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Document selected : A8-0021/2016

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PE 567.672v02-00 A8-0021/2016

on Learning EU at school


Committee on Culture and Education

Rapporteur: Damian Drăghici



on Learning EU at school


The European Parliament,

–  having regard to Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU),

–  having regard to Article 165 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1288/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing ‘Erasmus+’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport and repealing Decisions No 1719/2006/EC, No 1720/2006/EC and No 1298/2008/EC(1),

–  having regard to Decision No 1093/2012/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on the European Year of Citizens (2013)(2),

–  having regard to Council Regulation (EU) No 390/2014 of 14 April 2014 establishing the ‘Europe for Citizens’ programme for the period 2014-2020(3),

–  having regard to the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning(4),

–  having regard to the Declaration on Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education (‘Paris Declaration’) of the informal meeting of European Union Education Ministers of 17 March 2015,

–  having regard to the Council Conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (‘ET 2020’)(5),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 26 August 2015 entitled ‘Draft 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the Strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (‘ET 2020’)’ (COM(2015)0408),

–  having regard to the Commission Implementing Decision of 14 September 2015 on the adoption of the 2016 annual work programme for the implementation of ‘Erasmus+’: the Union Programme for Education, Training, Youth and Sport (C(2015)6151),

–  having regard to the Council Conclusions of 28 and 29 November 2011 on a benchmark for learning mobility(6),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 15 September 2015 entitled ‘Draft 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-2018)’ (COM(2015)0429),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 27 April 2009 entitled An EU Strategy for Youth: Investing and Empowering – A renewed open method of coordination to address youth challenges and opportunities’ (COM(2009)0200),

–  having regard to the Council Resolution of 27 November 2009 on a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-2018)(7),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 20 December 2012 on the validation of non-formal and informal learning(8),

–  having regard to its resolution on education and training policy in the run-up to 1993(9),

–  having regard to its resolution of 26 September 2006 on initiatives to complement school curricula providing appropriate support measures to include the European dimension(10),

–  having regard to its resolution on improving the quality of teacher education(11);

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Culture and Education (A8-0021/2016),

A.  whereas education is a fundamental human right and a public good that should be equally accessible to all;

B.  whereas the main role of education is to form fully aware citizens and therefore goes beyond the fulfilment of the economic targets of EU and national strategies;

C.  whereas the objectives of education include preparing individuals for life and active citizenship in increasingly complex, demanding, multicultural and integrated societies;

D.  whereas, according to a 2014 Eurobarometer opinion poll, 44 % of European Union citizens feel that they have limited understanding of how the EU works and 52 % of Europeans believe that their voice does not count in the EU(12);

E.  whereas only 42.61 % of EU citizens, and only 27.8 % of 18-24 year-olds, voted in the last European Parliament elections, representing the lowest voter turnout since 1979(13);

F.   whereas insufficient knowledge about the EU and poor understanding of its concrete added-value may contribute to the perception of a democratic deficit and lead to widespread Euroscepticism in Member States and candidate countries; whereas democratic deficits need to be addressed in order to tackle the growing gap between the voice of European citizens and the EU institutions;

G.   whereas, according to the 2015 Special Eurobarometer 437, a vast majority of Europeans agrees that school lessons and material should include information about diversity in terms of religion or beliefs, ethnic origin, sexual orientation and gender identity(14);

H.   whereas increased awareness about the benefits of European policies, such as free movement of people and services within the Union and EU mobility programmes, can help create a sense of belonging to the EU, community spirit and acceptance of multicultural and multinational societies;

I.  whereas successful education systems and curricula, together with increased influence and participation of Europeans in EU policy decision making processes, could create greater interest in EU affairs, and a sense of understanding and belonging, while contributing to tackling social divisions, cultural segregation and feelings of deprivation;

J.  whereas a majority of Member States have integrated learning about the EU into their curricula and teacher training programmes; whereas disparities between and within Member States continue to exist;

K.  whereas, in some Member States, while EU topics are generally taught across the different education levels and across various subjects of compulsory education, they primarily constitute a small part of the curriculum that a given teacher has to deliver;

L.  whereas the knowledge and skills of teachers and other educational staff about EU topics need to be developed further and updated through initial and ongoing training, and whereas, in this regard, educational institutions and teachers require effective assistance that is tailored and relevant to their particular needs;

M.  whereas according to ‘Learning Europe at school’, a study prepared by private consultancy ICF GHK for DG Education and Culture(15), it is primarily institutions and associations outside of higher education that are involved in delivering teacher education on EU issues;

N.  whereas the Erasmus Impact Study presented by the Commission in 2014 demonstrates the positive impact mobility in education and internationalisation of studies has, not only on curricula and employability, but also in terms of knowledge of Europe, the development of a sense of European citizenship and a positive attitude towards Europe, and on voting in the European elections;

A European dimension in education

1.   Underlines the increasing importance of a European dimension in education across the different disciplines, levels and forms of education, while stressing the need for a broad and in-depth understanding of the concept which takes into account its complex, dynamic and multi-layered nature, with learning about the EU at school being a crucial component;

2.   Emphasises that an EU dimension in education is crucial to help citizens better understand – and reconnect them with – the EU, and can deepen the role of the values set out in Article 2 TEU and strengthen the voice of the Union in an interdependent world;

3.  Emphasises the need of understanding and promoting attachment to the fundamental values of the European Union; points out that knowing and understanding the common history and values of the EU and its Member States is a key for mutual understanding, living together peacefully, tolerance and solidarity, and also for understanding the core principles of the European Union;

4.   Points out that the EU should be more visible, and better integrated, in teaching materials and extracurricular activities, given its impact on the everyday life of its citizens; considers that content explicitly related to the EU can add substantial value to school curricula and to the personal development and growth of learners;

5.  Emphasises the need to use active and participative teaching methods tailored to learners’ age, levels, needs and interests, and to exploit fully the opportunities offered by the information and communication technologies and the media, including social media;

6.  Underlines that an EU dimension in education should enable learners not only to acquire knowledge and develop a sense of belonging and European citizenship skills, but also to engage in a critical reflection on the EU, including through learning about EU fundamental values, based on the rule of law and human rights, EU governance and decision-making processes, and how these influence their Member States and their democratic participation; encourages the use of European Youth Parliament roleplay games to help children and students understand the European processes and raise their awareness of European issues;

7.   Draws attention to the fact that the EU has been shaped by its Member States, with their unique histories and cultures, and that the development of the Union remains inextricably linked to its Member States; highlights, at the same time, the contribution of different cultures to the European societies and heritage;

8.  Notes that the impact of the EU on the Member States is considerable, and that learning about the EU at school should reflect both the role of Member States in the development of the EU and the influence of the EU on national developments;

9.   Points out that the Member States and the EU have to lead by examples to all actors involved in teaching and learning EU at school, by practising core European values of social inclusion and European and international solidarity;

10.  Recalls the need to ensure, enhance and broaden initial and ongoing, professional, lifelong development opportunities for teachers and educators and to provide them with appropriate support and resources in order to enable them to incorporate an EU dimension into their teaching, in particular with regard to history and citizenship education, as well as to implement learner-centred strategies and to adapt their teaching methods to the needs of learners;

11.  Stresses the need to promote and encourage multi-lingual and intercultural competences of educators, as well as mobility opportunities, peer-to-peer learning and exchanges of best practices among teaching staff, for instance through the organisation of European-level seminars;

12.  Stresses the role of universities in the preparation and training of highly qualified and motivated teachers and educators; calls for encouragement and support for the actions of the Member States in their efforts to provide possibilities for specialised qualification courses within universities, open and accessible to enrolled students as well as to practicing teachers and educators;

13.  Stresses the importance and the potential of a European approach to the teaching of history, while bearing in mind the competence of the Member States in this area, as some historic events were determinant in the emergence of the European ideals and values; calls on the Commission and the Member States to support history societies and centres for historical research, in order to highlight the value of their scientific contribution to European history and their role in keeping schoolteachers up to date;

14.  Calls for the House of European History to develop, especially for students and teachers at all levels of education, specific programmes, instruments and activities that build up a cogent narrative of European integration and its basic values;

15.  Calls for an urgent renewal and strengthening of EU citizenship and civic education in both current and future Member States, with the aim of equipping learners, by means appropriate to their age, with relevant knowledge, values, skills and competences, empowering them to think critically and form well-informed and balanced opinions, exercise their democratic rights and responsibilities, including the right to vote, value diversity, encourage intercultural and interreligious dialogue and be active and responsible citizens;

16.  Points out that increased student and parent participation in school governance can contribute towards tackling discrimination and strengthening sustainable participatory democracy and citizenship, fostering trust and cooperation between various actors; calls on educational institutions to introduce, and increase the scope of, democratic governance, also by means of giving a bigger weight to the voice of students’ representations, since democracy has to be learned and experienced;

17.  Stresses the need to enhance teachers' and learners' motivation and opportunities to learn more about the EU through their own first-hand experiences, such us school visits to other countries, visits to the European institutions, contacts with EU officials, traineeship opportunities for students within the EU institutions, and through media education, such as the European Youth Portal, making full use of the new information and communication technologies and open educational resources;

18.  Calls to make full use of the opportunities offered by digital technologies to further develop cross-border teaching, through digital courses and video conferences, in order to facilitate the discovery for students of other points of view and approaches regarding their disciplines;

19.  Underlines that the learning of foreign languages can play a crucial role in increasing intercultural awareness and providing citizens with the skills needed to live and work in an increasingly complex and globalised world;

20.  Highlights the crucial role of non-formal and informal learning, including youth work, volunteering and inter-generational, family and adult learning, as well as sport as a pedagogical instrument, in developing social and civic skills, competences and behaviours, and in shaping responsible and active European citizens; underlines the need to recognise and validate such competences within formal learning and to create closer links between formal, non-formal and informal learning;

21.  Calls for the adoption of an intercultural approach to education policy capable of enabling the genuine integration of immigrant students into schools based on mutual knowledge of different cultures and the construction of shared common values;

The role of the Union

22.  Encourages the Commission to continue its support for efforts to develop and promote an EU dimension in education as well as the mobility of educational actors, and to actively disseminate information – including information on relevant funding opportunities and available studies and reports – to key stakeholders and citizens; encourages, in this regard, the better use of new communication technologies and media, including social media;

23.  Calls on the Commission to provide a common framework, and to prepare guidelines with concrete examples, for learning about the EU in order to foster objective and critical thinking about the benefits of the European Union for its citizens, while respecting Member States' competence in the field of education and training;

24.  Asks the Commission to encourage further research to ascertain how the EU is currently taught in schools across Europe, how it features in curricula and exams, and whether (a) teachers and educators have sufficient access to relevant EU programmes and actions for professional development, lifelong learning and platforms for exchange of best practices, and (b) funded actions to incorporate efficient school learning about the EU do have an impact on schools in the end;

25.  Calls on the Commission to encourage, support and facilitate networks that promote, and are involved in, learning about the EU at national, regional and local level, as well as exchanges of best practice between these networks at Union level, and to identify areas of improvement;

26.  Calls on the Commission to facilitate an exchange of best practices among the Member States as well as candidate countries, with regard to the EU dimension in education and combating discrimination and prejudice in educational settings, including by evaluating teaching materials and anti-bullying and anti-discrimination policies;

27.  Underlines the major role of Erasmus+, Europe for Citizens and Creative Europe in promoting education and training, language skills, active citizenship, cultural awareness, intercultural understanding and other valuable key and transversal competences; stresses the importance of these programmes in strengthening European citizenship and the need for increased and adequate financial support for these programmes, greater focus on their qualitative outcomes and wider access to mobility, paying special attention to teachers and other educators, young people with different socio-economic backgrounds as well as vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, and people with special needs;

28.  Recalls the wide range of actions offered by the Erasmus+ programme, as well as its popularity and recognition by the general public, in particular as regards the mobility of students as part of their studies; calls on the Commission and the Member States to raise awareness about those parts of the Erasmus+ programme that are less well-known, such as the European Voluntary Service;

29.  Welcomes the Commission's 2016 Work Programme for the implementation of the Erasmus+ programme and its commitment to concrete actions in following up the Paris Declaration, in particular those aimed at increasing the impact of Erasmus+ on fostering active and democratic citizenship, intercultural dialogue, social inclusion and solidarity, including stronger support for civil society organisations in their key role in citizenship education;

30.  Calls on the Commission to enhance the pedagogical aspects, and the responsiveness to schools' needs, of projects funded via the Jean Monnet projects by making sure schools can apply directly, and by providing funding for a longer period of time, such as three years, in line with the way Jean Monnet Modules are funded; calls on the Commission to make the Jean Monnet Module action available to teacher-training institutions and to encourage such institutions to incorporate them in their programmes;

31.  Notes that the Union is currently undergoing a crisis in its democratic legitimacy, not only because Europeans have insufficient knowledge about the EU mechanisms, but also because their voices are removed from decision-making processes; stresses that, in order to regain its legitimacy, the Union must halt the breakdown of its democratic structures and re-establish the link with its citizens;

32.  Calls on the Commission to implement the Europe for Citizens programme in an efficient way in order to fulfil the objectives of a democratic and more inclusive society, thereby reinforcing citizen participation in decision-making processes;

33.  Calls on the Commission to monitor closely the impact of all EU programmes on developing participants’ sense of citizenship and civic participation;

34.   Asks the Commission to develop further, and to promote as widely as possible, the eTwinning, EPALE and School Education Gateway virtual platforms, and to continue supporting and developing other digital platforms, such as Teachers’ Corner, in order to facilitate access to high-quality, easy-to-use and up-to-date teaching materials that are relevant to EU-learning and available in all EU languages;

35.  Asks the Commission to facilitate a critical review of the material currently available on the Teachers' Corner platform by educators currently engaged in teaching, and by academics specialised in EU studies, in order to ensure quality and appropriateness;

36.  Highlights the role that the information offices of the European institutions play, and welcomes their commitment to fostering relations with the Member States, with national, regional and local educational institutions, and with youth organisations and media, in order to bring them closer to each other and to ensure that young people understand the role the institutions play in their daily lives;

37  Calls for an open and shared debate between the Commission and cities, and local and regional authorities, regarding the connection between school systems and urban models, as a way to understanding the effects of different approaches to intercultural relations in Europe today;

38.  Encourages the Commission to promote learning EU at school as a recommendation to be put forward as soon as possible in negotiation processes with candidate countries for EU membership;

The role of Member States

39.   Encourages Member States to support, review and update their education systems – and all forms of EU-related curricula content at all levels of education, including vocational education and training – with a view to strengthening the EU dimension in close collaboration with all relevant actors at EU and national level, while strongly encouraging regions and local authorities to do the same, in particular when they have direct competences in educational systems;

40.  Encourages the Member States to support all possibilities of conveying more information about the EU to learners as well as to teachers and other educators through formal, non-formal and informal learning, and to fully exploit and complement EU financial instruments, programmes and initiatives in this regard;

41.  Asks Member States to take further action to promote intercultural, non-discriminatory and inclusive education and citizenship values in school and university curricula;

42.  Calls on the Member States to increase investment in quality education, also by means of greater partnership with the private sector, and to promote equal opportunities for all, and to provide all educational and training institutions, as well as teachers and other educators, with the support necessary to empower them to introduce and continuously develop an EU dimension in education from an early age that goes beyond the class room;

43.  Calls on the Member States to ensure equal and inclusive access to innovative and high-quality formal and non-formal education for all learners, as well as lifelong learning opportunities; calls, in this regard, on the Member States to adopt the 2008 proposal for a directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, which would protect against discrimination on these grounds in education;

44.  Calls on the Member States to involve migrants, refuges and faith communities in respectful and empowering citizenship-building processes, ensuring their participation in civic and cultural life;

45.  Calls on the Member States to encourage and facilitate high-quality training on EU topics for teachers, other educational staff, youth leaders and trainers, also by means of allowing them to spend part of their formation in another Member State, and by ensuring the recognition of their competences to teach about the EU, for example by creating and promoting a ʻEuro Teacherʼ label award;

46.  Considers that the Member States, in dialogue and cooperation with educational actors, should seek opportunities to exchange ideas and examples of good practice in integrating an EU dimension into their educational programmes, in order, inter alia, to boost young people’s knowledge and understanding of the process of building EU citizenship and the EU institutions, thereby enabling them to see the Union as an integral part of their living environment that they can and are expected to shape;

47.  Urges the Member States to acknowledge and support social partners and civil society organisations, in particular youth organisations, in bridging the gap between the EU institutions and the European citizens in a structural and sustainable way, promoting and strengthening participatory and direct-democracy tools;

48.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.


At present, the European Union (EU) faces unprecedented challenges. Over the past few years, the EU has been experiencing a major economic and financial crisis. Its social and political effects question the institutions and common values of the Union, including the notion of a European identity.

In this context, enhancing dialogue about the EU in our schools, associations and in public spaces seems more crucial than ever in order to restore citizens’ faith in the merits and necessity of the European integration process.

Currently, citizens have limited knowledge about the EU and how its institutions work, with 44% of citizens disagreeing with the statement “I understand how the EU works” in a Eurobarometer opinion poll in spring 2014(16). Under these circumstances, it is of little wonder that citizens feel distant to or even increasingly estranged from the European political project, become ever more Eurosceptic, and perceive democratic deficits in the decision-making processes of the Union.

This situation may be remedied if citizens are better informed and encouraged to be engaged and take an active interest in the European unification project. One central way to do so is enhancing an EU dimension in school education that can help to overcome Euroscepticism and prepare citizens to live and work in an increasingly complex and globalised world. The situation in the Member States with regard to EU-related content in school education is by no means uniform and warrants further initiatives at all levels – European, national and local.

The concept of a “European dimension” in education

At the beginning of European integration, education played only a marginal role. Substantial action at Union level in the field of education dates back to 1976, when a first programme in the field of education was adopted(17). It aimed to mitigate adverse effects of migration on educational chances and outcomes of workers from other Member States and their children, and dealt with the mutual recognition of qualifications.

A legal base for action in the field of educational policy was only established with the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. Its Article 149 – today’s Article 165 TFEU – stipulates that the Union can encourage cooperation between Member States, and support and supplement their action, while Member States are solely responsible for the content of teaching and the organisation of their education systems and cultural and linguistic diversity. Harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States is explicitly excluded.

Union action may inter alia include the development of a European dimension in education in a broad sense of the word, including the teaching and dissemination of the languages of the Member States, and actions to promote mobility of students and teachers as well as cooperation between educational establishments. The Union may also foster exchange of information on Member States’ education systems and best practices, encourage youth exchanges, civic engagement and the participation of young people in democratic life in Europe.

Since the 1976 action programme, many resolutions and programmes have been adopted to further the ends of EU educational policy set out in European primary law. With the introduction of Erasmus+, in force since 1 January 2014, all EU initiatives on education have come together under the umbrella of this unified programme.

While the concept of a European dimension in education proves to be highly complex, this report focuses on one, albeit crucial, aspect: “Learning EU at school”, that can be referred to as an “EU dimension in education”. This choice is based on the belief that school education should equip learners with a solid understanding of how the EU works and enable them to critically reflect on European matters – including the values on which European integration is based – and how these influence their country and their own activities, while preparing them to live and work as active citizens in an increasingly integrated Europe and a globalised world.

An EU dimension in education

The idea of an EU dimension in education has two core, yet interlinked aspects. The first and most obvious is concerned with acquiring knowledge about the EU’s geography, history and culture, and the EU itself, including how its institutions function. The second – based on the assumption that legitimacy and stability of any democratic political system is largely based on civic engagement – can be broadly understood as “citizenship education”.

With this in mind and considering the fact of limited knowledge about the EU among many citizens, the EU should become more visible in text books, and teaching about the EU should reflect the intricate relationship between the Union and its Member States: the EU has been shaped by its Member States with their unique histories and cultures, and its development remains inextricably linked with the Member States. Vice versa, the impact of the EU on the Member States is considerable. Accordingly, learning about the EU at school should reflect both the role of Member States in the development of the EU and the influence of the EU on national developments. In this context, history as school subject plays an important role in developing a reflective awareness of the past and a critical “culture of remembering”; one based on European values, and characterised by an attempt to do justice to the multiplicity of existing historical memories – and indeed histories – in Europe.

When it comes to diversity, citizenship education, as the second aspect of the EU dimension, essentially aims to enable young people to acquire the skills they need to live and actively engage in pluralistic democratic societies and make their concerns heard. Core elements to be taught hence include tolerance, awareness and understanding for other cultures as well as democratic values and human rights. This “toolkit” of civic engagement and active democratic citizenship applies beyond the boundaries of Europe and is of crucial relevance within an international context, too.

While “citizenship education” thus understood can be implemented in stand-alone subjects, it should not be overlooked that a cross-curricular approach may be even more useful in ensuring pupils adopt attitudes and values suited to living and working together with others from different cultural and religious backgrounds. Moreover, educational institutions should adopt democratic governance structures accompanying curricular content so that democracy can be learned and lived even at school.

Status quo and way forward

A majority of Member States has progressively integrated an EU dimension into their curricula and into teacher training, but disparities between and within Member States continue to exist. Much more could be done, for example with regard to curricula, teacher training, textbooks and teaching methods.

With regard to an EU dimension, national curricula are often fragmented, not progressive, are too general and lack both consistency and complementarity with other subjects taught, making it difficult for learners to build a comprehensive picture of the EU. Given its impact on citizens’ everyday life, the EU should be more visible in teaching materials, at all levels and in all forms of education. In this regard, special attention should be paid to the vocational education and training sector. Teacher training – initial and in-service training – needs to systematically prepare educators to teach about the EU and the values on which it is founded, both in theory and in practice. Textbooks should guarantee a broader coverage of EU-related topics and at the same time be better adapted to the particular age groups, taking into account students’ interests. Teaching methods used in the classroom should give students responsibility for their own learning, use interactive methods and external stimuli and examples of how the EU is relevant to students’ every-day lives.

At European level, the existing possibilities offered by the EU programmes in the field of education and culture should be fully exploited to promote language skills, active citizenship, cultural awareness and intercultural understanding. Continued financial support and wider access to the mobility opportunities these programmes provide are crucial in ensuring a positive effect on participants’ sense of citizenship and civic participation.

The Commission should ensure that key stakeholders are made aware of and encouraged to use relevant funding opportunities afforded by these programmes. In addition, platforms such as eTwinning, the School Education Gateway (SEG) and EPALE for adult learning can be used for the development and exchange of teaching materials and projects related to the EU and its institutions, as well as citizenship education.

Existing national and European networks involved in and promoting learning about the EU at different levels should be fostered as much as possible, as should exchanges between these networks.

At national level, Member States need to ensure the continued relevance of their curricula and education systems in general, including vocational education and training. These systems have to be regularly updated in the face of new societal and technological challenges in order to help learners to acquire the skills and competences they will need for today’s fast-moving and interconnected societies.

Educational establishments mirror our complex societies and represent communities of people from diverse backgrounds living and learning together. Member States should therefore take further action to promote multi-cultural, non-discriminatory and inclusive education and citizenship values in school and university curricula. These values need to permeate curricula in a horizontal way. To achieve the ambitious goal of teaching values, schools need to receive corresponding support, both financially and otherwise.

Finally, Member States should also recognise and facilitate the role played by social partners and civil society organisations in bridging the gap between the EU and its citizens.


Date adopted





Result of final vote







Members present for the final vote

Isabella Adinolfi, Andrea Bocskor, Louise Bours, Nikolaos Chountis, Silvia Costa, Mircea Diaconu, Damian Drăghici, Jill Evans, María Teresa Giménez Barbat, Giorgos Grammatikakis, Petra Kammerevert, Rikke Karlsson, Andrew Lewer, Svetoslav Hristov Malinov, Curzio Maltese, Stefano Maullu, Luigi Morgano, Michaela Šojdrová, Yana Toom, Helga Trüpel, Sabine Verheyen, Julie Ward, Bogdan Brunon Wenta, Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski, Milan Zver

Substitutes present for the final vote

Eider Gardiazabal Rubial, Dietmar Köster, Zdzisław Krasnodębski, Ernest Maragall, Algirdas Saudargas

Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote

Gabriel Mato, Jaromír Štětina





Mircea Diaconu, María Teresa Giménez Barbat, Yana Toom


Isabella Adinolfi  


Andrea Bocskor, Svetoslav Hristov Malinov, Gabriel Mato, Stefano Maullu, Jaromír Štětina, Sabine Verheyen, Bogdan Brunon Wenta, Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski, Milan Zver


Silvia Costa, Damian Drăghici, Eider Gardiazabal Rubial, Giorgos Grammatikakis, Petra Kammerevert, Dietmar Köster, Luigi Morgano, Julie Ward


Ernest Maragall, Helga Trüpel




Rikke Karlsson, Zdzisław Krasnodębski, Andrew Lewer


Louise Bours




Nikolaos Chountis

Key to symbols:

+  :  in favour

-  :  against

0  :  abstention


OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 50.


OJ L 325, 23.11.2012, p. 1.


OJ L 115 17.4.2014, p. 3.


OJ L 394, 30.12.2006, p. 10.


OJ C 119, 28.5.2009, p. 2.


OJ C 372, 20.12.2011, p. 31.


OJ C 311, 19.12.2009, p. 1.


OJ C 398, 22.12.2012, p. 1.


OJ C 150, 15.6.1992, p. 366.


OJ C 306 E, 15.12.2006, p. 100.


OJ C 8 E, 14.1.2010, p. 12.


Standard Eurobarometer 81, Spring 2014: ‘Public opinion in the European Union’ (, p. 117 and 131.

(13), p. 43-45.


Special Eurobarometer 437, 2015: ‘Discrimination in the EU in 2015’ (, p. 100.



Standard Eurobarometer 81, Spring 2014: ‘Public opinion in the European Union’ (, p. 117.


OJ C 38, 19.2.1976, p. 1.

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