these have shown clear scientific impact on learning. Evidence is lacking partly because the contexts of teaching and learning vary across classrooms, schools, educational systems, and countries. Local knowledge and capacity is critical for effective adoption and shaping of AIEd, and new scaling models are needed. Co-design of AIEd with teachers is a possible way to advance new scaling models. AI has a great potential in compensating learning difficulties and supporting teachers. The Union/ the EU needs a “clearing house” that helps teachers and policy-makers make sense of the fast developments in this area.
Authors : Ilkka Tuomi

Research for CULT Committee - The use of Artificial Intelligence in the Audiovisual Sector - Concomitant expertise for INI report

15-05-2020 PE 629.221 CULT
In-Depth Analysis
Summary : This briefing paper takes a look at the use of AI technologies in the wider audiovisual sector. A survey with ten questions concerning the most important aspects was circulated to 85 contacts at 73 organisations. A total of 22 responses were received. The main findings are as follows: 1. Almost all respondents report broad use of AI technologies, especially for automated indexing, improved content accessibility as well as localisation. AI is used for processing audio or video, language or text data or for knowledge management purposes. 2. Among the technologies used are ASR, TTS, NLP, NER, MT, summarisation, search and recommender engines, content classification, subtitling, vision and metadata extraction (see Appendix 2: Glossary – Terms and Abbreviations). 3. AI technologies foreseen for future use are more experimental and include the automated detection of illegal content and deep fakes as well as flexible curation technologies. 4. There is a big demand for large amounts of training data including labelled, structured and unstructured data, domain-specific training data, acoustic data and data for illegal content. 5. There is also a need for more language technologies for all European languages, including ASR, TTS, MT, content curation services and metadata extraction as well as Linked Data. 6. In terms of policies, it is suggested to focus upon an ethical framework regarding the use and misuse of AI that protects human values and fosters cultural and linguistic diversity. It should also protect against the misuse of AI for false news and misinformation. 7. Regarding opportunities, many respondents suggest concentrating on the AI-based production of high quality content. In addition, AI allows unlimited localisation and makes it possible for a fragmented and culturally diverse ecosystem to survive in a world dominated by capital-intensive ventures based in the US. 8. The consumption of intentionally created false or manipulative content is seen as an imminent danger. It is stressed that, as video is quickly becoming our main means of communication, there is a threat that relates to the use of AI for misinformation and manipulation, which could have an impact on the foundations of our democratic society. 9. The awareness of the European AI tool market varies. Some perceive the market to be non-existent, others perceive it to be highly fragmented. Due to the dominance of non-European technology enterprises, European companies should be supported more. 10. Collaboration at the European level is seen as essential because individual players have limitations and difficulties in using AI technologies. Europe’s multilingualism is seen as crucial: to guarantee inclusiveness and accessibility, tools need to be made available, especially for under-resourced languages.
Authors : Georg Rehm

Research for CULT Committee - Virtual formats versus physical mobility - Concomitant expertise for INI report

16-03-2020 PE 629.217 CULT
Briefing
Summary : This short briefing paper is part of the study into effective measures to ‘green’ the Erasmus+, Creative Europe and European Solidarity Corps programmes, which aims to provide input for the CULT Committee own-initiative report (“INI report”) on effective measures to “green” the CULT programmes.
Authors : Bert-Jan Buiskool; Marye Hudepohl

Research for CULT Committee - Effective measures to ‘green’ Erasmus+, Creative Europe and European Solidarity Corps programmes - Concomitant expertise for INI report

16-03-2020 PE 629.218 CULT
In-Depth Analysis
Summary : This introductory briefing paper introduce five key messages on how the Erasmus+, European Solidarity Corps (ESC) and Creative Europe (CE) programmes (and the proposals for successor programmes) address environmental challenges.
Authors : Bert-Jan Buiskool; Marye Hudepohl

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024

Briefing
Summary : This document is a compilation of all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Commitments made at the hearing of Margaritis SCHINAS, Vice-President-designate - Promoting the European Way of Life

22-11-2019 PE 621.920 LIBE CULT
Briefing
Summary : The Vice President-designate, Margaritis Schinas, appeared before the European Parliament on 03 October 2019 to answer questions from MEPs in the Committees on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Culture and Education, Employment and Social Affairs. During the hearing, he made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to his portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to him by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Skills, education and integration; - Finding common ground on migration; and - Security Union.
Authors : Katarzyna Anna ISKRA, INA SOKOLSKA, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Commitments made at the hearing of Mariya GABRIEL, Commissioner-designate - Innovation and Youth

22-11-2019 PE 638.438 ITRE CULT
Briefing
Summary : The commissioner-designate, Mariya Gabriel, appeared before the European Parliament on 30 September 2019 to answer questions from MEPs’ in the Committees on Industry, Research and Energy and on Culture and Education. During the hearing, Ms Gabriel made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to her portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to her by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Education, research and innovation; and - Culture, youth and sport.
Authors : Katarzyna Anna ISKRA, Frederic GOUARDERES, PIERRE MARIE HERIARD

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - October 2019

At a Glance
Summary : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Research for CULT Committee - Education and youth in the European Union – Current challenges and future prospects

02-09-2019 PE 629.204 CULT
Study
Summary : This study examines possible scenarios (both aspirational and disruptive) for future developments for the education and youth sectors. It also identifies and assesses the policy implications of these scenarios. Ultimately, the study informs EU policy-makers, in particular MEPs, on policy options and their implications for the education and youth sectors in the EU, and seeks to help them prepare for the scenarios identified (both in terms of facing challenges and embracing opportunities).
Authors : RAND Europe: Axelle Devaux, Fay Dunkerley, Nadja Koch, Michaela Bruckmayer, William Phillips, Victoria Jordan

Research for CULT Committee - Culture and creative sectors in the European Union – Key future developments, challenges and opportunities

28-08-2019 PE 629.203 CULT
Study
Summary : Culture and creative sectors (CCS) are confronted with an ever-changing environment which challenges practices, business models and market balances. This study highlights the key trends that are likely to impact the future development of the CCS in their operational context in the European Union by 2030.
Authors : KEA European Affairs: Clémentine Daubeuf, Arthur Le Gall, Teodora Pletosu, Marianthi Kopellou ; PPMI: Donatas Pocius, Olha Koshchiyenko, Rasa Goštautaitė