REPORT on the Follow-up of the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter: Towards a European Action Programme for Spatial Development and Territorial Cohesion
31.1.2008 - (2007/2190(INI))
Committee on Regional Development
Rapporteur: Gisela Kallenbach
MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
on the Follow-up of the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter: Towards a European Action Programme for Spatial Development and Territorial Cohesion
The European Parliament,
– having regard to the Territorial Agenda of the EU ('the Territorial Agenda') and the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities ('the Leipzig Charter'), which were both adopted at the Informal Council of Ministers responsible for spatial planning and urban development held in Leipzig on 24-25 May 2007, and the First Action Programme for the Implementation of the Territorial Agenda of the European Union, adopted at the Informal Council of Ministers responsible for spatial planning and development held in Ponta Delgada (Azores) on 23-24 November 2007 ('the First Action Programme'),
– having regard to the Fourth Report on Economic and Social Cohesion (COM(2007)0273) ('the Fourth Cohesion Report'),
– having regard to the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESPD), adopted at the Informal Council of Ministers responsible for spatial planning held in Potsdam on 11 May 1999,
– having regard to the results of the European Spatial Planning Observatory Network (ESPON) 2006 Programme,
– having regard to the proposed ESPON 2013 Programme,
– having regard to Articles 158 and 159 of the Treaty establishing the European Community,
– having regard to Rule 45 of its Rules of Procedure,
– having regard to the report of the Committee on Regional Development (A6‑0028/2008),
A. whereas territorial diversity, polycentrism and compact cities are essential structural characteristics of the European territory,
B. whereas the majority of European citizens now live in cities,
C. whereas the current challenges to spactial development in the European Union include climate change, urban sprawl and land use, energy consumption, transport infrastructures, demographic change, including the depopulation of rural areas and other regions of the EU, the impact of enlargement on social, economic and territorial cohesion and the uneven regional effects of globalisation, including the widening gap between rich and less prosperous regions, as well as the unequal development of urban and rural areas combined with structural change;
D. whereas the objectives set out in the Territorial Agenda are the establishment of a polycentric, balanced urban system and the creation of a new urban-rural relationship, the formation of innovative regional clusters, ensuring parity of access to infrastructures and knowledge, the promotion of trans-European risk management, sustainable development, forward-looking management and conservation of the natural and cultural heritage,
E. whereas the objectives set out in the Leipzig Charter are making greater use of integrated urban development policy approaches by creating and ensuring high-quality public spaces, modernising infrastructure networks and improving energy efficiency, promoting proactive innovation and educational policies and – particularly in deprived neighbourhoods – promoting sustainable, efficient and affordable urban transport, pursuing strategies for upgrading the physical environment, strengthening the local economy and local labour market policy, and proactive education and training policies for children and young people,
F. whereas spatial planning is the proper instrument for the guidance of land use and settlement structure in the Member States and their regions and cities, and for determining quality of life and development opportunities on the ground,
G. whereas, in addition to cohesion policy as an instrument for strategic governance, other measures are needed to achieve the objectives of the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter, particularly spatial impact assessments, the integrated approach and spatial planning observation,
H. whereas, in addition to cohesion policy, rural development policy has significant spatial impact; whereas there is insufficient integration of these two policy areas and therefore a need for enhanced synergies that will reveal real development potential and boost the attractiveness and competitiveness of rural areas, something which would help to combating rural depopulation,
I. whereas the quality of public space and of the natural, cultural and architectural environment plays an important role in the quality of life of people living in urban and rural areas and are crucial ‘soft’ location factors,
J. whereas creativity and innovation are crucial resources in the transition to a globalised knowledge society; whereas, therefore, the development of creativity potential on the ground is key to the success of sustainable spatial and urban planning,
K. whereas ‘Baukultur’ (the culture of a high quality built environment), that is to say the sum of cultural, economic, technological and environmental aspects influencing the quality and process of planning and building, is an essential component of integrated urban development,
L. whereas the integrated approach implies that the projects developed should constitute a coherent long-term plan incorporating the economic, social and environmental dimensions and fully involving key partners in the planning, execution and evaluation of urban development programmes;
M. whereas an integrated approach to the territorial dimension of cohesion does not consist only of land planning and urban development actions and policies, because the ultimate objective is to ensure a balance between European citizens wherever they live, an aim which cannot be achieved solely through land planning,
1. Considers that the objectives of the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter can only be achieved by pursuing a comprehensive, cross-sector, holistic development strategy to put the integrated approach into practice;
2. Proposes, in the context of the mid-term review of cohesion policy, and with an eye to post-2013 cohesion policy, to analyse to what extent the implementation of an integrated approach might be a binding requirement for programme planning and project selection under the Structural Funds; to that end, calls on decision-makers to undertake voluntarily to implement new cooperation methods;
3. Welcomes the decision of the EU ministers responsible for urban development, at their informal meeting held in Leipzig on 24 and 25 May 2007, to set up an intergovernmental working party, chaired by Germany, to identify and elucidate various issues relating to the implementation of the JESSICA initiative;
4. Welcomes in this connection the creation of a Commission inter-service group dealing with suggestions for the implementation of the integrated approach and calls on the Commission to work in close cooperation with all social and economic partners and to ensure their involvement in all decisions relating to territorial cohesion; asks the Commission to keep Parliament informed about the progress of this work;
5. Calls for particular attention to be paid, in the shaping of post-2013 cohesion policy, to spatial characteristics and needs and to region-specific treatment based on these factors; recommends the use of implementation-orientated planning tools, as mentioned in the Leipzig Chapter, based on research and permanent monitoring;
6. Calls on the Commission and Council, in the context of the mid-term review of cohesion policy, to make better use of synergies with the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) for the development of the territory as a whole; recommends, with an eye to post-2013 cohesion policy, close coordination between cohesion policy and rural development policy, in order to enhance the opportunities for improving the quality of life in rural areas;
7. Notes that it is not only metropolitan regions that have innovation potential, and that some relatively remote and rural areas are in the forefront of achieving the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy; urges the Commission to look more closely at the success factors of these areas with a view to creating a development model for small and medium-sized towns in rural areas;
8. Stresses the importance of partnership and of the sharing of functions between urban and rural areas for the balanced and sustainable development of the territory as a whole; calls on urban and rural authorities in cooperation with all public and private stakeholders to identify their common assets and produce joint regional and sub-regional development strategies in order to secure better living conditions and quality of life for all citizens of the Union; calls on the forthcoming Presidencies to hold informal meetings of the Ministers responsible for territorial planning and urban development to address these issues;
9. Calls on the Commission and Council to take the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter into account in their review of the general budget of the European Union, and to make qualitative adjustments to enable territorial cohesion targets to be incorporated more effectively into EU policies; considers that legislative measures need to be taken in the next few years to achieve this;
10. Calls on the Council, on reviewing the Lisbon and Göteborg strategies (sustainable development strategy) at the 2008 Spring summit, to define territorial and urban policy interests as objectives;
11. Urges the Member States to take swift action to achieve the goals of the Territorial Agenda and implement the Leipzig Charter;
12. Calls on the Council and the Member States, in a spirit of true multi-level governance that both takes account of the territorial diversity of the European Union and respects the subsidiarity principle, to fully involve local and regional governments, including cross-border public authorities, and, in pursuit of the partnership principle, to involve the economic and social partners, relevant NGOs and private stakeholders in the action programmes for implementing the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter, and gives its wholehearted support to these efforts; stresses that this need to work together should be regarded positively by all actors involved, as it has been proved that coherent collaboration is effective;
13. Recalls the key role that access to information and communication technologies plays for the future development prospects of the regions, and thus recommends, as mentioned in the Territorial Agenda, integrating infrastructure such as broadband cables into new transport and communication programmes;
14. Calls on the Commission to undertake a systematic analysis of the territorial impact of relevant key EU policies, as agreed by the Member States under line of action 2 of the First Action Programme, and also to undertake a spatial impact assessment of relevant new legislation; points in this connection, to the potential of the evaluation methods developed by ESPON;
15. Acknowledges that high quality pre-school and school education, lifelong learning, universities and other research institutes, are fundamental for the future development of cities and regions;
16. Calls for a policy on creative economic sectors to be incorporated into spatial and urban development with the aim of creating a framework, using the instruments available (cohesion policy, spatial and urban planning) and taking into account the quality of space, for improving opportunities for creative and innovative action;
17. Considers it necessary, in the light of demographic trends, to improve the adaptability of cities and regions, prioritising self-development and the promotion of voluntary work;
18. Emphasises that demographic trends lead to new challenges on the labour market, in access to social and health services and housing and in planning in general; points out that the ageing of the population can be seen as an opportunity for creating new jobs in a growing market and new products and services which improve the quality of life of older people; stresses that the development of the so-called 'silver economy' is important at local and regional level;
19. Calls on the Member States to guarantee as a matter of principle throughout their territory the availability of, right of access to and accessibility of services of general interest, in order to enable people in differing regions to exploit their region’s own specific opportunities and potentials; calls for particular account to be taken of the needs of disadvantaged groups such as the disabled, immigrants, ethnic minorities, the long-term unemployed and people with few qualifications and the particular needs of women; calls on the Commission, in its guidelines for the application of the framework rules on services of general interest and the award of public contracts, to enable local authorities to take greater account of local needs and local actors and to improve their adaptability;
20. Calls on the Commission, in the light of the Community’s new competences for spatial planning under the Treaty of Lisbon, to draft a communication on the creation of an EU framework for spatial impact assessment at project level, taking account of the work of ESPON;
21. Notes that, following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, cooperation and coordination between itself and the Council and Commission must be stepped up in the context of the implementation of the First Action Programme;
22. Welcomes in particular the fact that the Treaty of Lisbon declares territorial cohesion alongside economic and social cohesion to be a Treaty objective and provides for shared legislative competence between the EU and the Member States in this area; points out that the Treaty of Lisbon recognises the fact that the territorial challenges that affect islands, mountains, border regions and very remote and sparsely-populated areas should be tackled, since they have a negative impact on the overall competitiveness of the EU's economy; calls on the Commission to complement the First Action Programme with specific proposals for EU measures and initiatives;
23. Highlights the fact that there is no commonly agreed definition of territorial cohesion yet; and therefore urges the Commission to define clearly territorial cohesion and to list the objectives for territorial development in the European Union in the forthcoming Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion; expects the highest priority to be given to the objective of ensuring that all citizens of the Union, wherever they live in the EU, are offered equal development and access opportunities;
24. Recommends the further development of the ESDP and urges the full involvement of the new Member States in this policy framework;
25. Considers it important to carry out regular assessments of progress in the implementation of the Territorial Agenda; calls on the Council, the Commission and all stakeholders to evaluate not only progress made in the implementation of individual measures of the First Action Programme, but also the impact of these measures and their contribution to sustainable spatial development in Europe;
26. Calls on the Council to agree as soon as possible on simple, quantifiable indicators for the observation of spatial development in the EU; calls for annual land consumption to be set as a one of those spatial development indicators;
27. Notes that these indicators could be used as targets for the guidance of spatial development; proposes that the Council and Commission use these indicators for benchmarking between the Member States, and for building up a database of best practises;
28. Supports the Council’s intention to issue a report on the implementation of the First Action Programme at each informal Council meeting; suggests that the Council consider a Mutual Learning Programme for European spatial development on the exchange of experience and best practices between the Member States;
29. Stresses the importance of improving coordination between the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter; regrets in this connection that the Council has not yet adopted an action programme for the implementation of the targets of the Leipzig Charter, and calls on forthcoming presidencies to remedy this omission, thereby ensuring a systematic follow-up to the Leipzig Charter;
30. Welcomes the initiative of the Slovenian Presidency to prepare and promote measures seeking to enhance coordination between spatial and urban development with a view to further interlinking between the objectives of the Territorial Agenda and the Leipzig Charter;
31. Refers to the conclusions from the Fourth Cohesion Report in which towns and urban areas are seen as centres of population, economic strength and innovation; welcomes proposals for the creation of innovative regional and urban clusters, and calls upon these clusters to also apply across both internal and external borders of the EU;
32. Calls on the Commission and Council, having particular regard to the work of the Urban Audit, to set benchmarks for the sustainability of cities as set out in the Leipzig Charter, such as per capita energy consumption, local public transport usage as a proportion of total transport volume, and per capita greenhouse gas emissions;
33. Highlights the key role that cities play in achieving the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy and thus calls for a holistic and well coordinated urban development strategy supported by all levels of government as well as the private sector;
34. Calls on the Commission to take a greater interest in the issue of urban sprawl; calls on the Member States, in the light of the problem of landscape fragmentation and the continuing loss of land to urban growth in the Member States, to force through effective measures and strategies to restrict land use;
35. Recommends that the Member States give priority to internal urban development rather than external, in other words that they prioritise the re-use, or use for new purposes, of existing buildings, mainly by means of sustainable land management, before building on new land;
36. Welcomes the emphasis put on the interlinking of transport modes by the Leipzig Charter; highlights the importance of an integrated and sustainable transportation system and the significant role that an improved cycling and pedestrian infrastructure can play, particularly in the larger cities; calls upon the Commission to explore more effective mechanisms to support local authorities in developing strategies for integrated transport networks, particular in less developed regions;
37. Regrets that social and economic disparities are on the increase, particularly in metropolitan regions and cities in the EU, but also in rural areas; calls on the Member States to tackle this problem more energetically and to take greater account of it when planning programmes with a view to the award of appropriations from the structural funds;
38. Takes the view that cities have a particular responsibility in fulfilling the EU climate targets as they are in a unique position to deliver potential solutions to contribute to the reduction of the global greenhouse gas emissions; urges Member States to incorporate climate protection into urban development as a horizontal objective;
39. Highlights the fact that investing in environmentally friendly technology, such as innovative prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures, offers significant business opportunities in the long term;
40. Notes that urban areas suffer the effects of climate change more severely when the lack of fresh air corridors leads to further warming and higher pollution concentrations;
41. Insists that efforts be stepped up to improve integration and social and territorial cohesion, particularly by overcoming defects in the built environment and by improving environmental conditions, while pursuing a balanced development policy for urban areas, namely by stabilising problem areas and providing attractive living, working and leisure areas;
42. Calls for better integration of deprived neighbourhoods; asks the competent authorities of the Member States to identify the warning signs of decline in particular areas and to increase efforts to implement a policy of social integration to reduce inequalities and prevent social exclusion; stresses the important role that small and medium-sized enterprises play for economic development and territorial competitiveness, not only in deprived neighbourhoods, but in all urban areas;
43. Calls on the Commission, in the context of future funding programmes including the Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities to step up its support for projects promoting the development and exchange of experience on sustainable urban management, the promotion of energy efficient practices and technologies, the resolution of urban environmental problems and the contribution of cities to combating climate change;
44. Takes the view that enhancing urban identity and active citizenship in cities can contribute to the successful implementation of the Leipzig Charter; calls on the Commission and the Member States to launch a territorial dialogue’ to boost public participation in planning for the revitalisation and development of urban areas;
45. Calls on the Member States and their regions and cities to pay greater attention to creating a culture of a high quality built environment ('Baukultur') as well as to the availability of decent and affordable housing as crucial factors for social inclusion and for the quality of city life in the context of sustainable urban development, while giving particular attention to the quality of the public space , notably in terms of architectural design quality, as a means of ensuring better well-being for Union citizens;
46. Calls on the Council, and in particular the Slovene and French Presidencies, to build on the progress made under the German and Portuguese Presidencies with regard to territorial cohesion and continue to adopt proposals in this regard; takes the view, given that the emphasis to date has been on cities, the relationship between town and country, and land planning, that future initiatives must take more account of the requirements of regions with territorial disadvantages, such as islands, mountains, border areas and very remote or sparsely populated areas;
47. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and Commission, and the Committee of the Regions.
On 24-25 May 2007 the EU ministers responsible for spatial planning and urban development adopted the Territorial Agenda (TA) and the Leipzig Charter (LC) at an informal ministerial meeting in Leipzig.
On the basis of a joint analysis of future challenges to spatial planning in Europe, the EU ministers agreed on territorial priorities for the development of the European Union and on recommendations for an integrated urban development policy, with particular reference to disadvantaged neighbourhoods.
The TA is the result of many years of intergovernmental cooperation between the Member States, and is based on three essential objectives of the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), which is still applicable:
· establishment of a polycentric and balanced urban system and the creation of a new urban-rural relationship,
· ensuring parity of access to infrastructure and knowledge,
· sustainable development, particularly through management and conservation of the natural and cultural heritage.
The adoption of the TA reinforces the territorial dimension and forms part of efforts to define and shape the concept of territorial cohesion more effectively. On the basis of Articles 2, 6, 16 and 158 of the EC Treaty, territorial cohesion has already been acknowledged as a third dimension of cohesion policy. The Reform Treaty declares territorial cohesion to be a Treaty objective and provides for concurrent legislative competences for the EU and the Member States in this area.
The EU urban planning ministers agreed on the LC in spite of the fact that the EU does not possess any legislative competence in the field of urban planning. However, the urban dimension is increasingly becoming the subject of attention at European level, particularly for the formation of cohesion policy. Ongoing processes of urban expansion are accompanied by many challenges, such as the decay of neighbourhoods, the overloading of inner-city transport networks, soil sealing, environmental damage and social problems. The LC builds principally on the results of:
· the Lille Action Programme of 2000,
· the Urban Acquis of 2004 and
· the Bristol Accord of 2005.
Towards the adoption of the first Action Programme
On 23 November 2007 the EU ministers will be adopting the first Action Programme for the implementation of the TA at the Informal Council of Ministers in the Azores. The Action Programme provides a framework for concrete individual measures to be taken to achieve the objectives of the TA until an initial assessment in 2010. In this context, five areas of work should be distinguished:
· Implementing the TA in the ministers’ sphere of competence,
· Influencing key EU dossiers and reinforcing the territorial and urban dimension of sector-specific policies,
· Reinforcing multi-level governance,
· Assessing and comparing territorial development in the EU,
· Coordinating and assessing the implementation of the first Action Programme and developing a communication strategy for territorial cohesion and sustainable spatial development.
The Action Programme is intended to trigger a dynamic progress making it possible to influence European spatial development positively in accordance with the objectives of the TA and LC.
Role of the European Parliament
The European Parliament was involved in the elaboration of the TA and LC as a stakeholder, took an active part in the process and wishes to monitor the implementation process as a critical observer.
On 27 February 2007 the Committee on Regional Development (REGI) adopted a position paper with recommendations for the TA and LC, calling, inter alia, for an Action Programme with precise evaluation criteria and measurable objectives.
The own-initiative report – building on the REGI committee’s active contribution to the adoption of the TA, the LC and the first Action Programme – is another essential contribution to achieving the balanced, sustainable development of the EU on a territorial basis.
The report is intended to be adopted before the EU Spring Summit, at which a debate on the Lisbon and Gothenburg strategies is on the agenda, so that greater attention can be paid to the interests of the territorial and urban dimension in the context of these strategies.
Requirements for successful implementation
The objectives formulated in the TA and the LC can only be achieved by a comprehensive, cross-sector, holistic development strategy. To that end it is essential to pursue an integrated approach, both vertically and horizontally.
A vertically integrated approach means better coordination and cooperation between different levels of government (local, national and European) involving all the local and regional actors concerned and civil society (stakeholders). The Action Programme should not only call on the relevant EU ministers to take action but should involve all levels of government in the implementation of the objectives. Local and regional stakeholders in particular should adopt these objectives, which are of particular importance in the pursuit of spatial planning aims.
Urban development can only be successful if it is understood as city-plus-periphery policy. For just as the periphery benefits from what the city has to offer, the city urgently needs its periphery to carry out functions which it is not able to perform itself, such as recreation or water supply. In view of the intensive reciprocal relations – in particular the flows of materials, capital and people – between city and periphery, it is clear that cities must enter into partnerships with their peripheries. To that end, appropriate administrative structures must be created making it possible to make use of synergies and avoid unhealthy competition for resources. Bureaucratic and political barriers must be overcome. In this connection territorial and regional cooperation has a key role in preventing polarisation between urban and rural areas and making the best possible use of synergies. The specific competences of rural areas make an important contribution to the territorial diversity of Europe.
Sustainable regional and urban planning also calls for a horizontally integrated approach. Sector-specific policies must not run counter to the objectives of spatial planning or those of urban development, but must be in harmony with them. With that in mind, sector-specific policies such as transport or energy policy must be analysed to gauge their large- and small-scale spatial impact. Such an approach is also of benefit in avoiding social exclusion and giving encouragement to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. An integrated development strategy must therefore be implemented taking account of the most diverse aspects such as education, the labour market, transport policy and "Baukultur" (culture of the built environment).
Cohesion policy also plays a key role in achieving the objectives of the TA and LC. Thanks to the size of its budget, cohesion policy is the most important management instrument for sustainable spatial and urban development. The award of appropriations from the structural funds should be geared more closely to territorial policy objectives, such as the promotion of a polycentric urban structure or of trans-European climate change risk management.
Cities have a particular responsibility for meeting Community climate change objectives. On the model of a climate-friendly city, action on climate change should be mainstreamed and taken into account in all areas of policy. The structural funds can contribute to this for example by giving priority to more climate-friendly transport solutions and energy-efficient construction measures.
Concrete proposals for improving the implementation of the TA and LC objectives
Only through interaction between economic, environmental, social and cultural development will it be possible for balanced spatial and urban development to take place. Spatial development is concerned with the planning and management of the whole territory (housing, trade and industry, transport, infrastructure, natural environment, agriculture), in which urban areas have always played a special role in view of their economic and social function and their complexity.
One priority of the Portuguese Presidency is to implement the objectives of the TA. The Member States have agreed in the TA to carry out an initial assessment of the TA in 2010 under the Hungarian Presidency. Such an assessment only makes sense if the concrete objectives of the TA are to be compared with real developments. It is therefore necessary for concrete, measurable indicative targets to be defined in the context of the implementation of the first Action Programme, making it possible to evaluate the spatial development of the EU. To that end use should be made of the proposals in the Espon studies (e.g. Espon 1.1.1 on polycentrism, Espon 1.1.4 on demographic changes, Espon 1.2.1 on transport).
The Lisbon Reform Treaty declares territorial cohesion to be a Treaty objective and confers on the EU a concurrent competence with the Member States in this area. The Commission should make use of this basis to press on with the implementation of the TA by means of initiatives and to develop it through the Open Method of Coordination.
This should include – in addition to the assessment of the spatial impact of new proposed legislation at EU level – a more detailed analysis of EU policies as to their territorial effects. Some Espon projects have already produced initial results in this area which should be taken into account in the formation of policy. A more systematic analysis of the territorial impact of sector-specific EU policies is a prerequisite for effective implementation of the integrated approach. Espon has developed methods for the evaluation of territorial impact in this area: TEQUILA offers a method for multi-dimensional analysis. The new 2013 Espon programme with a budget of EUR 34 million may contribute further possibilities.
Awareness of the territorial effects of regional policy and of sector-specific EU policies should be raised by a debate at the EU Spring Summit on the implementation of the TA and LC in the context of the discussion on structural funds. Particular consideration should be given to the importance of the integrated approach and to guaranteeing territorial diversity.
On a proposal from the Commission and on the basis of the work of Espon, a uniform pan-European framework for spatial impact assessment at project level should be devised. Some Member States, such as Germany, Austria, the Wallonian region of Belgium, and Portugal, already have such an instrument. The experience gathered with this instrument could be used in the debate. An assessment framework of this kind should come into play particularly for major projects financed out of the structural funds. This is necessary particularly in order to boost the importance of spatial impact in the selection of projects for funding. Reducing land use and the multi-functional use of city centres as living and working areas are also spatial policy objectives which should be used far more extensively as conditions for the award of structural fund appropriations.
In the context of the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy, the territorial and urban dimension should be paid greater attention in the national strategic framework plans and should be one of the Commission's benchmarks in the context of the Open Method of Coordination. Greater account must also be taken of territorial and urban aspects in the evaluation and formation of European policies, for example in the budget review procedure, in policy on rural areas and in EU transport policy.
Putting the objectives set out in the TA and the LC into practice is not an end in itself, but is in the interest of a sustainable development strategy to improve the quality of life for all EU citizens. The EU is characterised not only by great territorial diversity in a small area, but also by a high quality of life, not least thanks to the European sensitivity for spatial planning and sustainable urban and regional policy. This is a strong suit which the EU should continue to play to. Successfully implementing the TA and the LC can make a vital contribution to this.
-  See, inter alia, European Commission, “Spatial impacts of Community policies and costs of non-coordination”.
-  See inter alia “Territorial effects of structural funds, Espon project 2.2.1”.
-  Draft ad-hoc note, Policy Department B, EP, “Follow-up of the TA and the Leipzig Charter: Towards a European Action Programme for Spatial Development and Territorial Cohesion”
RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE
Result of final vote
Members present for the final vote
Alfonso Andria, Emmanouil Angelakas, Stavros Arnaoutakis, Elspeth Attwooll, Jean Marie Beaupuy, Rolf Berend, Jana Bobošíková, Victor Bostinaru, Antonio De Blasio, Bairbre de Brún, Petru Filip, Gerardo Galeote, Iratxe García Pérez, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Ambroise Guellec, Pedro Guerreiro, Zita Gurmai, Marian Harkin, Jim Higgins, Filiz Hakaeva Hyusmenova, Mieczysław Edmund Janowski, Gisela Kallenbach, Tunne Kelam, Evgeni Kirilov, Constanze Angela Krehl, Jamila Madeira, Mario Mantovani, Sérgio Marques, Miroslav Mikolášik, James Nicholson, Lambert van Nistelrooij, Jan Olbrycht, Maria Petre, Markus Pieper, Pierre Pribetich, Wojciech Roszkowski, Grażyna Staniszewska, Margie Sudre, Oldřich Vlasák, Vladimír Železný
Substitute(s) present for the final vote
Peter Baco, Jan Březina, Brigitte Douay, Den Dover, Jill Evans, Emanuel Jardim Fernandes, Lidia Joanna Geringer de Oedenberg, Dariusz Maciej Grabowski, Mirosław Mariusz Piotrowski, Francisca Pleguezuelos Aguilar, Christa Prets, Miloslav Ransdorf, Czesław Adam Siekierski, László Surján
Substitute(s) under Rule 178(2) present for the final vote