Procedure : 2019/2193(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A9-0029/2021

Texts tabled :

A9-0029/2021

Debates :

Votes :

PV 27/04/2021 - 2
PV 27/04/2021 - 14

Texts adopted :

P9_TA(2021)0131

<Date>{02/03/2021}2.3.2021</Date>
<NoDocSe>A9-0029/2021</NoDocSe>
PDF 224kWORD 83k

<TitreType>REPORT</TitreType>

<Titre>on technical and operational measures for more efficient and cleaner maritime transport</Titre>

<DocRef>(2019/2193(INI))</DocRef>


<Commission>{TRAN}Committee on Transport and Tourism</Commission>

Rapporteur: <Depute>Karima Delli</Depute>

AMENDMENTS
MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
 EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
 OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE ENVIRONMENT, PUBLIC HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
 INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE
 FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION

on technical and operational measures for more efficient and cleaner maritime transport

(2019/2193(INI))

The European Parliament,

 having regard to its resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal[1],

 having regard to its position adopted at first reading on 16 September 2020 on the global ship fuel oil consumption data collection system[2],

 having regard to the Third International Maritime Organization Greenhouse Gas Study[3],

 having regard to the final report of the Fourth International Maritime Organization Greenhouse Gas Study[4],

 having regard to the Ministerial Declaration adopted in December 2019 by the Contracting Parties to the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention),

 having regard to the Commission’s Annual Report 2019 on CO2 emissions from maritime transport,

 having regard to Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure[5],

 having regard to Rule 54 of its Rules of Procedure,

 having regard to the opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety,

 having regard to the report of the Committee on Transport and Tourism (A9-0029/2021),

A. whereas maritime transport and ports play a key role in the EU economy, with almost 90 % of the EU’s external freight trade being seaborne[6], and play an important role for tourism; whereas they are critical for ensuring uninterrupted supply chains, as demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic; whereas the EU maritime sector’s total economic impact contributed EUR 149 billion to EU GDP in 2018 and supports more than 2 million jobs[7]; whereas in 2018 its direct economic impact accounted for 685 000 sea- and land-based jobs in the EU; whereas 40 % of the world fleet by gross tonnage is EU controlled;

B. whereas the maritime transport of goods and passengers is a key factor in the economic, social and territorial cohesion of the EU, especially as regards connectivity and accessibility with peripheral, island and outermost regions; whereas in this regard, the EU should invest in the maritime sector’s competitiveness and its capacity to make the sustainable transition a reality;

C. whereas the EU maritime sector should also contribute to tackling biodiversity loss and environmental degradation, and contribute to the objectives of the European Green Deal and 2030 Biodiversity Strategy;

D. whereas healthy oceans and the preservation and restoration of their ecosystems are essential for humankind as climate regulators, as producers of at least half the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere, as hosts of biodiversity, as a source for global food security and human health, and as a source of economic activities, including fisheries, transport, trade, tourism, renewable energy and health products, which should be based on the principle of sustainability;

E. whereas the maritime sector is a sector which is regulated at both EU and international level and which is still very reliant on fossil fuels; whereas a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying CO2 emissions from maritime transport is currently under revision, aiming at reducing shipping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in EU waters;

F. whereas the sector has been making constant efforts to meet the GHG reduction targets, by complying with the existing regulatory framework and implementing those technological developments made to date;

G. whereas adequate funding is therefore essential to achieve this necessary transition; whereas further research and innovation are crucial for deploying zero-carbon maritime transport;

H. whereas international maritime transport emits around 940 million tonnes of CO2 annually and is responsible for approximately 2.5 % of global GHG emissions[8]; whereas maritime transport also impacts the environment by contributing to climate change and through different sources of pollution, notably degassing, engines left running in ports, the discharge of ballast water, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and chemicals, and lost containers at sea, which in turn affect biodiversity and ecosystems; whereas the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations to reduce SOx emissions from ships first came into force in 2005 under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention) and whereas the SOx emission limits have since been progressively tightened, with the maximum permitted sulphur content currently standing at 0.5 % and in emission control areas at 0.1 %; whereas this decision should help to reduce emissions; whereas the IMO is set to agree on a global regulation on limiting ‘black carbon emissions’ in 2021; whereas maritime transport is the most energy-efficient mode of transport based on the amount of cargo transported and the respective emissions per tonne of goods transported and per kilometre travelled;

I. whereas if mitigation measures are not swiftly introduced, emissions from international maritime transport could increase from about 90 % of 2008 emissions in 2018 to 90-130 % of 2008 emissions by 2050[9], and thereby not contribute sufficiently to the achievement of the objectives of the Paris Agreement;

J. whereas all emissions from the maritime sector which are harmful to air quality and citizens’ health should be limited and addressed following an impact assessment of the relevant legislation;

K. whereas the EU should defend a high level of ambition for emission reductions in the maritime sector both at international and EU level;

L. whereas clean technologies and solutions should be adapted to the different types of vessels and naval segments; whereas research and investment and adequate support are fundamental to ensure innovative solutions and a sustainable transition of the maritime sector;

M. whereas public and private investments related to the decarbonisation of the maritime sector must comply with Regulation (EU) 2020/852 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2020 on the establishment of a framework to facilitate sustainable investment and the key principles of the just transition, including the creation of high-quality jobs, retraining and redeployment guarantees and structural health and safety measures for all workers, with a particular focus on opportunities for women and young workers in order to diversify the maritime sector workforce; whereas adequate training and decent working conditions of maritime personnel are fundamental, inter alia to prevent incidents, including environmental incidents;

N. whereas the Commission is currently working on an impact assessment on integrating the maritime transport into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS);

O. whereas a climate-neutral transition of the maritime transport sector by 2050 is needed in order to achieve the goals of the Green Deal;

Clean energy incentive schemes

1. Deplores the distortion of competition on the European market between fossil fuels, which benefit from more favourable tax treatment, and clean alternative fuels from renewable sources; calls on the Commission to address this situation by proposing to restore fair competition rules, applying the polluter-pays principle to maritime transport and promoting and further incentivising, including through tax exemptions, the use of alternatives to heavy fuels that are considerably reducing the impact on climate and the environment in the maritime sector;

2. Acknowledges the impact of the use of heavy fuel oil; stresses the need to effectively address fuel emissions by ships and gradually phase out the use of heavy fuel oil in shipping, not only as a fuel itself but also as a blending substance for marine fuels; notes the need for technological neutrality as long as it is consistent with EU environmental targets; notes that maritime transport is affected by the lack of adequate end-of waste criteria harmonised at EU level; highlights the need to prevent carbon leakage and preserve the competitiveness of the European maritime transport sector;

3. Recalls that the maritime sector should contribute to the Union’s efforts on reducing GHG emissions, while ensuring the sector’s competitiveness; stresses the need to make use and invest in all readily deployable options in reducing maritime emissions, including transitional technologies as alternatives to heavy fuel oil, in parallel to finding and financing long-term zero-emission alternatives; recognises the importance of transitional technologies, such as LNG and LNG infrastructure, for a gradual transition towards zero-emission alternatives in the maritime sector;

4. Recalls the EU commitment of achieving climate neutrality by 2050, in line with the Paris Agreement; highlights in this regard, the leading role of the EU and the need to negotiate the reduction of CO2 emissions of the maritime transport sector also at international level within the IMO framework, given the international and competitive dimension of the maritime transport sector; recalls Parliament’s previous positions on the inclusion of maritime in the EU ETS; stresses in this regard that the inclusion of the European maritime sector in the EU ETS[10] should be based on a comprehensive impact assessment that adequately takes into consideration, inter alia, the competitiveness of EU operators and businesses, employment in the maritime sector, and the risk of carbon leakage; proposes channelling a majority of maritime-related ETS revenues to the funding of a fleet renewal and retrofitting programme and of research and innovation to improve the energy efficiency of ships and support investment in innovative and energy saving technologies and infrastructure for decarbonising the EU maritime sector, including short-sea shipping and ports, and the deployment of clean alternative fuels and waterborne related investments;

5. Calls on the Commission to use its weight in the IMO to achieve a carbon offsetting scheme in international shipping and to ensure a realistic path of emissions reduction;

6. Calls on the Commission to address under the FuelEU Maritime initiative not only the carbon intensity of fuels but also the technical and operational measures which would improve the efficiency of ships and their operations; recalls that, in the context of the revision of Regulation (EU) 2015/757, Parliament called on shipping companies to achieve a 40 % reduction in emissions by 2030 as an average across all ships under their responsibility, compared to the average performance per category of ships of the same size and type; adds that the initiative should also include a life-cycle approach incorporating all GHG emissions; stresses that alternative fuels that do not meet the REDII -70 % threshold on a life-cycle basis should not be allowed for regulatory compliance;

Ports and freight

7. Recalls the need to encourage cooperation between all stakeholders and exchange of best practices between ports, the shipping sector and fuel and energy suppliers in order to develop an overall policy framework for the decarbonisation of ports and coastal areas; urges the port authorities to put in place sustainable management methods and to certify them using methodologies that incorporate a Life-Cycle Assessment of the port services, such as that offered by the Environmental Product Declaration;

8. Stresses that overseas territories, including outermost regions and overseas countries and territories, and the ports located therein, are of paramount importance to European sovereignty and to European and international maritime trade given their strategic location; highlights that investment drivers for these ports are very diverse, ranging from supporting their classic role in the reception of ships (loading, unloading, storage and transport of goods) to ensuring multimodal connections, constructing energy-related infrastructure, building resilience to climate change and the overall greening and digitalisation of vessels; calls for further investments in ports located in overseas territories to turn them into strategic clusters for multimodal transport, energy generation, storage and distribution, as well as tourism;

9. Notes the cross-border dimension of maritime ports; stresses the role of ports as clusters of all modes of transport, energy, industry and the blue economy; recognises the increased development of port cooperation and clustering;

10. Notes the positive role of the European maritime cluster and the positive developments internationally to support innovation and reduce shipping emissions, and calls on the Commission and the Member States to support initiatives contributing to these positive developments;

11. Calls on the Commission to support, through legislation, the objective of zero pollution (GHG emissions and air pollutants) at berth, and to promote the development and deployment of clean multimodal solutions in ports supported through a corridor approach; calls on the Commission, in particular, to take swift action to regulate EU port access for the most polluting ships based on the Port State Control directive framework, and to incentivise and support the use of on-shore power supply using clean electricity or any other energy-saving technologies that have a considerable effect on diminishing GHG emissions and air pollutants; regrets that the revision of Directive 2014/94/EU has been postponed; urges the Commission to propose a revision of Directive 2014/94/EU as soon as possible in order to include incentives for both Member States and ports to scale-up the deployment of the necessary infrastructure; calls on the Commission also to propose a revision of Directive 2003/96/EC;

12. Calls on the Commission to draw up a strategy on zero-emission ports and support bottom up initiatives, including measures to promote the development of port industries specialising in the circular economy, which would, in particular, ensure better use of ships’ waste that is recovered and treated in ports;

13. Calls on the Commission to promote a modal shift towards short-sea shipping in the Green Deal, on the same basis as rail and inland waterways, as a sustainable alternative to goods and passenger transport by road and air; underlines the important role of short-sea shipping in achieving modal shift objectives to reduce transport-related congestion and emissions and as a stepping stone towards a zero-emission mode of transport; highlights the importance of launching to this end an EU fleet renewal and retrofit strategy to promote its green and digital transition and foster the competitiveness of the European maritime technology sector; recalls, to this end, the need for an infrastructure network that can support this intermodal capacity, which means fulfilling the investment commitments for the TEN-T network under the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF);

14. Highlights that boosting seamless multimodal transport links between ports and the TEN-T network, as well as improving interoperability between the various modes of transport, would eliminate bottlenecks and reduce congestion; underlines the importance of maritime and inland ports as strategic and multimodal nodes of the TEN-T network;

15. Calls also for a clear strategy to promote Roll-On-Roll-Off (RO-RO) shipping for freight, thereby reducing the presence of heavy-duty vehicles from roads; encourages the Commission to take more concrete steps to combine its maritime policy with the aim of avoiding long and environmentally harmful road distribution transport across the continent, by encouraging deliveries closer to end-destination markets via smaller ports;

16. Calls on the Commission to restore meaning to the concept of Motorways of the Sea, as an integrated part of the TEN-T network, as it is instrumental in facilitating short-sea links and services as sustainable alternatives to land transport, and to facilitate cooperation among maritime ports and the connection to their hinterland by simplifying access criteria, in particular for links between ports outside the core network, by providing significant financial support for maritime links as an alternative to land transport and by ensuring their connection to railway networks;

17. Believes that a sustainable European maritime sector and a future-proof infrastructure, including the TEN-T network and its future extension, are crucial to achieving a climate-neutral economy; stresses that the percentage increase in waterborne freight transport as envisaged in the European Green Deal needs a concrete EU investment plan and concrete measures at EU level;

Emission control areas and the IMO

18. Stresses the urgent health and environmental need to establish a sulphur emission control area (SECA) covering all Mediterranean countries; calls on the Commission and the Member States to give active support to the submission of such an area to the IMO before 2022; urges the Member States also to support the principle of swiftly adopting a nitrogen emission control area (NECA) aimed at reducing nitrogen emissions in the Mediterranean;

19. Calls on the Commission to provide for the extension of these emission control areas to all EU seas in order to achieve a uniform reduction in the permitted NOx and SOx emission levels from ships; stresses that the cumulative reduction in sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions has a direct impact on the reduction of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5);

20. Stresses that the EU should lead by example by adopting ambitious legal requirements for clean maritime transport, while supporting and pushing for measures that are at least equally as ambitious in international forums such as the IMO, enabling the maritime transport sector to phase out its GHG emissions globally and in line with the Paris Agreement;

Ships and propulsion

21. Calls on the Commission, shipowners and ship-operators to ensure the implementation of all available operational and technical measures to achieve energy efficiency, in particular speed optimisation, including slow steaming where appropriate, innovation in hydrodynamics optimisation of navigable routes, the introduction of new propulsion methods, such as wind-assist technologies, vessel optimisation and better optimisation within the maritime logistics chain;

22. Notes that, in the maritime sector, the shipowner is not always the same as the person or entity commercially operating the ship; considers, therefore, that the polluter-pays principle should apply to, and hold responsible, the party responsible for the commercial operation of the ship, i.e. the commercial entity that pays for the fuel that the ship consumes, such as the shipowner, the manager, the time charterer or the bareboat charterer;

23. Notes that the digitalisation and automation of the maritime sector, ports and ships have significant potential to contribute to a reduction in the sector’s emissions, and play a key role in the decarbonisation of the sector in line with the ambitions of the Green Deal, in particular through increased exchanges of up-to-date and verified data that can be used to carry out technical operations and maintenance, for example to predict the most fuel-efficient way to operate a ship on a specific route, and for port call optimisation, which contributes to reducing waiting times for vessels in ports and therefore emissions; stresses the need to use digitalisation as a means to enhance cooperation between stakeholders in the sector, thereby making ships more energy efficient in order to enable them to meet emission control standards, and to facilitate the management of environmental risks; calls for action and investment in digitalisation, research, and innovation, in particular for the development and harmonised cross-border deployment of Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information Systems (VTMIS); notes that the spread of digitalisation and automation in the shipping industry will bring about a change in individual job specifications and requisite skills; points out that these different skills and areas of knowledge, especially with regard to information technology, will be required of seafarers to ensure ship safety and operational efficiency;

24. Welcomes the new sulphur content limit in fuels of 0.5 % introduced by the IMO on 1 January 2020, and stresses that it should not lead to a shift in pollution from air to water; calls, therefore, on the Commission, and the Member States, in line with Directive (EU) 2019/883, to work at IMO level towards a comprehensive consideration of the environmental impacts on discharges into the sea of waste water from open-loop scrubbers and other cargo residues and to ensure that they are properly collected and processed in port reception facilities; in this regard, strongly encourages Member States to set up discharge bans for wastewater from open-loop scrubbers and certain cargo residues in their territorial waters in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC; stresses that sustainable solutions should be favoured from the outset, on the basis of life-cycle analysis; notes that the purpose of open-loop scrubbers is to address air pollution and that investments in them have been made; points out that the use of open-loop scrubbers has an impact on the environment and welcomes the fact that the IMO is studying their long-term impact; calls on the Commission, in this regard, to implement on the basis of an impact assessment a gradual phase-out of the use of open-loop scrubbers in order to comply with emission limits, in line with the IMO framework and the MARPOL Convention;

25. Calls on the Commission to integrate alternative propulsion systems, including wind and solar, into the upcoming FuelEU Maritime initiative; calls on it to assess the current initiatives and projects concerning sail freight transport and to ensure that propulsion systems for transport are eligible for European funding;

26. Calls on the Commission to introduce measures, accompanied with the necessary funding, to enable European shipyards to make additional investments into sustainable, social and digitalised shipbuilding and the ship repair industry, which is of strategic importance to generate jobs, thereby supporting the transition to a circular economy model that takes into account the entire life-cycle of ships; stresses the importance of supporting and developing sustainable solutions for building and dismantling vessels within the EU in line with the New Circular Economy Action Plan; stresses in this light that shipyards should exercise due diligence in their value chains inside and outside the EU, in line with OECD and UN standards, so that adverse environmental impacts when dismantling vessels can be avoided;

EU funding

27. Calls on the Commission to provide support under its European funding programmes, in particular the Horizon Europe and InvestEU programmes, for research into and deployment of clean technologies and fuels; highlights the potential of electricity from additional renewable sources, including green hydrogen, ammonia and wind propulsion; in this regard, stresses the financial implications of the transition to clean alternative fuels, both for the shipping industry, the land-based-fuel supply chain and ports; considers that ports are natural hubs for the production, storage, distribution and transport of clean alternative fuels; calls for the Horizon Europe programme to renew the calls for ‘Green Deal’ projects, launched by the Commission under Horizon 2020, in particular in order to green the maritime sector and to support research and innovation and the deployment of alternatives to heavy fuels that are considerably reducing the impact on climate and the environment in the maritime sector;

28. Calls on the Commission to make projects aimed at decarbonising maritime transport and reducing polluting emissions, including the necessary port infrastructure and facilities, eligible under the cohesion policy and through the European Structural and Investment Funds, the CEF and the Green Deal and to make funds and incentives available to support the maritime sector in the transition towards a zero-carbon economy, taking into account the social dimension of the transformation; stresses the importance of creating synergies and complementarities between different EU funding solutions, without creating an unnecessary administrative burden, which would discourage private investments and therefore slow down the technological progress and thus the improvement of cost-efficiency; calls on the Commission to promote and invest in a green European maritime industry on EU territory as part of its European industrial recovery plan, taking the lead in the development of new eco-designed ships, the renovation and modernisation of existing vessels, and dismantlement;

29. Considers that any realistic transition process towards the goal of zero emissions must be based on the involvement and participation of the stakeholders in the sector as well as EU support in the form of an adequate budget together with dialogue, flexibility and diligence in promoting the necessary regulatory reforms; notes that these conditions are essential to encourage strategic cooperation focusing on sustainability through instruments such as the co-programmed partnership on ‘zero-emission maritime transport’;

30. Recalls that the objectives of decarbonisation and modal shift should be supported by the CEF, which should benefit from increased budgetary resources;

31. Regrets, in this regard, the Council decision to reduce the budget allocation for future-oriented programmes, such as the CEF, InvestEU and Horizon Europe; notes that the EU’s ambitious decarbonisation agenda needs to be backed by corresponding funding and financing instruments;

32. Recalls that the European Investment Bank (EIB) provides support for attractive capital loans; considers, however, that the threshold for financing small-scale projects should be lowered; points out, in this regard, that the Green Shipping Guarantee (GSG) programme aimed at accelerating the implementation of investments in greener technologies by European shipping companies, should also provide support for smaller transactions, including more flexible loan conditions; furthermore, considers that the EIB should provide both pre-delivery and post-delivery financing for shipbuilders, which would considerably enhance the implementation and the viability of projects;

33. Highlights that the shift towards decarbonisation and the impulse of clean energy incentive schemes in the maritime transport sector would entail the need of re-skilling and training of workers; recalls that EU and Member State financing would have to be foreseen for this matter; encourages the Commission to establish an EU network to exchange good practices on how to adapt the workforce to the new needs of the sector;

34. Supports the Commission’s review of State aid guidelines in all relevant sectors, including transport and in particular maritime, in order to achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal by applying the ‘just transition’ principle and by allowing national governments to directly support investments in decarbonisation and clean energy; calls on the Commission to examine whether the current tax exemptions allow unfair cross-sector competition conditions; urges the Commission to provide clarity on State aid for sustainable shipping projects;

35. Points out the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the waterborne sector, especially collective passenger transport; calls on the Member States to include the waterborne sector as a priority in their national recovery plans, so as to ensure that it can have comprehensive access to the resources allocated under the Recovery and Resilience Facility; asks the Commission, moreover, to map smart investment initiatives for the sustainable and resilient recovery of the sector;

Control and implementation

36. Calls on the Commission to ensure the transparency and availability of information on the environmental impact and energy performance of ships and to assess the establishment of a European label scheme, in line with actions taken at IMO level, which should aim to effectively reduce emissions and assist the sector by providing improved access to funding, loans and guarantees based on its emission performance and improving emissions monitoring, create benefits by incentivising port authorities to differentiate port infrastructure charges, and raise the sector's attractiveness; moreover stresses the need to further promote, develop and implement the ‘green ship’ scheme, which should take into account emission reduction, waste treatment and environmental impact, notably through the sharing of experience and expertise;

37. Calls on the Commission to propose a revision of the Port State Control Directive by the end of 2021 at the latest, as provided for in the Commission’s working programme for 2021, to allow for more effective and comprehensive control of ships and simplified procedures, including incentives for compliance with environmental, social, public health and labour law standards, safety on board of ships calling at EU ports for both seafarers and dock workers, and the possibilities for effective proportionate and dissuasive sanctions, taking into account environmental, public health, tax and social law;

38. Calls on the Commission to increase, in coordination with the ILO, capacity-building for third countries on inspections and enforcement and to launch campaigns with the social partners to increase awareness of rights and obligations under the Maritime Labour Convention; calls on the Commission to promote the creation by the ILO of a database containing inspection findings and seafarers’ complaints to help seafarers and shipowners engage with the most reputable MLC-compliant recruitment and placement services;

39. Highlights the potential of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), with its Safe Sea Net satellite system, in monitoring oil pollution and illegal discharges of fuel residues at sea and implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/757; emphasises that regional cooperation, including with third countries, is essential in this area, especially in the Mediterranean Sea; calls on the Commission, therefore, to reinforce the exchange of information and cooperation among countries;

40. Stresses that the partnership envisaged in the context of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU should ensure an appropriate level playing field in environmental and social areas without causing disruptions to the transport trade links, including efficient customs checks, which should not hamper the competitiveness of the EU fleet and should ensure smooth export and import operations between UK and EU ports;

°

°  °

41. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and to the Commission.


EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

While it plays an essential role in the European economy, with 90% of goods arriving in the EU by sea and through ports, maritime transport is the major omission from the Paris Climate Agreement and EU legislation on reducing greenhouse gases. Furthermore, shipping uses heavy fuel oil, which is one of the most polluting fuels on the market.

It produces 940 million tonnes of CO2 per year and 2.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, so the stakes are considerable. All the more so given that, in the absence of drastic measures, emissions from this sector are forecast to increase by between 50% and 250% by 2050.

The sector’s impact on air pollution should also not be forgotten, as a clear link has been established between ship exhaust gases and a number of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Every year in Europe, emissions from maritime transport cause nearly 60 000 deaths and cost health services EUR 58 billion.

It is therefore necessary to limit and regulate maritime transport emissions, and not only CO2 emissions but also emissions of sulphur, methane, nitrogen oxide and particulates need to be regulated.

Investments relating to the decarbonisation of the maritime sector must also comply with the key principles of the just transition, including the creation of high-quality jobs and robust health and safety measures for all workers.

The aim of this own-initiative report is to propose a roadmap at EU level that sets out specific measures to limit emissions from the maritime sector. It was important, in my view, to show through this report that the European level is essential in leveraging action for greening the sector, which all too often is considered to be solely an international domain.

The rapporteur proposes working on several key issues in order to properly incorporate maritime transport in the Green Deal.

Energy is a key issue. The use of renewable-energy fuels needs to be made compulsory and more attractive. The rapporteur welcomes, therefore, the position adopted by Parliament on the MRV Regulation at the September 2020 plenary session, which supported the full inclusion of the maritime sector in the European Emissions Trading System (ETS) by 1 January 2022.

While fuel regulation is essential, it also needs to be combined with measures to reduce emissions from ships. In this regard, the rapporteur considers it very important to include in the forthcoming Commission proposal on FuelEU Maritime a twin emissions reduction target that takes into account fuels and also the efficiency of ships.

It is the entire ship life cycle which needs to be reviewed, from design to dismantling. The rapporteur calls, in this regard, on the Commission to set up a European ship dismantling industry and to put a stop to the sending of this ultra-polluting activity to third countries.

Reducing the impact of the maritime sector on air quality and citizens’ health also requires lower emissions in ports and coastal areas. I therefore call on the Commission to make the cold ironing of ships at berth or the use any other renewable energy compulsory, in order to meet the target of zero emissions at berth, and to produce a strategy on zero-emission ports.

The Commission has on multiple occasions undertaken to come up with an initiative restricting access to ports for the most polluting ships. The rapporteur can only encourage it to take swift action in this regard, particularly in relation to large cruise ships.

The establishment of an emission control area (ECA) in the Mediterranean as well as in all European seas is a key measure for reducing the impact of this sector on citizens’ health and on the biodiversity of EU seas, and for making NOx and SOx emission limits uniform in all European seas.

Lastly, these changes must be accompanied and supported by substantial European funding, targeting the decarbonisation of the sector and better cooperation between its various actors.


 

 

OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE ENVIRONMENT, PUBLIC HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY (11.11.2020)

<CommissionInt>for the Committee on Transport and Tourism</CommissionInt>


<Titre>on technical and operational measures for more efficient and cleaner maritime transport</Titre>

<DocRef>(2019/2193(INI))</DocRef>

Rapporteur: <Depute>Javi López</Depute>

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety calls on the Committee on Transport and Tourism, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution:

A. whereas healthy oceans and the preservation and restoration of their ecosystems are essential for humankind as climate regulators, as producers of at least half the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere, as hosts of biodiversity, as a source for global food security and human health, and as a source of economic activities including fisheries, transport, trade, tourism, renewable energy and health products, which should be based on the principle of sustainability; whereas the EU maritime sector’s total economic impact contributed EUR 149 billion to EU GDP in 2018 and supports more than 2 million jobs[11];

B. whereas in 2018, its direct economic impact accounted for 685 000 sea- and land-based jobs in the EU[12];

C. whereas the EU maritime sector contributed EUR 54 billion to EU GDP in 2018[13];

D. whereas for every EUR 1 million in GDP that the maritime sector creates, another EUR 1.6 million is created elsewhere in the EU economy[14];

E. whereas maritime transport is of strategic importance, as 90 % of goods are transported by sea worldwide and 70 % of these maritime transport operations take place in European waters;

F. whereas 40 % of the world fleet by gross tonnage is EU controlled[15];

G. whereas global CO2 emissions from maritime transport are projected to increase by 90 % to 130 % of 2008 emissions by 2050 if we continue business as usual[16]; whereas CO2 emissions from maritime transport at European level are expected to increase by 86 % compared with 1990 levels by 2050, unless further action is taken; whereas greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from maritime transport are estimated to account for 2 % to 3 % of total global GHG emissions; whereas GHG emissions from maritime transport had already increased by 9.6 % between 2012 and 2018, including a sharp increase in methane emissions of 150 % due to the increase in ships using liquefied natural gas (LNG)[17]; whereas according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, there is a 66 % chance of staying below 1.5°C if CO2 emissions from the beginning of 2018 onwards are limited to between 420 GtCO2 and 570 GtCO2, and a 50 % chance of staying below 1.5°C if emissions from 2018 are limited to between 580 GtCO2 and 770 GtCO2, depending on the temperature reference used (global mean surface temperature or global mean surface air temperature) and without taking into account Earth system feedbacks and various uncertainties[18]; whereas given that the average lifespan of a ship can be 25 to 30 years, maritime transport decisions taken today will be critical for 2050 emission levels; whereas the sector has so far not been included in the Union’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions; whereas overall carbon intensity, as an average across international shipping, is 21 % and 29 % better than in 2008, measured as an annual efficiency ratio (AER) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) respectively[19];

H. whereas maritime transport has considerable impacts on human health, marine biodiversity and the environment, including through the emissions of air pollutants such as sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM); whereas maritime transport also impacts the environment by contributing to climate change and through different sources of pollution, notably degassing, engines left running in ports, the discharge of ballast water, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and chemicals, lost containers at sea and cetacean collisions, which in turn affect biodiversity and ecosystems; whereas the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations to reduce SOx emissions from ships first came into force in 2005 under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention) and whereas the SOx emission limits have since been progressively tightened, with the maximum permitted sulphur content currently standing at 0.5 % and in emission control areas at 0.1 %; whereas air pollution from maritime transport is responsible for over 50 000 deaths annually in the EU[20] and must therefore be further reduced;

I. whereas the European maritime sector should also contribute to tackling biodiversity loss and environmental degradation, and to the objectives of the new EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030;

J. whereas the maritime transport sector is the only transport sector that remains unregulated at Union level;

K. whereas marine fuels are not taxed; whereas electricity on board is generated by burning fuel, even when vessels are docked; whereas, unlike quayside electricity, this fuel is exempt from tax;

1. Strongly emphasises that all sectors, including maritime transport, have to fully contribute to achieving the Union’s 2030 climate target and to the objective of reaching climate neutrality in the EU by 2050 at the latest, in line with Paris Agreement efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5ºC; points out the need for an ambitious GHG emission reduction target for 2050, well beyond the 50 % compared to 2008 envisaged by the IMO; stresses the importance of setting mandatory targets for a linear reduction of annual CO2 emissions per unit of transport work and of urgently including the sector in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), in accordance with the amendments adopted by Parliament on 16 September 2020 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2015/757 in order to take appropriate account of the global data collection system for ship fuel oil consumption data[21]; stresses that it is important for the EU to adopt appropriate and effective measures to decarbonise maritime transport as soon as possible, while underlining that the Commission should push for high ambition, including at IMO level, so as to find global solutions; draws attention to the fact that agreements at global level should be sought, but with the Union remaining able to adopt more stringent measures within its territory;

2. Calls on all shipowners and operators to implement all available operational and technical measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from maritime transport in the short term; urges, in particular, the rapid deployment of measures such as slow steaming and speed optimisation, wind propulsion, anti-fouling coatings, electrification from renewable sources and energy storage, but also digitalisation and logistics optimisation, while constantly applying the ‘energy efficiency first’ and energy sobriety principles; calls for greater use of the ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) and the energy efficiency design index (EEDI); highlights that all current and available operational and technical measures are necessary in the short- and medium-term, but that in the long term sustainable alternative fuels are needed for the maritime sector in order to comply with the goals of the Paris Agreement; draws attention to the need for the Commission to support Member States in the modernisation of the sector; calls on the Commission to set up a holistic Union labelling system for the environmental performance of ships and to establish the relevant technical standards, in accordance with the amendments adopted by Parliament on 16 September 2020, in order to incentivise emission reductions and increase the transparency of information; calls on the Commission to develop a European shipping label for products, in cooperation with shipowners, other stakeholders and independent experts, in order to inform consumers about the environmental impacts of maritime transport related to the products that they purchase; considers that such a label would support the environmental and energy transition of the shipping sector by providing a reliable and transparent way of informing customers about voluntary initiatives, and would encourage consumers to purchase products transported by shipowners who have reduced their environmental impacts while contributing to a circular economy, for example in terms of GHGs and pollutant emissions, noise pollution, waste and water management, on the basis of life-cycle assessments;

3. Underlines that digital technologies, such as more advanced navigation systems and automatic identification systems, can be used to carry out technical operations and maintenance, for example to predict the most fuel-efficient way to operate a ship on a specific route, thereby making ships more energy efficient to enable them to meet emission control standards, and to facilitate the management of environmental risks; underlines, in addition, that digitalisation holds great potential in the form of new technologies for port call optimisation, which contribute to reducing waiting times for vessels in ports and therefore emissions;

4. Notes that the spread of digitalisation and automation in the shipping industry will bring about a change in individual job specifications and requisite skills; points out that these different skills and areas of knowledge, especially with regard to information technology, will be required of seafarers to ensure ship safety and operational efficiency;

5. Calls on the Commission to establish a reliable tool, such as a database, to assess the impacts of ships on the environment throughout their life cycles, from production and use, to dismantlement and recycling; believes that such a database should provide the shipping sector with relevant information on materials, production, energy consumption, maintenance and use, and their impact in terms of the greenhouse effect, water consumption, acidification, eutrophication of waters and so on, thereby enabling the industry to move towards eco-designed and green ships while fostering innovation; believes that this tool should also contribute to a circular economy for ships and ports, and to better communication on sustainable initiatives developed by the sector, in line with a European shipping label for products;

6. Calls on the Commission to assess the relevance and feasibility of the establishment of a European flag with common standards, in order to fight against flags of convenience and support the development of more socially and environmentally friendly international standards;

7. Recalls that maritime transport is at the centre of the life and development of the outermost regions in terms of connection and access to essential goods and services; underlines that such regions represent hotspots of biodiversity, which needs to be preserved; calls on the Commission, therefore, to take due account of the outermost regions in the deployment of greener ships and the relevant infrastructure;

8. Encourages the development and deployment of electronic devices to prevent and limit cetacean collisions, such as pingers and digital surveillance aiming to locate cetaceans and share the relevant information with ships navigating the area;

9. Stresses that sustainable solutions should be favoured from the outset, on the basis of life-cycle analysis; notes that the purpose of open-loop scrubbers is to address air pollution and that investments in them have been made; points out that the use of open-loop scrubbers has an impact on the environment and welcomes the fact that the IMO is studying their long-term impact; calls on the Commission, in this regard, to implement on the basis of scientific studies and the precautionary principle a phase-out of and ban on the use of open-loop scrubbers, in order to comply with emission limits as soon as possible, given their impact on the marine environment and the need for the modernisation of existing installations; emphasises that a reduction in emissions from maritime transport and their impacts on global warming and air pollution should not be implemented in a way that harms marine biodiversity, and should be accompanied by measures targeted towards the restoration of marine and coastal ecosystems impacted by the shipping industry;

10. Recalls the existence of tools to tackle degassing at sea such as the European CleanSeaNet programme, which aims to identify and monitor oil pollution and contribute to the identification of polluters; underlines, however, that infractions are still common and that further measures are necessary to reduce this source of pollution; emphasises that regional cooperation, including with third countries, is essential in this area, especially in the Mediterranean Sea; calls on the Commission, therefore, to reinforce the exchange of information and cooperation on sanctions among countries, and to encourage the deployment of legal degassing infrastructure in ports;

11. Calls on the Commission to support investment and research in new technologies, alternative zero-emission propulsion technologies, and sustainable alternative fuels and energy storage, in order to find long-term solutions for the decarbonisation of maritime transport while ensuring the sector’s competitiveness; highlights, in particular, the potential of electrification and green hydrogen- and renewable-based e-fuels such as ammonia and methanol; emphasises that alternative fuels must not increase GHG emissions; recalls that methane emissions have a significant impact on climate change and expresses concerns in this regard about the use of LNG; considers that EU public funding should only be used for alternatives that do not risk lock-in effects; calls on the Commission to conduct life-cycle assessments of projects that are to receive support in order for them to be in line with the principles of a circular economy, taking into account all GHG emissions and effects on biodiversity; emphasises that these principles should also be upheld in the upcoming FuelEU Maritime initiative; underlines the need to promote the development of eco-designed green ships, ranging from hull and engine designs, to better waste and water management, paints and materials, and to encourage technology transfer in these areas;

12. Calls on the Commission to promote and invest in a green European shipping industry on EU territory as part of its European industrial recovery plan, taking the lead in the development of new eco-designed ships, the renovation and modernisation of existing vessels, and dismantlement; stresses that the EU should focus on modernising and greening its shipbuilding yards, in line with the objectives of the European Green Deal;

13. Recalls that ship dismantling is a sector largely located outside the EU and usually takes place in poor working and environmental conditions, thus breaching human rights and having negative effects on both human health and marine ecosystems; calls on the Commission, therefore, to address the ship dismantling gaps in current Union legislation, which notably fails to prevent European shipowners from re-flagging their vessels or selling them before dismantlement; stresses, however, that the EU lacks facilities capable of dismantling ships on its territory, especially the larger ones; calls on the Commission and the Member States, therefore, to promote and invest in the establishment of a genuine European network of ship dismantling that respects social and environmental criteria, as part of its European industrial recovery plan;

14. Calls on the Commission to urgently fulfil its commitment to regulate access for the most polluting ships to ports and oblige docked ships to use the available recharging and refuelling infrastructure, such as shore-side electricity, to decrease GHG and air-polluting emissions at berth and reach the objective of zero emissions while at berth as soon as possible and by 2030 at the latest, thereby protecting coastal areas and their populations; urges the Commission to revise the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive to include binding targets for Member States and incentives for ports to scale-up the deployment of the necessary infrastructure as soon as possible; calls on the Commission to support Member States in modernising ports and for Member States to ensure that EU ports have adequate infrastructure in place to enable shipping to go zero-emission while in port;

15. Recommends that the Commission secure the use of promising sustainable fuels when a future revision of the Energy Taxation Directive[22] is undertaken;

16. Highlights the positive role of emission control areas (ECAs) on the environment and public health; underlines the importance of extending ECAs to all EU seas from existing ECAs in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as they represent an essential tool to limit air and water pollution from maritime transport and contribute to tackling global climate change; calls on all parties to rapidly agree on making the Mediterranean an ECA, as it suffers from chronic pollution with adverse effects on human health and marine biodiversity, in order to reduce both SOx and NOx emissions from ships; acknowledges the importance of controls alongside the emission limits set and calls on the IMO to also support countries outside the Union to ensure compliance with the ECA limits; calls on the Commission to examine the possibility of phasing out heavy fuel oil use and refilling in European waters and ports;

17. Welcomes the fact that the IMO is set to agree on a global regulation on the limitations of ‘black carbon emissions’ in 2021 and highlights and supports the possibility of agreeing to ban the use of high-emitting heavy fuel oil in the Arctic;

18. Stresses that the EU should lead by example by adopting ambitious legal requirements for clean maritime transport, while supporting and pushing for measures that are at least equally as ambitious in international forums such as the IMO, enabling the maritime transport sector to phase out its GHG emissions globally as soon as possible and in line with the Paris Agreement.


 

INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

Date adopted

29.10.2020

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

67

6

7

Members present for the final vote

Nikos Androulakis, Bartosz Arłukowicz, Margrete Auken, Simona Baldassarre, Marek Paweł Balt, Traian Băsescu, Aurelia Beigneux, Monika Beňová, Sergio Berlato, Alexander Bernhuber, Malin Björk, Simona Bonafè, Delara Burkhardt, Pascal Canfin, Sara Cerdas, Mohammed Chahim, Tudor Ciuhodaru, Nathalie Colin-Oesterlé, Esther de Lange, Christian Doleschal, Marco Dreosto, Eleonora Evi, Agnès Evren, Fredrick Federley, Pietro Fiocchi, Catherine Griset, Jytte Guteland, Anja Hazekamp, Martin Hojsík, Pär Holmgren, Jan Huitema, Yannick Jadot, Adam Jarubas, Petros Kokkalis, Athanasios Konstantinou, Joanna Kopcińska, Sylvia Limmer, Javi López, Fulvio Martusciello, Liudas Mažylis, Joëlle Mélin, Tilly Metz, Dolors Montserrat, Alessandra Moretti, Dan-Ştefan Motreanu, Ville Niinistö, Ljudmila Novak, Grace O’Sullivan, Jutta Paulus, Jessica Polfjärd, Luisa Regimenti, Frédérique Ries, María Soraya Rodríguez Ramos, Sándor Rónai, Rob Rooken, Silvia Sardone, Christine Schneider, Günther Sidl, Linea Søgaard-Lidell, Nicolae Ştefănuță, Nils Torvalds, Edina Tóth, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Alexandr Vondra, Mick Wallace, Pernille Weiss, Michal Wiezik, Tiemo Wölken, Anna Zalewska

Substitutes present for the final vote

Maria Arena, Manuel Bompard, Antoni Comín i Oliveres, Margarita de la Pisa Carrión, Sven Giegold, Jens Gieseke, Nicolás González Casares, Christophe Hansen, Laura Huhtasaari, Ondřej Knotek, Róża Thun und Hohenstein

 

 


FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

67

+

EPP

Bartosz Arłukowicz, Traian Băsescu, Alexander Bernhuber, Nathalie Colin-Oesterlé, Esther de Lange, Christian Doleschal, Agnès Evren, Jens Gieseke, Christophe Hansen, Adam Jarubas, Fulvio Martusciello, Liudas Mažylis, Dolors Montserrat, Dan-Ştefan Motreanu, Ljudmila Novak, Jessica Polfjärd, Christine Schneider, Róża Thun und Hohenstein, Edina Tóth, Pernille Weiss, Michal Wiezik

S&D

Nikos Androulakis, Maria Arena, Marek Paweł Balt, Monika Beňová, Simona Bonafè, Delara Burkhardt, Sara Cerdas, Mohammed Chahim, Tudor Ciuhodaru, Nicolás González Casares, Jytte Guteland, Javi López, Alessandra Moretti, Sándor Rónai, Günther Sidl, Tiemo Wölken

RENEW

Pascal Canfin, Fredrick Federley, Martin Hojsík, Jan Huitema, Ondřej Knotek, Frédérique Ries, María Soraya Rodríguez Ramos, Nicolae Ştefănuță, Linea Søgaard-Lidell, Nils Torvalds, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir

ID

Aurelia Beigneux, Catherine Griset, Joëlle Mélin

GREENS/EFA

Margrete Auken, Sven Giegold, Pär Holmgren, Yannick Jadot, Tilly Metz, Ville Niinistö, Grace O’Sullivan, Jutta Paulus

GUE/NGL

Malin Björk, Manuel Bompard, Anja Hazekamp, Petros Kokkalis, Mick Wallace

NI

Antoni Comín i Oliveres, Eleonora Evi, Athanasios Konstantinou

 

6

-

ID

Simona Baldassarre, Marco Dreosto, Laura Huhtasaari, Sylvia Limmer, Luisa Regimenti, Silvia Sardone

 

7

0

ECR

Sergio Berlato, Margarita de la Pisa Carrión, Pietro Fiocchi, Joanna Kopcińska, Rob Rooken, Alexandr Vondra, Anna Zalewska

 

Key to symbols:

+ : in favour

- : against

0 : abstention

 



INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

Date adopted

25.2.2021

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

32

0

17

Members present for the final vote

Magdalena Adamowicz, Andris Ameriks, José Ramón Bauzá Díaz, Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, Marco Campomenosi, Massimo Casanova, Ciarán Cuffe, Jakop G. Dalunde, Andor Deli, Karima Delli, Anna Deparnay-Grunenberg, Ismail Ertug, Gheorghe Falcă, Giuseppe Ferrandino, João Ferreira, Mario Furore, Søren Gade, Isabel García Muñoz, Jens Gieseke, Elsi Katainen, Elena Kountoura, Julie Lechanteux, Bogusław Liberadzki, Peter Lundgren, Benoît Lutgen, Elżbieta Katarzyna Łukacijewska, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Tilly Metz, Giuseppe Milazzo, Cláudia Monteiro de Aguiar, Caroline Nagtegaal, Jan-Christoph Oetjen, Philippe Olivier, Rovana Plumb, Dominique Riquet, Dorien Rookmaker, Massimiliano Salini, Sven Schulze, Vera Tax, Barbara Thaler, István Ujhelyi, Petar Vitanov, Elissavet Vozemberg-Vrionidi, Lucia Vuolo, Roberts Zīle, Kosma Złotowski

Substitutes present for the final vote

Clare Daly, Carlo Fidanza, Marianne Vind

 


 

FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

32

+

ECR

Carlo Fidanza, Peter Lundgren, Roberts Zīle, Kosma Złotowski

PPE

Magdalena Adamowicz, Andor Deli, Gheorghe Falcă, Jens Gieseke, Elżbieta Katarzyna Łukacijewska, Benoît Lutgen, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Giuseppe Milazzo, Cláudia Monteiro de Aguiar, Massimiliano Salini, Sven Schulze, Barbara Thaler, Elissavet Vozemberg-Vrionidi

Renew

José Ramón Bauzá Díaz, Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, Søren Gade, Elsi Katainen, Caroline Nagtegaal, Jan-Christoph Oetjen, Dominique Riquet

S&D

Andris Ameriks, Ismail Ertug, Giuseppe Ferrandino, Isabel García Muñoz, Bogusław Liberadzki, Rovana Plumb, István Ujhelyi, Petar Vitanov

 

0

-

 

 

 

17

0

ID

Marco Campomenosi, Massimo Casanova, Julie Lechanteux, Philippe Olivier, Lucia Vuolo

NI

Mario Furore, Dorien Rookmaker

S&D

Vera Tax, Marianne Vind

The Left

Clare Daly, João Ferreira, Elena Kountoura

Verts/ALE

Ciarán Cuffe, Jakop G. Dalunde, Karima Delli, Anna Deparnay-Grunenberg, Tilly Metz

 

Key to symbols:

+ : in favour

- : against

0 : abstention

 

 

[1] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0005.

[2] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0219.

[3] https://gmn.imo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/GHG3-Executive-Summary-and-Report_web.pdf

[5] OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, p. 1.

[6] https://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/maritime_en

[7]  Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry

[8]  Third IMO GHG Study.

[9] Fourth IMO GHG Study.

[10] Directive 2003/87/EC.

[11] Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry.

[12] Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry.

[13] Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry.

[14] Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry.

[15] Oxford Economics (2020): The Economic Value of the EU Shipping Industry.

[16] Fourth IMO GHG Study, 2020.

[17] Fourth IMO GHG Study, 2020.

[18] IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, 2018.

[19] Fourth IMO GHG Study, 2020.

[20] Brandt, J., Silver, J. D., and Frohn, L. M., ‘Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System. CEEH Scientific Report No 3’, 2011.

[21] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0219.

[22] OJ L 283, 31.10.2003, p. 51.

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