REPORT on the situation of women from minority groups in the European Union

24 February 2004

Committee on Women's Rights and Equal Opportunities
Rapporteur: Elena Valenciano Martínez-Orozco

Procedure : 2003/2109(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected :  
Texts tabled :
Texts adopted :


At the sitting of 3 July 2003, the President of Parliament announced that the Committee on Women's Rights and Equal Opportunities had been authorised to draw up an own-initiative report under Rule 163 on the situation of women from minority groups in the European Union.

The committee appointed Elena Valenciano Martínez-Orozco rapporteur at its meeting of 11 June 2003.

It considered the draft report at its meetings of 20 January and 18 February 2004.

At the latter meeting it adopted the motion for a resolution by 8 votes, with 2 abstentions.

The following were present for the vote: Anna Karamanou (Chairwoman), Olga Zrihen Zaari (Vice-Chairwoman), Elena Valenciano Martínez-Orozco (rapporteur), Regina Bastos, Lone Dybkjær, Marie-Hélène Gillig (for Christa Prets), Lissy Gröner, Mary Honeyball, Thomas Mann, Anne E.M. Van Lancker (for Joke Swiebel).

The report was tabled on 24 February 2004.


on the situation of women from minority groups in the European Union


The European Parliament,

─   having regard to the EC Treaty, especially Article 2, Article 3(2), Articles 6 and 13 and Article 141(4),

─   having regard to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the United Nations pacts on civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which recognise that every individual’s right to equality before the law and protection against discrimination is a universal right and which have been signed by all the Member States,

─   having regard to the 1979 United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, which recognise the gender dimension in ethnic discrimination,

─   having regard to International Labour Organisation Convention No 111, which prohibits discrimination in employment and work,

─   having regard to Articles 21 and 26 of the European Union’s Charter of Fundamental Rights[1]

─   having regard to Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment irrespective of racial or ethnic origin[2],

─   having regard to Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation[3],

─   having regard to Decision No 293/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 January 2000 adopting a programme of Community action (the Daphne programme) (2000 to 2003) on preventive measures to fight violence against children, young persons and women[4],

─   having regard to the communication from the Commission to the Member States establishing the guidelines for the Community initiative ‘Equal’ concerning transnational cooperation to promote new means of combating all forms of discrimination and inequalities in connection with the labour market[5],

─   having regard to Council Decision 2000/750/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a Community action programme to combat discrimination (2001 to 2006)[6],

─   having regard to Council Decision 2001/51/EC of 20 December 2000 establishing a programme relating to the Community framework strategy on gender equality (2001-2005)[7],

─   having regard to the communication of 10 October 2001 from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the draft joint report on social inclusion (COM(2001) 565),

─   having regard to the Council decision of 3 December 2001 on the European Year of People with Disabilities 2003[8],

─   having regard to Decision No 50/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 December 2001 establishing a programme of Community action to encourage cooperation between Member States to combat social exclusion[9],

─   having regard to the communication of 24 January 2003 from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament – ‘Towards a United Nations legally binding instrument to promote and protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities’(COM(2003) 16),

─   having regard to the Council resolution of 6 February 2003 on social inclusion through social dialogue and partnership[10],

─   having regard to the Council resolution of 15 July 2003 on promoting the employment and social integration of people with disabilities[11],

─   having regard to the communication of 30 October 2003 from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – ‘Equal opportunities for people with disabilities: a European action plan’ (COM(2003) 650),

─   having regard to the Council’s conclusions of 1 and 2 December 2003 on promotion of equal opportunities for people with disabilities,

─   having regard to the conclusions of the Council of Europe's working group on discrimination against women with disabilities,

─   having regard to Rule 163 of its Rules of Procedure,

─   having regard to the report of the Committee on Women's Rights and Equal Opportunities (A5‑0102/2004),

A.   whereas, in accordance with Article 6 of the Treaty on European Union, the Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, and these principles must include respect for the diversity of the peoples living in the EU, as regards their culture, language and ethnic origin, and respect for and taking account of the interests and concerns of all groups and minorities,

B.   whereas EU legislation prohibits any discrimination based on race or ethnic origin in areas such as employment, education, occupational training, social protection and social security, health care, social benefits, access to goods and services and the supply of goods and services,

C.   whereas the Copenhagen criteria for the candidate countries’ accession to the EU also make reference to the protection of minorities,

D.   whereas under Article 3(2) of the EC Treaty, the Community aims to eliminate inequalities and to promote equality between men and women in particular, as women are often victims of multiple forms of discrimination,

E.   whereas women’s NGOs and their networks make a considerable contribution to upholding women’s rights and combating discrimination against women,

F.   whereas EU legislation prohibits any discrimination relating to disability in employment and occupation,

G.   whereas disabled women experience the same sort of discrimination, compared with disabled men, as is generally experienced by women compared with men, and also compared with non-disabled women, as well as having all the disadvantages of a disability, although the disadvantages vary according to the nature and severity of the disability,

H.   whereas it is of prime importance to implement policies that will enable disabled women to lead an independent life, allow them to support themselves by work where this is possible, choose their private, professional and family life, have access to education, employment and public and private places, and enable the whole of society to benefit from their experience, abilities and talents; whereas policies for disabled people must be devised, adopted and assessed with the aim of ensuring equal treatment for disabled women,

I   whereas the critical areas for improving the status of disabled women are the promotion of education and training, employment, social policy, involvement in decision making, participation and integration in social and cultural life, the right to sexuality, health and motherhood and the right to found a family, protection against violence and sexual abuse, promotion of self-esteem, promotion of networks and organisations for disabled women and their involvement in decision-making, and improvement of the media image of disabled women,

J.   whereas migrant women represent on average 50 % of the immigrant population in the EU and their economic contribution is significant for the survival of their families and the economic stability of their countries of origin; whereas these women are very often faced with double or multiple forms of discrimination, as women in their communities and because of their ethnic origin,

K.   whereas the racism, xenophobia and discrimination encountered by migrant women are common occurrences throughout the EU; whereas they contribute to poverty and social exclusion and consequently make it difficult to get access to resources and basic social services, such as health care, housing, welfare and social protection benefits, and access to the employment market, education, training and promotion, rates of pay and social security,

L.   whereas migrant women are particularly vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion because of their low level of education and their cultural and language differences; whereas they are often victims of trafficking and other forms of violence such as domestic violence, prostitution, forced marriage and genital mutilation,

M.   whereas women who have joined their husbands under the family reunification policy do not have individual rights and are dependent on their husband’s legal status; whereas these women run the risk of expulsion in the event of divorce or their husband’s death and are often powerless to report violence when they are the victims of it,

N.   whereas, with the future enlargement of the EU and the accession of five countries in particular – the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania – which have the most sizeable Roma communities, the Roma will become the largest ethnic minority in the EU and thus the poverty, exclusion and economic, social and political discrimination that they face will become a challenge and a major subject for concern for the EU,

O.   whereas Roma women are victims of multiple discrimination, they are discriminated against and marginalised in society because of their ethnic minority status and they are oppressed within their own community on gender grounds; whereas because of this situation these women are simultaneously confronted with racism, sexism, poverty, exclusion and violation of their human rights, resulting in a limited life expectancy and a high mortality rate, illiteracy owning to restricted access to education, the persistence of sexual prejudices, limited access to reproductive and sexual health care, very early motherhood and/or forced marriages, abduction, trafficking, forced prostitution, sexual abuse and domestic violence, non-participation in the employment market and non-participation in decision-making in their community,

Disabled women

1.   Urges the Member States to promote the fundamental rights of disabled women and in particular to ensure that Council Directive 2000/78/EC on equal treatment in employment and occupation is incorporated into law and implemented as soon as possible;

2.   Calls on the Council, the Commission and Member States to take account of the interests and needs of disabled women in all relevant policies, programmes and Community instruments such as the European Social Fund, the Equal initiative, legislation and the action programme against discrimination, the action programme on equality between women and men, the combating of social exclusion, health and culture programmes, the Daphne programme, initiatives in connection with the information society, research, etc.;

3.   Welcomes the Commission’s action plan (2004-2010) for disabled people; calls on the Commission to take account of gender aspects in drawing up priorities for the plan and its implementation; stresses in this connection the need to include information on the situation of disabled women in future Commission reports on the situation of disabled people in an enlarged Europe;

4.   Calls on the EU and Member States to develop statistics on the situation of disabled people, with a breakdown by sex, and to carry out studies on disabled women;

5   Calls on the Member States to encourage disabled women’s access to education, training and employment in an ordinary environment, to assist their real integration in society and development of their autonomy, self-esteem and self-defence, in order to avoid the negative effects of excessive protection;

6.   Calls on the Member States to encourage the occupational reintegration of disabled women, whether in relation to training offered or the possibility of combining training and family responsibilities, e.g. training locations, care of dependent persons, flexible hours, part-time options, facilities and transport infrastructure, personal assistance or contact with the family; urges the two sides of industry to promote equal opportunities and access to employment and training for disabled women, including migrant women, in their measures and collective agreements;

7.   Calls on the Member States to encourage the formation of networks of disabled women and support groups, at national, regional and local level, with a view to improving disabled women’s means of expression and their involvement in social and political life and to providing premises, financial resources, transport facilities and facilities for the care of children or other dependent people;

8.   Calls on the Member States to take measures to increase disabled women’s involvement in political life and decision-making processes;

9.   Calls on all parties involved, including the media, to undertake initiatives to change attitudes and behaviour towards disabled women, and to involve disabled women in the drawing up and implementation of these initiatives;

10.   Calls on the Member States to take vigorous measures against all forms of violence against disabled women and girls, especially those in institutions, and to undertake studies specifically on violence against disabled women, to determine the origin and scale of this violence and to ensure better defined measures;

Migrant women

11.   Welcomes the legislation and action programme against discrimination but points out that these measures do not include equality between men and women; in view of multiple forms of sex discrimination, calls for equality between men and women to be integrated into policies, programmes and measures to combat racism, discrimination and social exclusion;

12.   Calls on the Member States and the Commission to do everything possible to ensure effective application of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and its optional protocol, and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;

13.   Believes that the underlying tension in the EU’s increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies is linked to the sharing out of the labour market and the coexistence of cultures; that this situation, which fuels racism and racial discrimination, particularly affects women, on both gender and ethnic grounds, and leads to social exclusion, a precarious legal status, various forms of violence, difficulties in access to the labour market, the underrating of their contribution to the host society and the persistence of a stereotyped view of migrant women as a docile, flexible and cheap labour force;

14.   Calls on the Member States, with the Commission’s assistance, to draw up a strategy with accompanying measures, to promote the integration of migrant women in the host country by:

  • -organising courses in the host country’s language and general culture at affordable prices;
  • -setting up centres for health consultation, legal aid, occupational training as a preliminary to looking for work, and refuges for women who are victims of domestic violence,
  • -establishing parenting support centres,
  • -establishing good-quality child-care services at affordable prices,
  • -increasing public service staff’s awareness of cultural diversity and gender equality,
  • -promoting anti-racism awareness campaigns and intercultural dialogue in the field of education,
  • -promoting awareness campaigns among migrant populations on the importance of education for women and girls,
  • -involving migrant women in political life and decision-making processes,
  • -promoting studies, research and statistics broken down by sex;

15.   Recommends that Member States and Community bodies should take particular account of the situation of Muslim women in the EU and take measures to protect these women against violation of their human rights, in religious communities, and against practices that hinder their education, training, employment, advancement and above all integration in the host countries; calls for measures against female genital mutilation and forced marriages, and for measures that recognise this type of persecution as a legitimate reason for requesting asylum;

16.   Considers that migrants, including women, who hold a long-term residence permit in a Member State should benefit from full citizenship, politically, administratively, judicially, economically and socially, as the only appropriate means of combating all forms of discrimination and creating an inclusive society;

Roma women

17.   Welcomes the EU’s active support for efforts by public authorities, NGOs and other players who are working to improve the Roma’s levels of integration and Roma women’s situation in the Member States and acceding and candidate countries, by policies, programmes and projects to combat discrimination, poverty and social exclusion;

18.   Nevertheless, draws the attention of the Commission and governments concerned to the need to ensure (a) the effective application of policies implemented at Community and national level that are likely to improve Roma women’s economic, social and political situation, their involvement in the decision-making process and protection of their human rights, (b) the inclusion of the issues concerning Roma populations in general, and equality of treatment and opportunity for Roma women in particular, in all relevant polices and programmes relating to employment policies and social inclusion, the European Social Fund, the Equal initiative, education and training programmes, the Daphne programme, and legislation and the action programme against discrimination, (c) consultation of Roma women when drawing up any programme or project likely to affect them and when adopting positive measures on their behalf;

19.   Considers that the lack of adequate data and statistics in the Member States and acceding and candidate countries makes it difficult to understand the scale of discrimination against the Roma, especially Roma women, and acts as a barrier to devising effective policies and assessing the impact of policies that have already been implemented;

20.   Calls on the governments concerned to take measures to improve the reproductive and sexual health protection of Roma women, to prevent and put an end to forced sterilisation, and to promote family planning, alternative arrangements to early marriages and sex education;


o o

21.   Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and Commission, the governments of the Member States, the acceding countries and the candidate countries.

  • [1] OJ C 364, 18.12.2000, p. 1.
  • [2] OJ L 180, 19.7.2000, p. 22.
  • [3] OJ L 303, 2.12.2000, p. 16.
  • [4] OJ L 34, 9.2.2000, p. 1.
  • [5] OJ C 127, 5.5.2000, p. 2.
  • [6] OJ L 303, 2.12.2000, p. 23.
  • [7] OJ L 17, 19.1.2001, p. 22.
  • [8] OJ L 335, 19.12.2001, p. 15.
  • [9] OJ L 10, 12.1.2002, p. 1.
  • [10] OJ C 39, 18.2.2003, p. 1.
  • [11] OJ C 175, 24.7.2003, p. 1.


The right to equality before the law and protection against discrimination for all persons is a universal right[1]. In implementing the principle of equal treatment irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, the Community aims, in accordance with Article 3(2) of the Amsterdam Treaty, to promote equality between men and women. The elimination of inequalities is also to be to be taken into account for all policies (mainstreaming Article 3(2), (6) and (13)), and Article 13 prohibits any discrimination based on sex. Incorporating the gender aspect into all policies is an essential instrument for achieving equality between women and men.

In addition to this, the Community is competent to adopt laws and measures concerning any aspect of equality at work (Article 137 and 141(4)). A combined reading of these articles allots the Community's institutions a specific new role in terms of fighting any discrimination on the grounds of sex and provides a basis for an equality strategy, always within the limits on the Community's competences set out under Article 13 of the Treaty.

The ban on discrimination 'shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of measures providing for specific advantages in favour of the under represented sex'[2] (positive action) intended to prevent or compensate for disadvantages suffered by a group of persons of a particular gender or racial or ethnic origin[3].

In almost all societies, women suffer serious sex discrimination that undoubtedly puts them at a disadvantage compared to men belonging to the same community. Other types of discrimination can be added to gender discrimination, including on the grounds of poverty, illness or membership of a particular ethnic group, culture or religion. In this case, women are the victims of multiple discrimination, and on their way to social exclusion.

This report deals with three specific minorities - we could have chosen others - that are significant in terms of the number of women belonging to them and the silence that usually surrounds the harsh reality of their lives.

Disabled women

There are 44.6m people with disabilities in the European Union, which is 15.7% of European citizens set to rise to 25% as the European Union enlarges in 2004.

It is estimated that women account for 51% of the overall disabled population. However, there is a basis for thinking that this percentage could be higher (53%, rising to 58% by 2015)[4].

The discrimination suffered by women in general occurs with a higher degree of incidence among disabled women. Basic evidence of multiple discrimination against these women is found in access to education, continuing training and employment, in terms of health care and in their high level of vulnerability to aggression and gender violence.

Compared to the 55% of able-bodied women in employment, only 25% of disabled women work. It is usually a job of inferior status, low paid and with fewer advantages than are enjoyed by disabled men. The problem is that there is no career guidance designed to meet the specific needs of disabled women.

There is no such thing as gender neutrality when it comes to the distribution of social policy measures. Women are more dependent than men on non-contributory benefits, face a more uncertain future and remain stereotyped as burdens.

Disabled women are only able to enjoy their sexuality to a limited degree. The general lack of information and the shortage of specialised training for health care employees make it difficult for these women to have real access to their sexual and reproductive rights and to receive detailed information that does not contain implicit discouragement against basic decisions on matters such as motherhood.

Almost 80% of disabled women are victims of violence, and the risk of sexual violence is four times higher for them than for other women. Just as able-bodied women are mostly the victims of violent partners or ex-partners, disabled women, 85% of whom are housed in institutions[5], are exposed to violence from the people around them, be they health care employees, service personnel or carers.

Violence is not only a frequent occurrence in the lives of disabled women, but on many occasions the very cause of the disability. It is estimated that violence is the main cause of death and disability worldwide, ahead of cancer, road accidents or even war [6], for women aged between 16 and 45.

The problems gaining access to decision-making and political representation faced by all women is worse still among women with disabilities. It is more difficult for women to get involved and make themselves heard as they are socially invisible and do not appear in the media, save as victims or as an exception. Very few of them are members of government bodies as part of their own organisations.

The divorce rate in marriages with disabled children has reached 60-67%[7]. The rate is also high among couples where the woman is disabled.

The full integration of disabled people, the achievement of equal opportunities and their involvement in economic and social life concerns the whole of society. Genuine respect for the rights of the broad-ranging group of disabled women requires a much stronger commitment from the institutions and citizens.

migrant women

Migrant women[8] play a key economic role in the integration process of their families, in many cases resolving the cultural conflicts immigrant communities experience in their host societies. Their presence in the migratory flows has a positive impact on the economy of their country of origin as well as the host country.

The migration of women is a growing phenomenon, yet is not yet adequately addressed by European immigration policies.

Immigration policy instruments, such as reuniting families, are not gender neutral. Female migrants' lack of individual rights makes them dependent on their husbands, who are considered to be the head of the family, and leaves them in a precarious situation should they separate, divorce or be widowed, open to expulsion by the authorities. On top of that, their economic and legal dependence, as well as the social isolation in which they often remain, increases the likelihood of their suffering domestic violence and makes them more vulnerable.

Poverty and social instability are central factors in the lives of migrant women. Difficulty in gaining access to the labour market[9] as a result of cultural and linguistic barriers, the lack of recognition of their professional qualifications, stereotypes and prejudice, racism and the disregard for their rights keep female immigrants confined to the lower ranks of the job market or to the black economy, or dependent on men for their survival. Many of these women remain at home working as carers and cleaners, stuck in the traditional female role with the resulting social isolation and lack of access to basic social services, and marginalised in the process of upward social mobility, which creates a chain reaction of social exclusion.

The growing demand for domestic workers is directly linked to gender issues that have a bearing on the need for immigrant workers. The lack of effective measures in policies designed to reconcile family life and employment, the increasing involvement of women in the labour market, the changes in European family structures and the ageing population all lead to a greater demand for female workers to cover the shortcomings of social policy. The EU should study this feminisation of immigration and take preventive action, bearing in mind the vulnerability of migrant women and their specific needs.

The closing of borders and restrictions on immigration increase the role of unofficial networks and the profits made by mafia-style networks that traffic in human beings. In the case of women who are victims of trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation, the granting of temporary residence permits must be encouraged.

Market liberalisation has contributed to the feminisation of poverty, the restriction of lifestyle choices and the discrimination women are subject to during the immigration process, at the same time exposing them to more exploitation and abuse. Action must be taken to combat violence towards domestic workers, irregular workers, and trafficked women, along with women threatened with genital mutilation, forced marriages and abuse arising from legal systems in the country of origin that do not enforce gender equality within the family. In this respect, it is necessary to introduce the freedom to choose to observe the family law of the country of residence rather than of the country of origin.

Roma women

There are approximately 8 to 10m Roma in Europe[10], although the still traditionally nomadic nature of this people means current census figures are unreliable. The figures in use should be treated with caution.

The population census puts the percentage of Roma women at 51%, which is comparable to the figure for women in general.

Different reports[11] highlight the range of problems facing these women, based on their age, marital status, religion, dominant culture and urban or rural background.

There is a high birth rate among the Roma population as well as high rates of adult and infant mortality. The women usually marry very young and bear their first child earlier than in other ethnic groups. Life expectancy is 13 and 17 years shorter for Roma men and women respectively than for the rest of the population. A high birth rate combined with a high mortality rate makes for a mostly young Roma population. 80% are younger than 34, whilst 43% are under 14 years.

There is a very strong patriarchal tradition among the Roma and women have far fewer rights and many more obligations than men. Female subordination is the case in almost all areas of private and public life. In spite of this, women are able to retain a sense of initiative and an enterprising spirit and are skilled at making contact with the outside world.

Roma women are acutely affected by unstable financial circumstances and unemployment. Problems relating to child education, particularly for girls, and illiteracy in adults and children makes access to the labour market difficult.

Roma women face severe obstacles when trying to access information services and health care, which are made worse by discrimination on the part of the employees they must deal with. Most women of Roma origin lack basic health knowledge and information about reproductive health[12]. Their customs when it comes to reproduction frequently give rise to discrimination from the rest of society.

They are often the victims of domestic and sexual violence that results from the hierarchical and patriarchal structure of their communities.

Roma women are caught between traditional culture and modern life. They must come to terms with their system of family values and the cultural burden of patriarchy as well as racist attitudes towards their people from the rest of society.

Improvement in living conditions for women, their level of education and their health, as well as access to equal opportunities would have a very positive effect on their families and would increase the possibility of integration without discrimination towards the Roma people as a whole.

  • [1] Universal Declaration of Human Rights; United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; UN Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, to which all Member States are signatories.
  • [2] Article II-23 on equality between men and women, Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.
  • [3] Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin
  • [4] 'Women-Disabled Women', conference by Lydia La Rivière
  • [5] 'Women-Disabled Women', conference by L. La Rivière
  • [6] WHO (cited in the Council of Europe in a report on domestic violence by the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, rapporteur: Olga Keltosova), document 9525, 17 July 2002
  • [7] 'Women-Disabled Women', conference by L. La Rivière
  • [8] At least 50m women are international migrants. According to UN overall figures from 1990, there were 12m migrant women in Europe. This figure has continued to rise since 1990, although there is no precise and up-to-date figure available.
  • [9] In 2000, there were marked differences in employment rates. Whilst 68% of female EU citizens aged between 25 and 39 were in employment, only 44% from outside the EU had a job. For legal female immigrants, the unemployment rate in the host country was 19%, compared to 10% for nationals of that country.
  • [10] They are found in almost all EU Member States, and in some Central and Eastern European countries account for more than 5% of the population. The majority, 8m to be more precise, live in Eastern Europe, while the remaining 2m reside in the Member States of the European Union. Romania has the highest number of Roma, almost 3m, making up 9.15% of the total population.
  • [11] THE SITUATION OF ROMA/GYPSY WOMEN IN EUROPE September 1999 Prepared by Mrs Nicoleta BITU, Roma Centre for Social Intervention and Studies (Roma CRISS), independent consultant on Roma women's issues for the Network Women Program of the Open Society Institute.
  • [12] Face to Face bulletin, August-September 2003, produced by the Spanish Family Planning Federation.