Procedure : 2020/2117(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A9-0190/2021

Texts tabled :

A9-0190/2021

Debates :

PV 05/07/2021 - 22
CRE 05/07/2021 - 22

Votes :

PV 07/07/2021 - 2

Texts adopted :

P9_TA(2021)0328

<Date>{02/06/2021}2.6.2021</Date>
<NoDocSe>A9-0190/2021</NoDocSe>
PDF 263kWORD 107k

<TitreType>REPORT</TitreType>

<Titre>on the trade-related aspects and implications of COVID-19</Titre>

<DocRef>(2020/2117(INI))</DocRef>


<Commission>{INTA}Committee on International Trade</Commission>

Rapporteur: <Depute>Kathleen Van Brempt</Depute> 

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
 EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
 OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPMENT
 OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
 INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE
 FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION

on the trade-related aspects and implications of COVID-19

(2020/2117(INI))

The European Parliament,

 having regard to the Commission communication of 18 February 2021 entitled ‘Trade Policy Review – An Open, Sustainable and Assertive Trade Policy’ (COM(2021)0066),

 having regard to the Commission white paper of 17 June 2020 on levelling the playing field as regards foreign subsidies (COM(2020)0253),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 27 May 2020 entitled ‘Europe’s moment: Repair and Prepare for the Next Generation’ (COM(2020)0456),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 20 May 2020 entitled ‘A Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system’ (COM(2020)0381),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 27 May 2020 entitled ‘Adjusted Commission Work Programme 2020’ (COM(2020)0440) and to President von der Leyen’s letter of intent to President Sassoli and Chancellor Merkel of 16 September 2020 entitled ‘State of the Union 2020’,

 having regard to the Commission communication of 20 May 2020 entitled ‘EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives’ (COM(2020)0380),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 11 March 2020 entitled ‘A new Circular Economy Action Plan: For a cleaner and more competitive Europe’ (COM(2020)0098),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 10 March 2020 entitled ‘A New Industrial Strategy for Europe’ (COM(2020)0102),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 10 March 2020 entitled ‘An SME Strategy for a sustainable and digital Europe’ (COM(2020)0103),

 having regard to the joint communication of the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of 9 March 2020 entitled ‘Towards a comprehensive Strategy with Africa’ (JOIN(2020)0004),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 19 February 2020 entitled ‘Shaping Europe’s digital future’ (COM(2020)0067),

 having regard to the Commission communication of 11 December 2019 on the European Green Deal (COM(2019)0640),

 having regard to the joint communication of the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of 2 December 2020 entitled ‘A new EU-US agenda for global change’ (JOIN(2020)0022),

 having regard to the non-paper of the Commission services of 26 February 2018 on feedback and the way forward on improving the implementation and enforcement of trade and sustainable development (TSD) chapters in EU free trade agreements and its 15-point action plan on TSD chapters,

 having regard to the Commission communication of 14 October 2015 entitled ‘Trade for All – Towards a more responsible trade and investment policy’ (COM(2015)0497),

 having regard to the Agreement adopted at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Paris Agreement),

 having regard to the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),

 having regard to its resolutions of 26 November 2020 on the EU Trade Policy Review[1], of [… June 2021] on a Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally friendly food system[2], of [… June 2021] entitled ‘EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives’[3], of 20 May 2021 entitled ‘Shaping the digital future of Europe: removing barriers to the functioning of the digital single market and improving the use of AI for European consumers’[4], of 25 March 2021 on establishing an EU strategy for sustainable tourism[5], of 10 March 2021 entitled ‘towards a WTO-compatible EU carbon border adjustment mechanism’[6], of 10 March 2021 with recommendations to the Commission on corporate due diligence and corporate accountability[7], of 10 February 2021 on the New Circular Economy Action Plan[8], of 25 November 2020 entitled ‘A New Industrial Strategy for Europe’[9], of 7 October 2020 entitled ‘Implementation of the common commercial policy – annual report 2018’[10], of 16 September 2020 on the EU’s role in protecting and restoring the world’s forests[11], of 28 November 2019 on the climate and environment emergency[12], of 12 December 2017 entitled ‘Towards a digital trade strategy’[13], and of 5 July 2016 on a new forward-looking and innovative future strategy for trade and investment[14],

 

 having regard to the opinion of its Committee on International Trade of 15 April 2021 on the report entitled ‘EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives’,

 having regard to Rule 54 of its Rules of Procedure,

 having regard to the opinions of the Committee on Development and the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development,

 having regard to the report of the Committee on International Trade (A9-0190/2021),

A. whereas COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic, giving rise to an unprecedented global health, economic, social and humanitarian crisis, which has created bottlenecks and disruptions of an unprecedented scale to international trade, causing it to plunge as the virus spread, slashing global production and employment, decreasing the level of foreign direct investment (FDI), and increasing geopolitical tensions;

B. whereas the pandemic has demonstrated strategic vulnerabilities in the EU and global supply chains, including for critical raw materials, and essential medical goods such as personal protective equipment and active pharmaceutical ingredients, and has highlighted the need for enhanced resilience and diversification at global, regional and local level;

C. whereas the COVID-19 outbreak has further increased inequalities and has added to concern among citizens about job losses in certain sectors, the changing nature of work and the pressure on workers’ wages and rights; whereas these problems must be addressed in order to retain public support for global trade;

D. whereas the COVID-19 outbreak risks creating a set-back in the worldwide fight against climate change, yet we needglobal action and cooperation to develop policies and streamline climate action in internal and external policy, as the vaccine alone will not be sufficient to address the social, environmental and economic crisis caused by COVID-19;

E. whereas though the European Union has substantially reduced its domestic greenhouse gas emissions, those embedded in imports have been constantly rising, thereby undermining the Union’s efforts to reduce its global greenhouse gas emission footprint;

F. whereas international trade in goods and services is set to increase by 8.4 % in 2022 according to International Monetary Fund estimates[15] and trade policy must play a full roll in the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic; whereas the Commission communication on the Trade Policy Review must be complemented by continued dialogue and transparency with the European Parliament, which will play a key role in its implementation, as well as by a strategy to increase EU resilience and strategic autonomy, including tailored policy measures and instruments in the area of domestic production, nearshoring, diversification of suppliers and stockpiling;

G. whereas the EU, as the world’s largest trading bloc and with its extensive network of trade agreements, is the biggest actor on the world trading scene and finds itself in a unique position to cooperate globally, drive the implementation of EU standards, values and sustainability frameworks in partner countries, and secure the sustainable recovery of the world economy, in line with the European Green Deal and the Paris Agreement;

H. whereas the divisions within the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the urgent need for its reform have complicated the coordinated efforts to keep global supply chains open, and the priority  must now be to rebuild trust in multilateral institutions as entities able to deliver global answers, by rapidly moving forward on the discussions on the WTO trade and health initiative;

I. whereas it is important for there to be close cooperation between the WTO and other international bodies, notably the World Health Organization (WHO), the UN institutions and the World Bank, in order to tackle the crisis in a comprehensive manner, paying special attention to the health and economic implications in developing countries;

Fair, resilient and green value chains

1. Stresses that trade policy finds itself at a crossroads; notes that the geopolitical reality has changed and stresses that the EU still has to position itself in this new environment; is convinced that COVID-19 has reinforced the need for a thorough review of the EU’s trade policy; stresses that Parliament is ready to contribute actively to the Trade Policy Review; 

2. Stresses the importance of fair, resilient and sustainable value chains that respect human rights, labour rights and environmental standards; recalls that mandatory due diligence across supply chains should be an instrument to achieve this; stresses that more attention should be given to the vulnerable position of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) in the EU and especially in developing countries, as large companies are more likely to overcome exogenous shocks; stresses the importance of using strategic foresight to increase the EU’s and developing countries’ preparedness for and resilience to any future shocks and health crises, including in the emergence of new disease mutations and future pandemics, aiming to develop future-proof strategies and responses; points out that a key pillar of an EU sustainable supply-chain strategy would be to require companies largely exposed to international supply chains to be subject to legally binding reporting requirements in the context of the forthcoming revision of the Non-Financial Reporting Directive[16];

3. Calls for the EU to ensure that trade also works for the economically disadvantaged; recalls, in this regard, that the specific actions to promote ‘fair and ethical trade schemes’ to which the Commission committed in the ‘Trade for All’ strategy have become even more relevant under the current circumstances given that bottom-up fair trade initiatives can ensure that trade benefits the economically disadvantaged actors in the supply chain; emphasises the importance of predictable long-term orders and takes note of the successful ordering schemes of that nature in the fair trade sector;

4. Calls on the Commission to promote fair trade initiatives through EU programmes involving young people and the private sector, in external action in general, in the implementation of TSD chapters, through EU delegations, and by rewarding best practices and facilitating knowledge exchange among local, regional and national authorities, civil society, schools and universities in the EU, including through the extension of the ‘EU Cities for Fair and Ethical Trade Award’ to schools and universities and the setting up of an annual fair trade week hosted in Brussels by the Commission; demands that the Commission report on support for fair-trade initiatives by the EU and the Member States;

5. Notes that global value chains often involve asymmetrical effects, including for least developed countries, an uneven distribution of risks, and disproportionally adversely impact women; deplores the fact that during the pandemic this uneven distribution has led to some European businesses offloading the costs of lower demand throughout their supply chains, including in developing countries, and cancelling orders that were already produced and in some cases even shipped; calls on the Commission to engage with Member States, local governments, the private sector and civil society to achieve a fairer distribution of negative impacts and risks across supply chains; calls on the Commission to present concrete proposals following its pledge of ‘zero tolerance of child labour’ before the end of 2021, which the UN has declared International Year for the Eradication of Child Labour;

6. Stresses that the tourism value chain is one of Europe’s main industrial ecosystems; emphasises, in this regard, that due to restrictions on travel and supply chains and disruptions caused by the COVID-19 crisis, tourism-related sectors such as hospitality, as well as other major industries (aeronautical, automotive, steel, shipbuilding and marine), are suffering trade and economic collapse;

7. Stresses that effective rules ensuring fair competition and a level playing field for European businesses, in both the internal market and third-country markets, are necessary to guarantee mutually beneficial trade relations with international partners and protect the single market from aggressive investment strategies by non-EU actors trying to take advantage of the current crisis; emphasises the importance of trade defence instruments in this regard; underlines that the enforcement regulation should have a positive contribution to the goal of ensuring fair competition and a level playing field, and stresses that TSD chapters are an integral part of trade policy;

8. Calls on the Commission to swiftly complete the EU’s trade defence toolbox in 2021 through legislative proposals supported by impact assessments, giving priority to an anti-coercion instrument, an instrument to tackle distortions caused by foreign subsidies and state-owned enterprises, and the conclusion of negotiations on the International Procurement Instrument; points out the coercive effect of extraterritorial sanctions by third countries and the need to safeguard the functioning of financial instruments from such measures; notes the importance of public financial intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic;

9. Is convinced that openness should go hand in hand with safeguarding our strategic sectors and should be closely connected with an ambitious, forward-looking industrial policy in line with the Green Deal and digital strategy, which can increase the EU’s capabilities to withstand future shocks in strategic sectors, boost economic recovery and ensure the competitiveness of EU businesses, creating quality jobs and ensuring that Europe plays a crucial role in the production of innovative goods and future services;

10. Believes that supply chain diversification and resilience should be a key priority for the revised EU trade policy; highlights the coupling of trade and security interests and calls for the proportional strengthening and enforcement of foreign direct investment screening, thereby complementing and supporting Member State efforts to implement such screening to safeguard European strategic sectors, and preventing the establishment of detrimental and exploitable economic dependencies on non-EU actors;

11. Is convinced that the EU is too dependent on a limited number of suppliers for certain critical raw materials, goods and services, especially medical and pharmaceutical goods, and that this undermines its strategic autonomy and geopolitical objectives; insists that the EU should overcome these undesirable dependencies via a horizontal mix of policies to incentivise companies to stockpile, increase manufacturing, diversify sourcing strategies and, where necessary, promote nearshoring and reshoring, which could create new trading opportunities for partners in the Eastern and Southern Neighbourhoods and must be accompanied by regulatory approximation in strategic sectors;

12. Stresses the risks to critical supply chains made apparent by the COVID-19 crisis and calls on the Commission to pay particular attention to the sustainability of EU supply chains in its forthcoming industrial strategy, identifying which supply chains could benefit from increased resilience through supply diversification, reshoring and stockpiling; believes, however, that companies should ultimately decide for themselves how to manage their global supply chains;

13. Points out that the Commission should promote a circular economy on a global level and underlines the role that trade agreements should have in enhancing the circular economy’s objectives, diversifying supply and strengthening open trade relations for critical goods and services, and that shortening or altering supply chains to the EU’s neighbourhood and Africa can have a positive effect on their sustainable, green, inclusive and resilient economic growth, as well as for the EU’s strategic interests;

14. Notes that the EU’s agri-food supply chains remained operational during the pandemic but deplores the fact that export restrictions and trade barriers have caused numerous disruptions to it; notes that the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), which brings together the principal trading countries of agricultural commodities with the aim of enhancing food market transparency and the policy response for food security, can be regarded as an example of good practice; calls on the Commission to explore whether this model could be used in other value chains as well; supports actions to facilitate trade taken to promote food safety standards and sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) in response to COVID-19; notes that according to the UN World Food Programme (WFP), COVID-19 brought the number of people at risk of acute food shortages in 2020 in low and middle-income countries up to 265 million, a figure up 130 million compared with 2019; calls on the Commission to identify and explore in cooperation with the UN the most appropriate measures to ensure that this pandemic does not translate into a food crisis in the developing world;

15. Calls on the Commission to come up with a digital trade strategy which increases the market access of European businesses, strengthens digital infrastructure, harmonises regulatory frameworks, modernises trade and customs tools, and protects EU citizens’ rights under the GDPR[17];

 

16. Calls on the Commission to make thorough assessments of whether the new EU model clause on data flows will preserve Europeans’ data protection and privacy rights in the case of a dispute with a trading partner; stresses that existing and future measures protecting the fundamental rights to privacy and personal data protection must not be undermined by international trade agreements; urges the Commission to take the relevant commitments of third countries into account when assessing their adequacy, including for onward transfers of data;

17. Underlines the acceleration of the digital revolution due to COVID-19 and recognises the importance of the EU taking the lead in setting standards for a sustainable, digital-driven global economy and keeping international data flows open so as to rapidly overcome a range of trade barriers and bottlenecks; underlines that the EU can set a global standard for fair and resilient digital trade in its bilateral and multilateral engagements and in plurilateral negotiations on e-commerce and investment facilitation; underlines that the digital chapter in the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement can serve as a model for future trade agreements;

18. Calls for incentives to be provided, including by means of tailor-made legal provisions on State aid, for EU businesses to make their value chains more sustainable and to shorten or adjust their supply chains where it could be beneficial to the EU’s economy, resilience, geopolitical objectives and/or strategic autonomy, in order to ensure that external social, environmental and economic costs are fully internalised into the price in line with EU policies such as the Farm to Fork Strategy, the Circular Economy Action Plan, the Biodiversity Strategy and stepping up EU action to protect and restore the world’s forests;

19. Calls on the Commission to thoroughly review how and to what extent transfers of emerging and disruptive technologies are taking place from the EU to authoritarian states via trade and investment flows; calls on the Commission to propose new measures to limit such transfers, including supply-chain cooperation with like-minded partners; calls for a dialogue on semiconductors to be started with Taiwan;

Trade policy for critical health products: lessons learned from the COVID-19 crisis

20. Underlines that international trade governance, putting international cooperation over competition, has an essential role to play in the rapid development of medical treatments and vaccines, the rapid scaling up of production, the development of resilient global value chains and equitable global market access, and, in this context, underlines that the current pandemic should provide impetus to strengthened international cooperation and global preparedness for health emergencies, requiring further engagement by the EU and the Member States acting together as ‘Team Europe’; underlines the need to address trade-related causes of pandemics and zoonoses, such as the impact of trade on biosphere degradation;

21. Welcomes the proposal by several government leaders for an international treaty on the pandemic response and calls for it to include a strong trade pillar; underlines that the international trade framework must foster cooperation and put into place both structural and rapid response mechanisms to help governments overcome the challenges associated with health emergencies; underlines that such arrangements should encompass on the one hand, a needs-oriented ‘demand-side’ approach providing joint financing and globally coordinated advance purchases, and on the other hand, an integrated ‘supply side’ strategy for scaling up production capacity across the whole value chain; maintains that progress needs to be made in the areas of transparency on available stocks, global supply networks, production capacities and the pricing of essential health products, the implementation and development of exceptions for public health security in the intellectual property rights (IPR) framework, increasing the global mobility of essential services, protecting and fostering the resilience of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and developing an intersectional approach to tackling the negative impact of health crises on gender equality, income equality, and the position of minorities;

22. Calls for the  establishment of a new Committee on Trade and Health at the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference in order to prepare guidelines on how governments can implement existing exceptions and flexibilities in international trade law so as to increase public health security, and what mechanisms must be put in place to improve the global response to health emergencies and to lay the groundwork for a trade pillar for the negotiations on a future international treaty on the pandemic response;

23. Stresses that global supply chains for raw materials and the production and distribution of vaccines must benefit from open trade relations; underlines that protectionism in the production and distribution of vaccines can hinder the response to the global pandemic; emphasises, in this connection, the detrimental effects of unilateral measures such as export restrictions and bans, the lack of transparency of global stocks and the subsequent price speculation with regard to scarce essential goods, not least for low- and middle-income countries; calls, therefore, for the EU to encourage the adoption of the WTO trade and health initiative by the end of 2021, to encourage stronger global cooperation and to be much more demanding as regards the transparency of the supply, production and cost of medical products, the resilience of global healthcare systems, and accessible and affordable medical products and services; calls for the EU to ensure that future advanced purchase agreements are fully disclosed, particularly for next-generation vaccines;

24. Calls for the EU to integrate commitments with regard to trade secrets, proprietary data and technology transfers, and demand the necessary transparency from suppliers, including a cost-profit analysis per product;

25. Is therefore concerned about the new rise in export restrictions on vaccines by the main manufacturing countries such as the US, the UK, China, India and, to a lesser extent, the EU and emphasises that this might endanger the rapid global scaling up of vaccine production capacity, disrupt production chains and lead to retaliation; urges the Commission to engage with producing countries to rapidly eliminate export barriers; reaffirms that the EU export authorisation mechanism is a temporary measure, only to be used as a last resort, and should evolve into a transparency mechanism; insists on receiving timely and comprehensive access to such data; emphasises that greater transparency has increased EU citizens’ trust in the EU’s vaccine rollout and management of the COVID-19 pandemic;

26. Is deeply concerned about the rising number of variants of COVID-19; emphasises that the lack of production and distribution of vaccines in third countries could lead to the increase of new and different types of variants; recognises that the EU is one of the largest exporters of vaccines to third countries, but that in absolute terms, these exports are not yet sufficient to tackle the global pandemic; stresses that the COVAX Facility is currently not able to distribute vaccines to the most vulnerable in accordance with demand; underlines that timely global access to vaccines can benefit the recovery and resilience of the global economy, as well as the EU economy; urges the Commission to pursue effective vaccine and medical supply diplomacy to strengthen the EU’s credibility and diplomatic visibility and calls for more international efforts to speed up the delivery of vaccines to COVAX;

27. Underlines that the vaccines against COVID-19 and its variants should be a global public good and that urgent multilateral efforts should be focused on the equitable distribution of vaccines across the world, rapidly increasing global production capacities, and establishing effective partnerships and technology transfers, including in low- and middle-income countries; emphasises that, based on lessons learned, it is crucial to continue to improve the public-private partnership frameworks behind the development and production of vaccines and other essential health technologies; welcomes the Global C19 Vaccine Supply Chain and Manufacturing Summit held on 8 and 9 March 2021 and calls for the establishment of structural platforms to rapidly scale up vaccine production in more countries, which could take the form of a public-private-partnership clearing house to bring together private and public parties to enable and scale up partnerships, monitor bottlenecks, and identify measures to support vaccine manufacturing and deployment; underlines the efforts made by the Director-General of the WTO in bringing members forward in the discussion on trade and health initiatives;

28. Emphasises that international trade policy must play a proactive role in this endeavour by facilitating trade in raw materials, alleviating shortages of qualified and experienced personnel, solving supply chain problems and revisiting the global framework for IPR for future pandemics; insists, in this regard, on a constructive dialogue about a temporary waiver of the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in order to ensure that countries do not face retaliation over COVID-19 related patent infringements during the pandemic;

29. Underlines that researchers and industry have put major effort into the development of new COVID-19 diagnoses, treatments and vaccines; emphasises the key role played by public sector resources, allowing pharmaceutical companies to de-risk the whole vaccine value chain by means of funding and large subsidies for research and development, as well as through large-scale advanced purchase agreements; underlines also the fundamental contribution of healthcare workers, patients, COVID-19 survivors and the general public who have participated in clinical trials and other research and development activities on different therapeutics and vaccines; considers that a multilateral IPR legal framework can provide protections and incentives which are critical for preparedness against future pandemics and recognises its role in facilitating the broad and unprecedented collaboration among governments, research institutions and pharmaceutical companies;

30. Emphasises the critical importance of open technology, know-how and research sharing for an effective pandemic response and of the full participation of pharmaceutical companies in multilateral initiatives such as C-TAP (COVID-19 Technology Access Pool) and the newly established WHO Technology Transfer Hub in order to harness their full potential;

Trade and sustainable development

31. Supports the mainstreaming of the European Green Deal and the European Digital Strategy into the communication on the Trade Policy Review (TPR) and calls for an assertive trade policy geared towards multilateralism, resilience and sustainability in line with the EU’s commitment to implementing the UN SDGs; calls for a concrete action plan, roadmap and timeline to make this ambition a reality; invites the Commission, therefore, to engage with partners to update existing trade and investment agreements by making use of their review clauses;

 

32. Welcomes the incorporation of the Paris Agreement as an essential element in each future trade, investment and partnership agreement; stresses that ratification of the International Labour Organization (ILO) core conventions and respect for human rights are requirements for concluding free trade agreements (FTAs); calls for the Union to engage with future and existing trading partners to ratify and effectively implement other outstanding ILO conventions and multilateral environmental agreements when reviewing and negotiating agreements; asks for ambitious chapters on gender, women’s empowerment and SMEs, as well as dedicated chapters on digital trade, to be included in each trade agreement;

33. Underlines that the post-COVID-19 recovery is a unique opportunity to set the agenda to promote sustainable growth; calls on the Commission, therefore, to speed up its review of the 15-point action plan on TSD chapters in 2021 so that it can be implemented in ongoing negotiations; expects the review to address enforceability and recalls, in this regard, the non-paper from the Netherlands and France on trade, social economic effects and sustainable development[18]; suggests that, as a minimum, recent advances in the enforceability of EU trade policy should be considered, namely the ability to tackle any non-compliance by partners through unilateral sanctions as a last resort, such as the introduction of tariffs or quotas on certain products or the cross-suspension of other parts of an agreement;

 

34. Calls on the Council and the Commission to include in TSD and agricultural chapters provisions regarding animal welfare, fair trade and the circular economy; emphasises the role of the Chief Trade Enforcement Officer in this regard and calls for close cooperation with the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade in the monitoring and scrutiny of TSD enforcement; calls on the Commission to draw on the lessons learned from the recent panel of experts so that TSD chapters include a roadmap with concrete and verifiable commitments;

35. Regrets that brown goods still receive preferential treatment over green goods and that tariffs and trade barriers are working against sustainable trade; underlines that removing tariffs and trade barriers for green goods and services should be designed in compatibility with WTO rules in order to contribute to innovative solutions to tackle the climate crisis and contribute to the goals of the Green Deal, as well as the SDGs and sustainable development worldwide; requests that the Commission look into instruments to tackle these distortions and walk the talk of the Green Deal by implementing it in all aspects of trade policy;

36. Points out that high up-front costs, which could only repay themselves over time, and

a lack of know-how and equipment are currently hindering or slowing developing countries in their green and digital transition; demands that the Commission use all trade instruments and development cooperation policies at its disposal to increase financial support, technical assistance, technology transfers, capacity building and digitalisation in order to empower developing countries and enable them to achieve sustainable resilience and to better implement due diligence across the supply chain;

37. Calls for the EU to take a leading role within the multilateral framework to engage with like-minded countries and trade partners in pursuing a strong environmental agenda, including the progressive development of disciplines, to end both market-distorting and environmentally harmful subsidies in trade agreements and at the WTO, including disciplines on fossil fuel subsidies, building on the ‘do no significant harm’ principle;

38. Stresses the importance of drawing up sustainability impact assessments on an ex ante, intermediate and ex post basis, following a concrete timeline, addressing possible risks as early as possible, and, if ex post evaluations prove this to be necessary, address negative impacts; calls on the Commission to brief Parliament regularly on the ongoing and finalised sustainable impact assessments; stresses the need to develop a comprehensive framework with concrete targets to advance the SDGs, the Green Deal and the ILO Decent Work Agenda in trade and investment agreements; emphasises that the new agreements should only be concluded once these targets have been fulfilled and that existing agreements should be revised accordingly;

39. Emphasises that transparency, dialogue and good communication with citizens and stakeholders are key to creating support for trade policy and harnessing its benefits; welcomes, therefore, the Acces2Markets gateway and the Commission’s efforts in promoting this tool; insists that the role and responsibilities of civil society and domestic advisory groups (DAGs), whose monitoring role could be further extended, must be clearly defined in the EU’s political and trade agreements and that financial assistance must be accompanied by capacity-building measures to enable it to function effectively; emphasises the potential of EU delegations in supporting the work of third-country DAGs and monitoring and implementing trade agreements, paying special attention to supporting SMEs in taking advantage of agreements and trade facilitation measures; deplores the lack of an overarching structure in this regard;

40. Stresses the need for more coherency and transparency in scrutinising EU trade policy; underlines the need for coherent, clear, measurable and objective criteria for the EU’s trade policy and the engagement of EU citizens, better dialogue between the Commission and Parliament, more policy coherence and better scrutiny of all aspects of trade policy; stresses the role of ex ante, intermediate and ex post sustainable impact assessments in this regard; calls on the Commission to engage with Parliament at all stages of its proposals, follow up on proposals made by the DAGs, reinvigorate civil society dialogue and cooperate more intensively with civil society in the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC); calls for Parliament to structure regular consultations with the DAGs;

Multilateralism and Europe’s geopolitical place in the world

41. Invites the Commission to identify possible concrete and specific actions and a roadmap to implement the concept of open strategic autonomy, and to ensure that all options are on the table; notes with concern that geopolitical competition and tensions have accelerated following the COVID-19 outbreak;

42. Recalls the geopolitical significance of a strong, diversified and resilient EU trade policy; recalls that the EU’s high energy-dependency rate is a challenge for open strategic autonomy, which compels us to accelerate the energy transition; stresses that the EU’s market strength, values and adherence to cooperation, fairness, reciprocity and rules-based trade should form the basis of our openness;

43. Strongly recommends that the EU seek out new and consolidate existing partnerships with like-minded partners; considers that plurilateral trade agreements with a limited number of partners and a focus on strategic issues offer a better and more concrete avenue for implementing the concept of open strategic autonomy and would attract support among civil society;

44. Stresses, however, that where cooperation is not possible, the EU should pursue its interests through autonomous measures to protect its values and fight against unfair trading practices in accordance with international law;

45. Welcomes the Trade Policy Review’s affirmation of multilateralism and the extensive proposals made for the necessary in-depth WTO reform across all its functions;

46. Shares the emphasis placed by the Commission in its vision for WTO reform on economic recovery, sustainable development, unfair state subsidies and digital trade, and urges the Commission to expend all efforts to implement its agenda, including goals on gender, human rights and labour standards;

47. Stresses the importance of ensuring the swift connection of the WTO with other organisations in the multilateral system such as the WHO, achieving a consensus in Geneva, ensuring that international organisations work jointly on mastering global challenges, and concluding the fisheries subsidy negotiations at the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference;

48. Stresses the importance of the WTO trade and climate initiative and reiterates its support for an environmental goods agreement; welcomes, in this context, the approach of the new Director-General of the WTO and expects the Commission to strongly support her in order to provide new impetus to the organisation so that it can tackle the challenges the multilateral trading system is currently facing;

49. Stresses the importance of effective dispute settlement in establishing stability and predictability in the multilateral trading system and the need to resolve the current situation of the Appellate Body in cooperation with the US, in order to make it operational again and in this way ensure that trade disputes can be properly resolved; asks the Commission to propose as part of its WTO trade and climate initiative the inclusion of environmental expertise in the context of dispute settlements, where relevant;

50. Emphasises that reviving the WTO negotiating function will play a key role in any substantial reform of the organisation; notes, in particular, that competitive distortions caused by industrial subsidies and state-owned enterprises, particularly in China, need to be addressed and asks the Commission to put forward proposals to identify and differentiate categories of subsidies according to their contribution to legitimate public goals;

51. Underlines that in order to revive the WTO negotiating function, the EU must work together with like-minded partners to find common ground for WTO reform in the broadest sense; reaffirms that meaningful progress in WTO reform needs a broad consensus and coalitions of like-minded partners; calls on the Commission to continue engaging in plurilateral negotiations as a step towards multilateral agreements; supports the Commission’s proposal to initiate negotiations on a plurilateral agreement on competitive neutrality with like-minded partners; is convinced that EU leadership and transatlantic cooperation are crucial for any meaningful WTO reform to succeed;

52. Calls for the Commission to actively pursue a solution to the mismatch between the level of development and the level of commitment taken within the international trading system; stresses that special attention has to be paid to developing countries and their specific needs in relation to economic growth, sustainable development and WTO reform;

53. Considers it essential that the next WTO Ministerial Conference address the sanctions regime to prevent the consequences of breaching international trade rules by some members from being paid by sectors not responsible for non-compliance;

54. Shares the suggestion made in the Trade Policy Review that the G20 should strengthen cooperation and coordinate efforts on their paths towards carbon neutrality and other aspects of the Green Deal; stresses, however, that in order for this approach to be effective, some G20 members will need to raise their emission reduction commitments; calls on the Commission to deliver an efficient carbon border adjustment mechanism;

55. Supports the new forward-looking transatlantic agenda based on common interests and shared values and goals, aiming to counterbalance the development of economic and trade cooperation in the Pacific, to achieve meaningful WTO reform and to find common solutions to common problems;

56. Recognises at the same time that some diverging interests remain; invites both the Commission and the US administration to cooperate closely in the new political context to secure a level playing field for businesses in order to increase market access for EU companies, continue to explore agreements on conformity assessment and the elimination of industrial tariffs, agree on ambitious social, technological and environmental standards, and build on each other’s experience so as to promote such standards more efficiently on the global stage;

57. Urges both sides to solve bilateral trade disputes, supports the suspension of the Airbus-Boeing tariffs and urges that this matter be resolved permanently in order to find a solution to digital taxes; urges the US to remove the Section 232 tariffs on steel and aluminium;

58. Calls for joint efforts to put workers and companies at the centre of trade policy in order to emerge from the pandemic, speed up the economic recovery and facilitate trade in vaccines and essential medical goods; reiterates that we should work together to achieve meaningful WTO reform and reinstate a well-functioning Appellate Body; encourages both sides to stick to WTO commitments under the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) and to find common solutions to common problems, but underlines the need for the EU to act autonomously if needed;

59. Supports the joint communication entitled ‘A new EU-US agenda for global change’ and calls for the swift establishment of a new EU-US Trade and Technology Council; calls for close EU-US cooperation on emerging and disruptive technologies, including joint export and import restrictions vis-à-vis authoritarian states;

60. Calls on the Commission to put trade, the climate and related reforms at the core of transatlantic relations, while noting the high level of ambition that the new US administration is demonstrating in this area, which should also be based on new approaches such as those introduced by the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA);

61. Is aware of the importance of the EU’s trade relationship with China, which in 2020 became the biggest trading partner of the EU in terms of the trade in goods; firmly believes that EU-China trade relations require a more balanced and reciprocal approach; stresses that the process of the ratification of the EU-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI), which can only start when the EU has achieved substantial progress in the elaboration of suitable and effective autonomous measures to be deployed in efforts to counter market-distorting practices and to defend strategic EU interests, including a ban on products made using forced labour, an upgraded trade defence toolbox and a working sanctions mechanism on human rights;

62. Underlines that ratifying the CAI is unthinkable in the context of the evolving dynamics of the wider EU-China relationship and considers deeply regrettable the unacceptable Chinese escalation of placing elected Members of the European Parliament and European entities under sanctions, as this further erodes trust and hinders bilateral cooperation; underlines that the ratification process of the CAI will not start until the Chinese sanctions against Members and Parliament bodies are lifted;

63. Underlines that Parliament will carefully scrutinise the agreement, including its provisions on sustainable development, and reminds the Commission that it will take the human rights situation in China, including in Hong Kong, into account when asked to endorse the investment agreement;

64. Urges the Commission to move forward with an investment agreement with Taiwan, showing commitment to meaningful engagement in trade and investment relations and taking the necessary steps towards an impact assessment, public consultations and a scoping exercise before the end of 2021; reiterates the importance of the bilateral structural dialogue, including on matters related to multilateralism and the WTO, technology and public health, as well as essential cooperation on critical supplies such as semiconductors;

65. Welcomes the Trade Policy Review’s engagement towards Africa and the Eastern and Southern Neighbourhoods in an effective, sustained and constructive fashion and calls for concrete steps to deepen the EU’s relations with these partners, including in the field of energy;

66. Reiterates the importance of a strategic and sustainable partnership with South-East Asia and India; calls on the Commission, in this context, to remain engaged with the region and proactively promote rules-based trade relations for a comprehensive and ambitious Indo-Pacific strategy;

67. Points out that the COVID-19 crisis has underlined the significance of a new partnership with the African continent that fosters an inclusive and sustainable policy approach; underlines in this context that the issue of debt reductions and debt cancellations needs to be addressed; stresses that the EU needs to actively support the diversification of inner-African value chains;

68. Welcomes the entry into force of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) as an instrument to actively accompany Africa’s regional, economic and political integration and to improve its access to global markets;

69. Underlines the importance of the EU’s commitment to our trade relations with Latin America and the Caribbean, including the overseas countries and territories; expresses concern about the impact of COVID-19, especially on women, in this region;

70. Calls for all the EU institutions to maintain as a priority our trade and development cooperation and the development of greater resilience to pandemics and health emergencies; calls on the Commission to maintain a structural dialogue with partners in the abovementioned regions to this end;

°

° °

71. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

 

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

The COVID-19 pandemic confronts the globe with an unprecedented worldwide shock - not only as a humanitarian catastrophe, but also as a disruptor of our economic and trade systems. Every country in the world faces unpredictable consequences for its citizens’ health, economic and social systems. As the effects of the pandemic hit global services and manufacturing, they in turn exposed the risks of long-stretched value chains, just-in-time production models and unwanted dependencies. The vulnerabilities in the EU’s global value chains must be addressed, as the number of exogenous shocks such as pandemics, extreme whether events, political conflict and cyber-attacks are likely to rise in the future.

 

Adding to the current crisis is the lingering disillusionment of citizens in Europe that comes with the changing nature of work and the loss of jobs in the manufacturing industries. Hyper globalisation has led to negative effects on workers’ wages and the environment, together with a (real or perceived) loss of power of governments to shape the economy and public policies. While nationalist responses and trade wars will not lead us out of this structural crisis, the underpinning concerns must be taken seriously and the failures of the neoliberal economic doctrine must be acknowledged. Support for the multilateral trading system comes with the ability to shape it.

 

The same goes for tackling the health effects of the current pandemic. While the virus knows no borders, the global response has been severely hampered by export curbs and trade barriers, a lack of transparency on the available stocks and production of essential products, and weakened international institutions who were unprepared to deal with a crisis of this magnitude. The task before us is to learn from the current situation and to bolster up our international preparedness for future (health) crises.

 

Reforming traditional trade policy in light of the challenges we face, making it sustainable and fair for everyone, is the only way forward to contribute to the global changes our citizens are demanding. Challenges need to be turned into opportunities and sustainable, better jobs need to be created for our citizens. The UN Sustainable Development Goals, with its 3 pillars of economy, ecology and social policy, should act as a guiding compass.

 

Fair, resilient and green value chains

 

Although most global value chains remained operational, it is undeniable that the pandemic brought unwanted dependencies to light in crucial sectors such as pharmaceuticals, medical products and Personal Protective Equipment. Whereas shortages of supply were caused by a sudden surge of demand and interruptions in the global value chains, some strategic vulnerabilities, such as in the pharmaceutical sector, clearly precede the pandemic and should be solved. Trade policy alone cannot solve such deficiencies, but should be part of a well thought-through policy-mix to incentivise companies to stockpile, diversify sourcing strategies and promote local production. Adjusting public procurement standards, increasing market access in strategic sectors, concluding strategic trade and investment partnerships and maintaining stringent Foreign Direct Investment rules can be important tools to achieve this.

 

In response to the legitimate concerns about unwanted dependencies, the European Commission has launched the concept of ‘Open Strategic Autonomy’. Although the Communication on the Trade Policy Review (TPR) provides some more content on what the concept entails, concrete actions and a roadmap to implement it, would be welcomed. Our market strength, our values and our adherence to cooperation, fairness and rule-based trade should be the basis for our openness.

 

It is crucial that ‘Open Strategic Autonomy’ creates synergies between trade policy and internal policies such as ambitious industrial, digital and environmental policies. The combination of openness, forward looking internal policy and protection against unfair competition should provide the necessary conditions to make sure that the products of the future, be it innovative electric car, thin foil solar panels or revolutionary chemicals, will be produced in the EU.

 

The mapping of the EU’s strategic sectors, as announced in the TPR, should gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of their supply chains. Based on this mapping, ways to increase the resilience of supply chains should be identified, for example through diversification, stockpiling or reshoring (including backshoring and nearshoring), which could create new trading opportunities for partners in the European neighbourhood.

 

Trade Policy for critical health products: lessons learned from the COVID-19 crisis

 

International trade policy plays a decisive role in strengthening the production, distribution and equitable access in essential health products. Since March 2020, the global community has taken some remarkable steps forward: shortages on Personal Protective Equipment have eased, import and export barriers have been widely reduced, and global initiatives to increase cooperation on production and market access, such as joint procurement systems and platforms to match manufacturers across the supply chain, have been set up. Most of all, due to an unseen worldwide public-private cooperation we now have multiple effective vaccines available in less than one-year time. However, if we truly want to recover from this crisis and curb the threat of dangerous variants, we need to continue to increase international cooperation, strengthen the WTO and WHO toolboxes and treat the vaccines as a truly global public good.

 

We are still far removed from that ideal: studies indicate that widespread vaccine coverage will not be achieved before 2023, with the poorest countries having to wait until at least 2024 before herd immunity can be achieved. At this time, it is difficult to predict how many doses can be produced on a yearly basis. In 2020, vaccine producers managed to only deliver 3% of the doses they had initially foreseen, while vaccine production so far has been concentrated in only 13 countries globally. Scarcity of several components such as vials, lipids and single use bags and filters continue to create significant production bottlenecks. At the same time, there has been evidence that at least the EU, UK, US, India and China apply some form of vaccine export restrictions, which slows down the scaling-up of manufacturing and can have a chilling-effect on investments.

 

There is a clear urgency to do whatever it takes to increase manufacturing and to reduce the global concentration of manufacturing capacity. To this end, the WTO Trade and Health initiative proposed by the Ottawa group must be rapidly taken forward. A big political push could catalyse the energy required to deliver an agreement by the next WTO ministerial conference, at the end of the year 2021. The European Union could play a critical role in strengthening global trade cooperation, but first it must lift its export authorisation mechanism and engage with other producing countries to do the same.

 

Furthermore, there is a clear role to play for multilateral institutions in bringing manufacturing capacity to developing countries, as exemplified by the ‘Global C19 Vaccine Supply Chain and Manufacturing Summit’ held on 8-9 March 2021. Bringing together manufacturers from developed and developing countries, as well as governments, civil society groups, international organisations (such as the WHO, GAVI and CEPI) and business associations (such as the International Chamber of Commerce) must strengthen developing countries’ role in the future of pharmaceutical production. Such an increased diversification of medical supply chains could also benefit the EU’s strategic autonomy, and could be further facilitated by a smart policy mix of using trade and investment as well as public procurement levers.

 

At the same time, calls for a temporary TRIPS waiver for COVID-19 essential health products cannot be ignored, as they risk exacerbating a dangerous North-South divide. There is a clear and deep concern around the world for fair and equitable access to vaccines and other medical products. Such reconciliation should go hand in hand with a commitment to revisit the TRIPS agreement and its flexibilities, in order to make it better fit for purpose for future pandemics.

 

Trade and sustainable development

 

Europe drastically changed course, by placing the European Green Deal, the goal of climate neutrality by 2050 and the SDGs at the heart of its policymaking and by aiming to steer the EU towards a more resilient, sustainable and just society. However, greenhouse gas emissions embedded in imports to the EU have been constantly rising, now representing more than 20% of our domestic CO2 emissions and thereby undermining the Union’s efforts to reduce its global footprint and fight climate change.

 

The TPR explicitly states that trade policy should be aligned with the Green Deal. On the one hand, this means fully embracing the “do no harm” principle and eliminating practices that harm people, animals and the planet and undermine sustainable policy. On the other, it requires installing a trade policy that turns challenges into opportunities and actively contributes to a just and sustainable transition worldwide instead of working against it. Studies show that tariffs and non-tariff barriers are substantially lower for brown products and services than for green ones. If the EU is to walk the talk on the Green Deal, it should aim to lead by example and use its position as the world’s second-largest consumer market to set a green global agenda.

 

Furthermore, environmental costs are not the only ones trade policy should take into account: the global economic dominance of large multinationals and their cost-minimising strategies affects global functional income inequality, as the rapid growth of profits pushes down the global income share of labour. It is pivotal that trade policy addresses the outsourcing of social costs inherent to long-stretched value chains and just-in-time production models. The EU should therefore pursue a policy mix of due diligence and social corporate responsibility measures, elevate the enforceability of Trade and Sustainable Development chapters, introduce more regular and comprehensive sustainability impact assessments and a ban on imports from forced labour.

 

Multilateralism and Europe’s geopolitical place in the world

 

Trade policy is the EU’s most powerful instrument in global geopolitics. Trade and geopolitics are undeniable interlinked, especially in the post-Covid19 era. Lacking, however, was a clear geopolitical vision on our relationships with other countries, particularly regarding the US and China. Furthermore, the EU should continue to develop clear, region-specific visions for its partnerships with Latin-America, Africa, Southeast Asia (including Taiwan), the Eastern and Southern Neighbourhoods and India.

 

In doing so, the EU should take up its responsibility towards the rest of the world, in particular developing countries. Too often, an unbalanced focus on exports does not facilitate development or stimulate a value-added economy in partner countries. Innovative technologies are not finding their way to developing countries and access to resources to finance the green and digital transition remains problematic. Unfortunately, the TPR does not provide an answer to this. It is important that EU trade policy supports the creation of regional value chains. One important element for achieving this is a targeted investment policy towards developing countries.

 

Last but not least, in order to be credible, the implementation of this new sustainability agenda in trade should leave no room for ambiguity. For instance, not only future FTAs or FTAs under revision should be brought in line with the Green deal and the international standards for decent work, but also existing FTAs, FTAs under negotiation and those that are in between conclusion in principle and ratification. Furthermore, the Trade Policy Review does not include a clear timeline for the actions announced. A clear timing would prove that the EU is ready to walk the talk.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPMENT (12.5.2021)

<CommissionInt>for the Committee on International Trade</CommissionInt>


<Titre>on the trade-related aspects and implications of COVID-19</Titre>

<DocRef>(2020/2117(INI))</DocRef>

Rapporteur for opinion: <Depute>Anna-Michelle Asimakopoulou

</Depute>SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on Development calls on the Committee on International Trade, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution:

A. whereas the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of the global supply chain, notably in terms of food and health, and the need to build regional value chains and boost regional integration;

1. Welcomes the commitment made by the Commission in its communication of 18 February 2021 entitled ‘Trade Policy Review – An Open, Sustainable and Assertive Trade Policy’ to making its trade policy coherent with its overarching objective of the green transformation of the economy, towards a climate-neutral, environmentally sustainable, resource-efficient and resilient economy by 2050;

2. Notes that COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented health, economic, social and humanitarian crisis on a global scale, with asymmetric effects for least developed countries (LDCs), whose high vulnerability is linked to poor economic diversification and high dependency on the export of raw materials and which were hit the hardest by the trade downturn triggered by the pandemic in a number of sectors, and even more so in services, including tourism, as well as for low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs), and especially for people in poverty or at risk of poverty; is of the opinion that, consequently, LDCs, LICs and MICs are more in need of support to revive their economies and trade than other countries and that the EU has a responsibility to act as a global player; calls for the EU to respect its commitments to developing partner countries, to reduce inequalities and to adopt a tailored approach that takes into account their particular circumstances;

3. Highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic is a catalyst of change in the global order; calls on the Commission to mount an assertive and coordinated international trade policy response geared towards a multilateral, resilient and sustainable recovery in developing countries; recalls that the EU trade policy and relations with developing countries must be based on the fundamental values of the EU and contribute to achieving sustainable growth, job creation, the promotion of human rights and the eradication of poverty; calls on the Commission to deepen trade relations with the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and African countries through an in-depth review of economic partnership agreements and the exchange of best practices, while making the most of the EU’s Aid for Trade Strategy, with a view to contributing to the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and their regional integration process and to providing sustainable investment opportunities for Africa and thus offering an alternative development model; highlights, in this context, the limited progress in terms of the economic diversification of developing countries covered by economic partnership agreements (EPAs); urges the EU and its Member States to acknowledge diverging views on EPAs and to find concrete solutions to respond to African countries’ concerns, notably regarding their priority of building regional value chains and boosting intra-African trade; strongly welcomes the entry into force of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) as an instrument to actively accompany Africa’s regional, economic and political integration and to improve Africa’s access to global markets; calls on the Commission and the Member States to foster an initiative at global level on debt relief agreements for LDCs;

 4. Welcomes the Commission’s intention to strengthen the enforcement mechanism of Trade and Sustainable Development (TSD) chapters and to launch a comprehensive early review in 2021 of the 15-point action plan on the effective implementation and enforcement of TSD chapters in trade agreements; underlines the need to ensure that no provisions in free trade agreements (FTAs) undermine the objectives and standards enshrined in the TSD chapters;

5. Recalls that against a backdrop of already-fragile economic conditions, the pandemic has had massive consequences for international trade, causing it to plunge and creating a plethora of disruptions on an unprecedented scale; believes that, as a lesson learnt from the pandemic in Europe in particular, it is indispensable to keep borders open; encourages the EU and the Member States to share their experience and assist developing countries and regions in countering restrictions on freedom of movement and trade and setting up ‘green corridor mechanisms’ to allow as far as possible the free and unhindered flow of essential goods (especially medical supplies and personal protective equipment) and agri-food products, and access for humanitarian aid in emergency situations; stresses the importance of maintaining an open, multilateral trading system, in accordance with international environmental and climate change commitments, allowing for transparency with regard to trade-related policy intentions and actions, and limiting unnecessary trade barriers and export restrictions, and of observing UN General Assembly Resolution 74/274 calling for the strengthening of supply chains that promote and ensure fair, transparent, equitable, efficient and timely access to the medicines, vaccines and medical supplies needed to combat COVID-19, as well as of World Health Assembly Resolution 73.1 recognising the role of extensive immunisation against COVID-19 as a global public good for health;

6. Invites the Commission to adapt the EU’s trade policy in order to help developing partner countries to boost the resilience and diversification of their value chains at global, regional and local level, including reshoring and nearshoring, and points out that reshoring must be based on a comprehensive approach and take into account international trade, industry and the internal market in order to be better prepared for future systemic shocks, and calls on the Commission to continue leading efforts to reform the World Trade Organization (WTO) with a view to supporting social fairness and environmental sustainability; calls on the Commission to cooperate in the further development and enforcement of proportionate business due diligence obligations in global value chains, helping to develop compliance mechanisms in supply chains and production in developing countries;

7. Highlights that public health problems caused by COVID-19 can only properly and effectively be managed anywhere in the world as long as measures including vaccines are accessible worldwide; welcomes the commitment shown by the EU and its Member States, acting together as ‘Team Europe’, in tackling the wider impact of COVID-19 on developing societies and economies, in particular through the Coronavirus Global Response and COVAX initiatives, which demonstrate our solidarity with LDCs; requests adequate measures for the global challenges of shortages, insufficient manufacturing capacity and the gap between COVAX objectives and their financing; recalls the need for a united initiative of industrialised, open and democratic countries in the form of a Vaccine Alliance, given that the COVAX initiative is only able to cover vaccinations for 20 % of the world’s population; reminds the Commission that according to the World Health Organization (WHO), vaccine delays in poorer nations are likely to threaten the EU’s own recovery because of continued disruptions to international trade and global supply chains; urges the Commission to take an active and constructive role in the WTO TRIPS Council debates on avoiding barriers to access to vaccines and on capacity building by assessing all possible options in writing, but without encroaching on Member States’ competences; calls on the Commission to coordinate closely with the WHO, the WTO and the African Union in building and scaling up vaccine production for developing countries, while preventing the emergence of vaccine-resistant variants; calls on the Commission to promote contracts between pharmaceutical companies and generic manufacturers in developing countries to increase global manufacturing capacity and reduce the delay in vaccination, as well as ensure affordability, especially for LDCs, and universal availability; requests that compulsory licensing and the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 816/2006[19] be considered a means to boost EU cooperation with developing countries facing COVID-19;

8. Requests that the Commission-Parliament Contact Group be given oversight over the decision-making process in the COVID-19 response, including the negotiation of advance purchase agreements (APAs); requests the inclusion of representatives of the Committee on Development in the Commission-Parliament Contact Group to provide adequate input for an EU Global vaccination strategy that is prepared for challenges such as the deployment of the vaccine in countries with insufficient medical infrastructure, the production of vaccines in developing countries, a humanitarian buffer for vaccination, and risk reduction and preparedness against new strains of the virus;

9. Underlines that developing countries will need a decade to recover from the pandemic, according to the Oxfam International report entitled ‘The inequality virus’, while richer countries make quicker vaccination progress and recover quicker; remarks that failure to immunise the world’s population will cost rich countries between 10 to 100 times the money it would cost to help vaccinate people in developing countries, according to the Peterson Institute for International Economics; calls on the Commission, therefore, to coordinate a donor conference to invest in global manufacturing and encourage the sharing of patents and the transfer of technology in order to speed up the global health and economic recovery;

10. Deplores the fact that export restrictions and trade barriers have disrupted agri-food markets and supply chains worldwide, severely impacting developing countries; urges the Commission to make food security one of its priorities and to identify the appropriate measures to ensure that this pandemic does not precipitate a food crisis in the developing world; stresses that the legitimate demand to reduce the pressure placed by agriculture on the environment must be pursued in such a way, and at such a pace, as to ensure food security for all citizens in developing countries, as well as in the EU; supports actions to facilitate trade with a view to promoting food safety and sanitary and phytosanitary measures in response to COVID-19; recalls the principle of policy coherence for development to ensure European exports, especially in the area of agriculture, do not hinder the development of local production, in order to reduce countries’ dependence on imports and their vulnerability to international price fluctuations;

11. Calls on the Commission to consider the implications of COVID-19 and its impact on achieving the 2030 UN SDGs; urges the Commission to readapt its trade policy accordingly in line with its global development policy to ensure that economies and societies are rebuilt in such a way as to render them better, more sustainable, more resilient and more socio-economically equal after the pandemic; stresses that tackling inequalities must become central to the EU’s post-COVID-19 global strategy, including its trade agenda, to make sure that progress on reducing poverty, education, public health, gender equality and climate action is not lost due to the pandemic;

12. Recalls that the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services will undermine progress in approximately 80 % of the assessed targets under the UN SDGs; regrets that dispute settlement systems covering biodiversity and trade provisions in multilateral environment agreements are not binding, unlike the WTO enforcement system, which de facto embodies the supremacy of commercial law over biodiversity; recalls, in particular, that current WTO rules limit Member States’ possibility of raising tariffs on products that have a negative impact on biodiversity; , welcomes, against this backdrop, the Commission’s commitment to prioritising the effective implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in trade and investment agreements, and calls on the Commission to advocate the reform of the WTO along these lines;

13. Considers that COVID-19 has accelerated the shift towards digitalisation, which presents opportunities to facilitate international trade, reduce face-to-face processes and allow for efficient logistics and strategic stockpiling with enormous potential, in particular for developing partner countries; underlines that developing countries and LDCs are trailing behind in the digital economy and calls on the Commission to collaborate with developing partner countries in order to strengthen and facilitate digital infrastructure, as well as to accord strategic importance to digital trade and facilitate the digital transition, establish policy strategies and harmonise regulatory frameworks for sustainable e-commerce, support skills training, and modernise trade and customs management tools, electronic payment and automated procedures; underlines the need for EU development cooperation to contribute to ensuring that populations have general broadband internet access at affordable prices in LDCs;

14. Considers that achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development dictates that we work in a multilateral context and coordinate policies at international and national level to deal with the enormous challenges to these aspirations resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and to factor in the SDGs in the rebuilding and restructuring of international trade networks; calls on the Commission to present its review of the 15-point Action Plan on TSD Chapters in the course of 2021, addressing the enforceability of TSD commitments;

15. Welcomes the commitment of the Commission to reinforcing the sustainability dimension of existing and future trade agreements; calls, accordingly, for a fully-fledged ex ante and ex post sustainability impact assessment of EU FTAs;

16. Stresses the importance of using strategic foresight to improve developing countries’ preparedness for and resilience to any future shocks and health crises, including the emergence of new disease mutations and future pandemics, aiming to develop future-proof strategies and responses;

17. Calls on the Commission to actively work within the WTO in order to promote multilateral rules for the sustainable management of global value chains, including mandatory supply chain due diligence.


INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

Date adopted

10.5.2021

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

17

1

7

Members present for the final vote

Anna-Michelle Asimakopoulou, Hildegard Bentele, Dominique Bilde, Catherine Chabaud, Antoni Comín i Oliveres, Ryszard Czarnecki, Gianna Gancia, Charles Goerens, Pierrette Herzberger-Fofana, György Hölvényi, Rasa Juknevičienė, Beata Kempa, Pierfrancesco Majorino, Erik Marquardt, Janina Ochojska, Jan-Christoph Oetjen, Christian Sagartz, Marc Tarabella, Tomas Tobé, Miguel Urbán Crespo, Chrysoula Zacharopoulou, Bernhard Zimniok

Substitutes present for the final vote

Stéphane Bijoux, Maria Noichl, Patrizia Toia

 

 


 

FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

17

+

ECR

Ryszard Czarnecki, Beata Kempa

PPE

Anna‑Michelle Asimakopoulou, Hildegard Bentele, György Hölvényi, Rasa Juknevičienė, Janina Ochojska, Christian Sagartz, Tomas Tobé

Renew

Stéphane Bijoux, Catherine Chabaud, Charles Goerens, Chrysoula Zacharopoulou

S&D

Pierfrancesco Majorino, Maria Noichl, Marc Tarabella, Patrizia Toia

 

1

-

ID

Bernhard Zimniok

 

7

0

ID

Dominique Bilde, Gianna Gancia

NI

Antoni Comín i Oliveres

The Left

Miguel Urbán Crespo

Verts/ALE

Benoît Biteau, Pierrette Herzberger‑Fofana, Erik Marquardt

 

Key to symbols:

+ : in favour

- : against

0 : abstention

 

 


 

 

 

OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (11.5.2021)

<CommissionInt>for the Committee on International Trade</CommissionInt>


<Titre>on trade-related aspects and implications of COVID-19</Titre>

<DocRef>(2020/2117(INI))</DocRef>

Rapporteur for opinion: <Depute>Álvaro Amaro</Depute>

 

 


 

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development calls on the Committee on International Trade, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution:

1. Stresses that against the background of a sharp economic downturn, caused by COVID-19, combined with the uncertainty created by Brexit and the unfair tariffs imposed by the US on some European food products, EU agri-food trade remained broadly stable over the course of 2020, for both exports and imports, thanks in large part to the best efforts of farmers and the agri-food chain; highlights that the Union’s yearly agri-food trade surplus exceeded EUR 60 billion; notes, however, that these figures vary considerably across Member States and sectors; recalls in this context that the Union is the largest global trader in agricultural products and that agriculture and agri-food are key drivers for EU exports and economic recovery;

2. Emphasises the resilience of European agriculture, especially products with a protected designation of origin (PDO), and agri-food sectors in ensuring food security and security of supply; acknowledges, meanwhile, that the COVID-19 crisis has demonstrated the dependence of the food production system on transport, and that concentration of production and the weakening of local markets is problematic and should be addressed through appropriate measures; stresses the strategic importance of these sectors, all the more in times of crisis, and the importance of ensuring the EU’s strategic autonomy;

3. Underlines the socio-economic importance of agri-food sectors as well as the high number of companies and jobs involved, including low-skilled jobs; stresses the importance of Europe’s agri-food production as a primary sector that is vital for European food subsistence, for the efficient operation of the food supply chain and for the vitality and development of its rural areas and outermost regions; underlines that the success of European agriculture is connected to the common agriculture policy, which improves farming conditions and guarantees food security in the EU, and cannot be achieved solely at local or regional level; points out that certain free trade agreements greatly endanger various European agricultural sectors;

4. Recalls, however, that some European agri-food markets are in a highly vulnerable situation after a significant loss in sales coupled with lower prices and, inter alia, the rising cost of animal feed and increasing imports, which threaten their long-term sustainability; notes that the pandemic has had a significant impact on the beef, veal, poultry, pork, potato, wine, spirit and liqueur sectors, as well as the livestock farming, fresh food, meat and ornamental plant sectors, among others, given the restrictions affecting the EU tourism sector, the contraction of the world market, the drop in exports in terms of both volume and value, the increase in logistical costs and changing consumption habits; calls for further support to reactivate and diversify these exports and regain market share, including the extraordinary measures for the wine sector and measures for the fruit and vegetable sector in exporting outermost regions; calls, equally, for support to sectors such as cattle and sheep farming, among others, which are suffering major damage from third-country imports;

5. Underlines, meanwhile, that tackling the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic must not obscure other current problems and challenges facing European agriculture; stresses the need for close monitoring of the implications of the EU-UK and EU-Mercosur trade agreements, with particular regard to the poultry, beef and milk markets in the Member States and the EU fisheries sector, and also of the EU-Ukraine agreement on free trade in dairy products;

6. Highlights that COVID-19 has posed particular difficulties for the supply chains of labour-intensive sectors such as fruit, vegetables and animal products, and that the measures to facilitate the continuation of production and trade in such circumstances must better integrate concerns for workers’ welfare, as well as their freedom of movement;

7. Stresses that the EU exports high-quality/high-value agri-food products and that the potential decrease in purchasing power worldwide could have a negative impact on these exports; recalls the delicate situation facing the sector before the pandemic as a result of Brexit and increased US tariffs, a situation that has been aggravated by the pandemic; underlines the many uncertainties agricultural markets could have to cope with in the next few years, such as the development of diseases, the proliferation of certain pests and climate change; stresses, in this regard, the need to support on-farm investments, in order to enable the agricultural sector to contribute to post-pandemic challenges;

8. Recalls that in many sectors farmers and horticulturists have suffered severe economic losses due to the closure of shops and catering facilities; stresses that due to the specific nature of food production and the use of growth cycles and fresh products, primary producers are in a particularly vulnerable position in the face of unexpected extreme market conditions; regrets that the Commission has not promptly activated appropriate market measures, including exceptional measures to mitigate and further prevent economic damage to affected farmers and horticulturists in these exceptional circumstances; calls on the Commission to learn lessons from this in order to make better use of opportunities in the future and to provide sufficient resources to facilitate swift action; calls on the Member States, in this connection, to allocate an appropriate and meaningful portion of the European recovery funds (Next Generation EU) to the primary sector;

9. Recalls that the exceptional support measures for agriculture and agri-food proposed at the start of the pandemic were insufficient, and that the additional aid provided by the Member States has led to very different national responses to the crisis; insists on the need to increase the allocation for the 2022 promotion programme to at least its 2020 level, since the EU’s promotion policy is a key element for farmers’ access to both internal and external markets, especially in a context of high international trade instability caused by the fact that the COVID-19 crisis has led to a reduction in the consumption of certain agricultural products; stresses that low prices, in combination with higher costs during and after the pandemic, have reduced and will continue to reduce the investment capacity of farms; emphasises the importance of national recovery plans in this regard; calls for the EU to financially support the primary producers most at risk of bankruptcy as a result of the disruption;

10. Stresses that any EU economic stimulus plans and measures need to consider agriculture in the EU and its outermost regions in view of the importance and production diversity of the sector, and direct the latter towards greater resilience both economically and environmentally, with a focus on food sovereignty; stresses, too, that the review and overhaul of EU trade policy, called for by the sector for years, the reform announced by the World Trade Organization, provided that all members comply with it, and the fundamental overhaul of the EU-Mercosur agreement are indispensable and can and must enable better defence of the European agricultural model and of European farmers’ interests;

11. Stresses the importance of safeguarding the quality, competitiveness and sustainability of our agricultural model by reiterating firmly that agriculture and agri-food products entering the European market must fully comply with EU environmental and social rules and with the high standards required of our farmers by the EU in order to shield our agricultural sector from unfair competition; stresses that at present this compliance is questionable as a result of the lack of directly applicable clauses in the EU’s trade agreements with third countries requiring social and environmental standards similar to European standards;

12. Insists that frequent and thorough controls should be put in place to guarantee the compliance of products from third countries; stresses, therefore, the need for true coherence and synergy between trade and development policies and our agricultural and food policies, as well as the need to foster international regulatory cooperation and active and sustainable trade policy; insists on the need to create strong incentives for third countries to meet EU standards; highlights in this regard that trade must be based on balanced, fair and transparent rules to avoid distortion of competition; stresses that the concept of strategic autonomy should not lead to protectionism;

13. Stresses the need for a fully transparent supply chain to guarantee respect for EU standards and provide a high level of information to consumers; welcomes the Commission’s commitment to making compliance with the Paris Agreement an ‘essential clause’ of EU trade agreements; stresses that, in order to be enforceable, the environmental objectives of the EU’s free trade agreements, especially related to trade in agricultural products, must be clear, quantifiable, verifiable, and based on robust, transparent and inclusive ex ante sustainable impact assessments; calls on the Commission to continue engaging with Parliament on improving the implementation and enforcement of Trade and Sustainable Development (TSD) chapters; recalls the commitment made by the Commission in its Farm to Fork strategy to supporting the global transition to a sustainable agri-food system, notably by striving to obtain ambitious commitments from third countries in key areas such as animal welfare, the use of pesticides and the fight against antimicrobial resistance;

14. Stresses that the implementation of the initiatives and requirements of the European Green Deal should not lead to the leakage of agricultural production and forestry to third countries, which would have a negative impact on the environment and climate; emphasises that the EU should promote high environmental standards and combat deforestation through its trade policy, in accordance with the Green Deal principles and Parliament’s resolution of 16 September 2020 on the EU’s role in protecting and restoring the world’s forests[20];

15. Recalls equally its pledge to support small-scale farmers, short-supply chains, agro-ecology, and the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;

16. Welcomes the Commission’s guidelines on screening foreign direct investment, to guard against a predatory takeover of a weakened EU enterprise as a result of the pandemic;

17. Highlights the overall importance of a well-functioning internal market in order to enhance Europe’s export capacity and ensure the stability and security of our producer network, which requires progress in terms of legislation at European level, harmonisation and rapid implementation, as is being achieved through the directive on unfair trading practices in the food chain[21]; voices deep concern at the reported increase in unfair trading practices during the pandemic; calls on the Commission to monitor the application of the directive on unfair trading practices by Member States;

18. Highlights the utility of green lanes and guidelines for seasonal workers as an early means to maintain the functioning of the internal market during the pandemic; stresses the importance of ensuring that COVID-19-related entry bans imposed on third countries do not affect the flow of goods from one Member State to another where a transit route passes through a third country; notes that the pandemic has led to additional trade disruptions for EU countries and territories not connected to mainland Europe and that solutions to avoid this in future must be investigated; recalls that the disjointed testing process for truck drivers transiting between Member States has led to significant delays at borders; welcomes the relaxation of the requirements for paper certificates to accompany shipments of food products during the COVID-19 pandemic, and calls for the permanent acceptance of digital certificates;

19. Emphasises the urgent need to ensure that no new barriers to trade with our closest third-country trading partners are created or retained as a result of the pandemic;

20. Highlights that while Member States should preserve the free circulation of, in particular, medicines, medical equipment, essential and perishable food products and livestock, some border crossings have not enabled animal transport to be prioritised and livestock vehicles coming from high-risk zones have not been permitted entry at others, subjecting transported animals to dozens of kilometres of long queues and undue suffering; calls for enforceable rules which will recognise the ever more precarious situation of live animal transport during zoonotic pandemics, as well as for the preparation of contingency plans in the case of an unforeseen event such as the closure of borders;

21. Stresses the need, due in part to the disruptions to global production chains and increased price volatility caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, to develop open strategic autonomy for the EU with the aim of ensuring access to key markets and reducing dependency on imports of critical goods such as plant-based protein sources; reiterates that agri-food systems must be acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the EU’s open strategic autonomy in order to ensure sufficient availability of safe and good-quality food and to maintain functioning and resilient food supply chains and trade flows during future crises, in line with Article 2(1) of the Paris Agreement; stresses that the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need for a radical transformation of the entire food system, in order to ensure broader security of the food supply and stable local prices, in particular for the most vulnerable populations, based on food sovereignty principles, and tackle unfair trading practices for those further down the food chain;

22. Emphasises the importance of transparency and traceability in the food supply chain, in particular in the light of the COVID-19 crisis and zoonotic epidemics, and calls for the EU to be a frontrunner in the origin labelling of agri-food products;

23. Stresses that the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of the global supply chain, notably in food and health, and the need to build regional value chains and boost regional integration; recalls the need to uphold the principle of policy coherence for development to ensure that European exports do not hinder the development of local production; calls for the prioritisation at both EU and third-country level of local food production and consumption that ensure local job creation, guarantee fair prices for producers and consumers, and reduce countries’ dependence on imports and their vulnerability to international price fluctuations;

24. Recalls that the disruptions caused by COVID-19 have highlighted the difficulty of maintaining long supply chains and the merits of a shift towards shorter supply chains, particularly with regard to the livestock sector and its reliance on the long-distance transport of feed and animals; notes that, despite Commission efforts to facilitate animal transport via the use of ‘green lanes’, the correct implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport[22] could not be assured in the rapidly evolving epidemic situation, putting animal welfare and driver health at risk;

25. Stresses the need to learn from the pandemic, enter into a post-growth debate and prioritise sustainable supply chains; underlines that the COVID-19 pandemic has shown the extreme vulnerability of the globalised economy and has an unprecedented impact on global and regional trade in foods and agricultural products; highlights the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the EU agricultural sectors that are dependent on supplies from third countries, and therefore stresses the need to strengthen shorter supply chains, particularly for inputs, local food networks and direct sales, which can be especially beneficial for small and medium-sized producers;

26. Highlights the importance of the catalytic effect that the COVID-19 crisis has had on e-commerce in the agri-food sector, and stresses the need to ensure that e-commerce is a positive and energising instrument which does not generate imbalances in the supply chain, given that e-commerce companies are positioning themselves as an additional actor;

27. Entirely understands the need to transform European agriculture and move it towards more environmentally-friendly production; is seriously concerned, however, that the ambitious aims of the Farm to Fork and 2030 Biodiversity strategies, as well as the extended conditionality of direct payments under CAP Pillar I, in the absence of an impact assessment, together with a significant reduction in the CAP budget in the next CAP financial perspective, pose huge risks to basic incomes, especially for small rural farms, and to the global volume of agricultural production in the EU;

28. Notes in this context that EU agricultural production, weighed down by new environmental, climate and animal welfare requirements, may not be able to withstand competition on the free market from products from non-EU countries whose producers are not similarly weighed down by production requirements and can frequently offer dumping sales prices; stresses, therefore, that setting new ambitious reduction targets for the agricultural sector in the Member States in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and the use of fertilisers and plant protection products must be preceded by the implementation of suitable investment and technology which will ensure the stability and continuity of agricultural production.


INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

Date adopted

11.5.2021

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

37

6

3

Members present for the final vote

Mazaly Aguilar, Clara Aguilera, Atidzhe Alieva-Veli, Álvaro Amaro, Eric Andrieu, Attila Ara-Kovács, Carmen Avram, Adrian-Dragoş Benea, Benoît Biteau, Mara Bizzotto, Daniel Buda, Isabel Carvalhais, Asger Christensen, Angelo Ciocca, Ivan David, Paolo De Castro, Jérémy Decerle, Salvatore De Meo, Herbert Dorfmann, Luke Ming Flanagan, Dino Giarrusso, Martin Häusling, Krzysztof Jurgiel, Jarosław Kalinowski, Elsi Katainen, Gilles Lebreton, Norbert Lins, Colm Markey, Alin Mituța, Marlene Mortler, Ulrike Müller, Maria Noichl, Juozas Olekas, Pina Picierno, Maxette Pirbakas, Eugenia Rodríguez Palop, Bronis Ropė, Anne Sander, Petri Sarvamaa, Simone Schmiedtbauer, Annie Schreijer-Pierik, Veronika Vrecionová, Sarah Wiener

Substitutes present for the final vote

Manuel Bompard, Emmanouil Fragkos, Pär Holmgren

 


 

FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE ASKED FOR OPINION

37

+

ECR

Mazaly Aguilar, Emmanouil Fragkos, Krzysztof Jurgiel, Veronika Vrecionová

ID

Mara Bizzotto, Angelo Ciocca, Gilles Lebreton, Maxette Pirbakas

NI

Dino Giarrusso

PPE

Álvaro Amaro, Daniel Buda, Salvatore De Meo, Herbert Dorfmann, Jarosław Kalinowski, Norbert Lins, Colm Markey, Marlene Mortler, Anne Sander, Petri Sarvamaa, Simone Schmiedtbauer, Annie Schreijer-Pierik

Renew

Atidzhe AlievaVeli, Asger Christensen, Jérémy Decerle, Elsi Katainen, Alin Mituța, Ulrike Müller

S&D

Clara Aguilera, Eric Andrieu, Attila Ara-Kovács, Carmen Avram, Adrian-Dragoş Benea, Isabel Carvalhais, Paolo De Castro, Maria Noichl, Juozas Olekas, Pina Picierno

 

6

-

ID

Ivan David

Verts/ALE

Benoît Biteau, Martin Häusling, Pär Holmgren, Bronis Ropė, Sarah Wiener

 

3

0

The Left

Manuel Bompard, Luke Ming Flanagan, Eugenia Rodríguez Palop

 

Key to symbols:

+ : in favour

- : against

0 : abstention

 

 


INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

Date adopted

25.5.2021

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

29

3

9

Members present for the final vote

Barry Andrews, Anna-Michelle Asimakopoulou, Tiziana Beghin, Geert Bourgeois, Jordi Cañas, Daniel Caspary, Miroslav Číž, Arnaud Danjean, Paolo De Castro, Emmanouil Fragkos, Raphaël Glucksmann, Markéta Gregorová, Roman Haider, Christophe Hansen, Heidi Hautala, Danuta Maria Hübner, Herve Juvin, Karin Karlsbro, Maximilian Krah, Danilo Oscar Lancini, Bernd Lange, Margarida Marques, Gabriel Mato, Sara Matthieu, Emmanuel Maurel, Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó, Samira Rafaela, Inma Rodríguez-Piñero, Massimiliano Salini, Helmut Scholz, Sven Simon, Dominik Tarczyński, Mihai Tudose, Kathleen Van Brempt, Marie-Pierre Vedrenne, Jörgen Warborn, Iuliu Winkler, Jan Zahradil, Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez

Substitutes present for the final vote

Sergio Berlato, Jean-Lin Lacapelle, Morten Løkkegaard

 


FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

29

+

NI

Tiziana Beghin, Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó

PPE

Anna-Michelle Asimakopoulou, Daniel Caspary, Arnaud Danjean, Christophe Hansen, Danuta Maria Hübner, Gabriel Mato, Massimiliano Salini, Sven Simon, Iuliu Winkler, Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez

Renew

Barry Andrews, Jordi Cañas, Karin Karlsbro, Morten Løkkegaard, Samira Rafaela, Marie-Pierre Vedrenne

S&D

Miroslav Číž, Paolo De Castro, Raphaël Glucksmann, Bernd Lange, Margarida Marques, Inma Rodríguez-Piñero, Mihai Tudose, Kathleen Van Brempt

Verts/ALE

Markéta Gregorová, Heidi Hautala, Sara Matthieu

 

3

-

ID

Roman Haider, Maximilian Krah

PPE

Jörgen Warborn

 

9

0

ECR

Sergio Berlato, Geert Bourgeois, Emmanouil Fragkos, Dominik Tarczyński

ID

Herve Juvin, Jean-Lin Lacapelle, Danilo Oscar Lancini

The Left

Emmanuel Maurel, Helmut Scholz

 

Key to symbols:

+ : in favour

- : against

0 : abstention

 

 

[1] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0337.

[2] [Please add date of adoption and TA reference to procedure 2020/2260(INI), scheduled to be adopted at 2021 June plenary].

[3] [Please add date of adoption and TA reference to procedure 2020/2273(INI), scheduled to be adopted at 2021 June plenary].

[4] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0261.

[5] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0109.

[6] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0071.

[7] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0073.

[8] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0040.

[9] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0321.

[10] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0252.

[11] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0212.

[12] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2019)0078.

[13] OJ C 369, 11.10.2018, p. 22.

[14] OJ C 101, 16.3.2018, p. 30.

[15] International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook: Managing Divergent Recoveries, April 2021.

 

[16] Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 amending Directive 2013/34/EU as regards disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups (OJ L 330, 15.11.2014, p. 1).

[17] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1).

 

[19] Regulation (EC) No 816/2006 of 17 May 2006 on compulsory licensing of patents relating to the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for export to countries with public health problems (OJ L 157, 9.6.2006, p. 1).

[20] Texts adopted, P9_TA(2020)0212.

[21] Directive (EU) 2019/633 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 on unfair trading practices in business-to-business relationships in the agricultural and food supply chain (OJ L 111, 25.4.2019, p. 59).

[22] Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations (OJ L 3, 5.1.2005, p. 1).

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