Procedure : 2014/2716(RSP)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : B8-0061/2014

Texts tabled :

B8-0061/2014

Debates :

Votes :

PV 17/07/2014 - 10.7
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2014)0011

MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION
PDF 128kWORD 62k
See also joint motion for a resolution RC-B8-0059/2014
15.7.2014
PE536.962v01-00
 
B8-0061/2014

to wind up the debate on the statement by the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

pursuant to Rule 123(2) of the Rules of Procedure


on the situation in Iraq (2014/2716(RSP))


Victor Boştinaru, Elena Valenciano Martínez-Orozco, Ana Gomes, Kati Piri, Eugen Freund, Demetris Papadakis on behalf of the S&D Group

European Parliament resolution on the situation in Iraq (2014/2716(RSP))  
B8‑0061/2014

The European Parliament,

–       having regard to its previous resolutions on Iraq, in particular that of 27 February 2014 on the situation in Iraq(1),

–       having regard to the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Iraq, of the other, and to its resolution of 17 January 2013 on the EU-Iraq Partnership and Cooperation Agreement(2),

–       having regard to the Foreign Affairs Council conclusions on Iraq, in particular those of 23 June 2014,

–       having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948,

–       having regard to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966, to which Iraq is a party,

–       having regard to Rule 123(2) of its Rules of Procedure,

A.     whereas the jihadist al-Qaeda splinter group Islamic State (IS) – formerly the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – conquered parts of north-western Iraq, including Iraq’s second largest city, Mosul, followed by summary executions of Iraqi citizens, the imposition of a harsh interpretation of Sharia law, the destruction of the Shiite, Sufi and Sunni places of worship and shrines, the desecration of churches, and other atrocities against the civilian population; whereas the IS has declared its intention of ridding Iraq of Shiites and destroying their holy places in the cities of Karbala and Najaf;

B.     whereas there is a direct link between the situation in Iraq and that in Syria, which has been crucial to the rise of the IS; whereas the freedom of movement of the IS between Syria and Iraq has provided it with opportunities to enhance its presence in both countries and increase its assertiveness, and has enabled it to proclaim a ‘caliphate’ on a territory carved out from Syria and Iraq;

C.     whereas the IS has secured significant income sources by looting banks and businesses on territories it controls, selling oil in the northern Syrian regions under IS occupation and receiving funds from wealthy donors, particularly in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates;

D.     whereas the rapid surge of the IS has revealed the fragility of the Iraqi army and institutions which are plagued by corruption, sectarianism and the exclusivist policies of the government of the Prime Minister, Nuri al-Maliki, which has led to substantial alienation of the Sunni minority in Iraq;

E.     whereas the president of the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG), Massoud Barzani, has called on the regional parliament to form an independent electoral commission that would start organising a referendum on independence for the semi-autonomous region;

F.     whereas on 30 April 2014 parliamentary elections were held in Iraq which handed a majority to prime minister Nuri al-Maliki’s ‘Rule of Law’ bloc; whereas, in the face of the critical challenges facing Iraq, such as the IS offensive and the looming Kurdish independence vote, and given the failure of the government of al-Maliki to rule in an inclusive and tolerant manner, there are increasing calls on al-Maliki not to seek a third term as prime minister and for a genuinely inclusive government to be formed instead; whereas the Shiite religious leader Ayatollah Sistani has called on all Iraqi parties to urgently reach a consensus on such a government, but the newly elected Iraqi parliament has so far failed to do so;

G.     whereas both the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Iran have pledged their support for the government of Iraq, with the US sending military advisers and Iran vowing to protect the Shiite holy cities of Karbala and Najaf; whereas the President, Hassan Rouhani, has indicated readiness to cooperate with the US in countering the IS threat in Iraq and contributing to the stabilisation of the country; whereas, however, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic, Ayatollah Khamenei, has ruled out such cooperation;

H.     whereas the disintegration of the regional states could have devastating effects on the stability of the whole region, including on the security of energy supplies;

I.      whereas about 3 000 Member State citizens have reportedly travelled to Iraq and Syria to join terrorist jihadist groups such as IS; whereas these EU citizens are identified as a security risk by the governments of the Member States; whereas one of these citizens carried out a terrorist act on the Jewish Museum in Brussels upon his return from Syria, where he had joined the IS;

J.      whereas the upsurge of the IS has produced a humanitarian crisis, notably a massive displacement of civilians; whereas the EU has decided to increase its humanitarian assistance to Iraq by EUR 5 million to provide basic assistance to displaced people, thus bringing humanitarian funding for Iraq to EUR 12 million so far in 2014;

1.      Expresses its deep concern about the rapidly deteriorating security situation in Iraq; strongly condemns the attacks perpetrated by the IS against Iraqi citizens, leading to summary executions, the imposition of a harsh interpretation of Sharia law, the destruction of places of worship and of the region’s historic, cultural and artistic heritage, and other atrocities; warns that the extreme anti-Shia views of the IS increase the risk of sectarian killings on a massive scale, should the IS be allowed to hold on to the territory it has seized and to expand further;

2.      Supports the Iraqi authorities in the fight against IS terrorism, but emphasises that the security response needs to be combined with a sustainable political solution involving all the components of Iraqi society and addressing their legitimate grievances; stresses, further, that in the fight against terrorism human rights and international humanitarian law must be respected;

3.      Welcomes the celebration of the parliamentary elections of 30 April 2014, during which the Iraqi people exercised their democratic right to elect their representatives in a volatile security situation; calls for the urgent formation of a genuine government of national unity, based on the results of the elections, forming the basis for national reconciliation; stresses the importance of a meaningful inclusion of Sunni representatives in such a government;

4.      Calls on all regional actors to contribute to efforts to promote security and stability in Iraq and in the region; calls, in particular, on Iran to use its leverage with the al‑Maliki government to institute real reforms, and in particular to reach out to the Sunni minority and revamp the army in an inclusive, non-sectarian and non-partisan way;

5.      Calls on the US and Iran to act on the basis of their shared interest in a stable and secure Iraq and in opposition to the IS; notes, however, a close link between the situation in Iraq and that in Syria; stresses, therefore, that in order for potential cooperation between the US and Iran in Iraq to achieve tangible results, the situation in Syria needs to be simultaneously addressed, where a genuine political transition must be enacted as a matter of urgency;

6.      Calls on the governments of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to make every effort to stop the flow of private funds from these countries to various Iraqi and Syrian jihadist groups that greatly contributed to the rise of the IS and ultimately represent a grave security threat for these countries also;

7.      Reiterates its support for Iraqi unity and territorial integrity; calls on the Government of Iraq and the Kurdistan Regional Government to resolve their differences through dialogue, inter alia on the structure of the Iraqi state and the nature of Kurdish self‑rule, energy exports and oil revenue sharing;

8.      Calls for closer cooperation between the Member States in identifying, tracking down, monitoring and arresting those EU citizens and residents who travel to the Middle East with the intention of joining violent jihadist groups such as the IS or return to the EU after having fought for these groups;

9.      Welcomes the increase in EU humanitarian assistance to Iraq; calls on the Iraqi Government to make every effort to protect all civilians and provide essential services and safety to all populations affected by the upsurge of the IS;

10.    Reaffirms the EU’s commitment to strengthening its relationship with Iraq, including through the implementation of the EU-Iraq Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA); calls on the Council to continue assisting Iraq in promoting democracy, human rights, good governance and the rule of law, including by building on the experiences and achievements of the EUJUST LEX-Iraq mission;

11.    Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the Council, the Commission, the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, the governments and parliaments of the Member States, the Government and Council of Representatives of Iraq, the Regional Government of Kurdistan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the United Nations Human Rights Council.

(1)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0171.

(2)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2013)0023.

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