Procedure : 2019/2582(RSP)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : B8-0203/2019

Texts tabled :


Debates :

Votes :

PV 14/03/2019 - 11.15
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :


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<TitreSuite>to wind up the debate on the statements by the Council and the Commission</TitreSuite>

<TitreRecueil>pursuant to Rule 123(2) of the Rules of Procedure</TitreRecueil>

<Titre>on climate change: a European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy</Titre>


<RepeatBlock-By><Depute>Lynn Boylan, Younous Omarjee, Marie‑Christine Vergiat, Patrick Le Hyaric, Barbara Spinelli, Anja Hazekamp, Marie‑Pierre Vieu, Stefan Eck, Eleonora Forenza, Luke Ming Flanagan, Rina Ronja Kari, Marisa Matias, Martina Michels</Depute>

<Commission>{GUE/NGL}on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group</Commission>


See also joint motion for a resolution RC-B8-0195/2019


European Parliament resolution on climate change: a European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy


The European Parliament,

 having regard to the Commission communication of 28 November 2018 entitled ‘A Clean Planet for all – A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy’ (COM(2018)0773),

 having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol thereto,

 having regard to the Paris Agreement, Decision 1/CP.21, to the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the UNFCCC and to the 11th Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP11), held in Paris, France from 30 November to 11 December 2015,

 having regard to the 24th Conference of the Parties (COP24) to the UNFCCC, the 14th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP14), and the third part of the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA1.3), held in Katowice, Poland, from 2 to 14 December 2018,

 having regard to the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),

 having regard to its resolution of 25 October 2018 on the 2018 UN Climate Change Conference in Katowice, Poland (COP24)[1],

 having regard to the European Council conclusions of 22 March 2018,

 having regard to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report entitled ‘Global Warming of 1.5°C’, its fifth assessment report (AR5) and its synthesis report,

 having regard to the ninth edition of the UN Environment Emissions Gap Report, adopted on 27 November 2018,

 having regard to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),

 having regard to the motion for a resolution of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy,

 having regard to Rule 123(2) of its Rules of Procedure,

A. whereas COP24 in Katowice resulted in the adoption of the Katowice Rulebook, which provides legal clarity in implementing the Paris Agreement;

1. Highlights that European citizens already face direct impacts of climate change; underlines that, according to the European Environment Agency, average annual losses caused by weather and climate-related extremes in the Union amounted to around EUR 12.8 billion between 2010 and 2016, and that, if no further action is taken, climate damages in the EU could amount to at least EUR 190 billion by 2080, equivalent to a net welfare loss of 1.8 % of its current GDP; emphasises that under a high emissions scenario, annual costs from flooding in the EU could rise to EUR 1 trillion by 2100 and that weather-related disasters could affect about two-thirds of European citizens by 2100, compared with 5 % today; further stresses that, according to the European Environment Agency, 50 % of the populated areas in the EU will suffer from severe water scarcity by 2030;

2. Recalls the November 2018 Eurobarometer findings, showing that 93 % of Europeans consider climate change to be caused by human activity, and that 85 % agree that fighting climate change and using energy more efficiently can create economic growth and jobs in Europe; notes that climate change is a high-priority issue for people in Europe;

3. Underlines that the IPCC special report on Global Warming of 1.5°C represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of mitigation pathways in line with the Paris Agreement;

4. Emphasises that, according to the IPCC 1.5°C special report, limiting global warming to 1.5°C with no or limited overshoot implies reaching net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally by 2067 at the latest, and reducing annual global GHG emissions by 2030 to a maximum of 27.4 GtCO2eq per year; stresses that, in the light of these findings, as a global leader and in order to have a good chance of keeping global temperature below 1.5°C by 2100, the Union needs to strive towards reaching net-zero GHG emissions as early as possible and by 2050 at the latest;

5. Expresses concern at UN Environment’s 2018 Emissions Gap Report, which finds that current unconditional nationally determined contributions (NDCs) far surpass the Paris Agreement warming limit of well below 2°C and will instead result in an estimated 3.2°C[2] temperature increase by 2100; stresses the urgent need for all Parties to the UNFCCC to increase their climate ambition by 2020;

6. Welcomes the publication of the Commission communication ‘A Clean Planet for all – A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy’, which underlines the opportunities that the transformation towards a net-zero GHG economy brings to European citizens and Europe’s economy, involving EU institutions, national parliaments, the business and social sectors, and non-governmental organisations, as well as citizens; endorses the objective of net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 and urges the Member States to do the same at the special EU summit in Sibiu in May 2019;

Pathways for the European mid-century zero emissions strategy

7. Calls for the European Union to include the fight against global warming among its fundamental values;

8. Notes that the EU’s net-zero strategy presents eight pathways for the economic, technological and social transformation needed for the Union to comply with the long-term temperature goal of the Paris Agreement; notes that only two of these pathways would enable the Union to reach net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 at the latest; highlights that this requires swift action and considerable efforts on all levels, from local and regional to national and European, and the involvement of all non-public actors; recognises that regionally and locally determined contributions could be important tools in bridging the emissions gap; recalls the obligation of Member States to adopt national long-term strategies as laid down in the Governance Regulation[3]; calls on the Member States, therefore, to establish clear short and long-term targets and policies consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement and to provide investment support for net-zero pathways;

9. Notes with concern that the EU’s energy import dependence currently stands at around 55 %, with 90 % of its oil and 70 % of its gas currently imported; highlights that under a net-zero emissions scenario this would fall to 20 % by 2050, which would have a positive impact on the EU’s trade balance and geopolitical position; notes that the cumulative savings in fossil fuel import costs between 2031 and 2050 would be around EUR 2-3 trillion, which could be spent on other priorities for European citizens;

10. Highlights that reduced air pollution under a net-zero emissions scenario would cut premature deaths from fine particulate matter by more than 40 %; notes that under such a scenario, health damages would be reduced by around EUR 200 billion per year;

11. Welcomes the inclusion of two pathways aimed at reaching net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 and the Commission’s support for these, and considers the mid-century objective as the only one compatible with the Union’s commitments under the Paris Agreement; regrets the fact that no net-zero GHG pathways for before 2050 were considered in the strategy;

12. Emphasises that climate change and biodiversity are intrinsically interconnected; is deeply concerned about the worldwide failure to halt biodiversity loss; stresses that biodiversity has an essential intrinsic value and is crucial for our existence;

Social aspects of climate change and a just transition

13. Welcomes the Commission’s assertion that net-zero emissions are possible without net job losses and takes positive note of the detailed assessment of the transition in the energy intensive industries; highlights that, if handled well and with the appropriate support for the most vulnerable regions, sectors and citizens, a just transition towards net-zero GHG emissions has the potential to create a net gain of jobs in the Union – economy-wide employment will increase by 2.1 million jobs by 2050 under a net-zero emissions scenario compared to an employment increase of 1.3 million jobs under the 80 % emission reduction scenario; considers, therefore, that the Commission should develop a renewed skills audit under the EU Skills Panorama, with regional data on the skills needs for a climate neutral Europe to support the most vulnerable regions, sectors and people in re-skilling for future-proof, high-quality jobs in these same regions;

14. Believes that Europe’s climate transition must be ecologically, economically and socially sustainable; stresses that, in order to ensure political acceptance by all citizens, it is important to take into account the distributional effects of climate-related and decarbonisation policies, specifically on people with low income; considers, therefore, that social impacts should be taken into full consideration in all EU and national climate policies with a view to ensuring a social and ecological transformation in Europe; emphasises, in this respect, that tailor-made and sufficiently funded strategies at all levels will need to be designed on the basis of inclusive processes and in close collaboration with local and regional public authorities, trade unions, educational institutions, civil society organisations and the private sector, to ensure that fair and equal opportunities are offered to all European citizens in this transition;

15. Recalls that approximately 50 to 125 million European citizens are currently at risk of energy poverty[4]; highlights that the energy transition can have a disproportionate effect on people with low incomes and further increase energy poverty; recognises that energy policy must incorporate a social dimension and ensure that no one is left behind; calls on the Member States to take forward-looking action to ensure a just energy transition and access to energy for all EU citizens;

16. Believes that young people have increasingly acute social and environmental awareness, which has the power to transform our societies with a view to a climate-resilient future, and that education for young people represents one of the most effective tools for combating climate change; stresses the need to actively involve younger generations in building international, intercultural and intergenerational relationships, which underpin cultural change that will support global efforts for a more sustainable future;

17. Welcomes the fact that people across Europe are becoming increasingly active in demonstrating for climate justice, in particular through school strikes; welcomes the calls from these activists for greater ambition and believes that national, regional and local governments, as well as the EU, should heed these calls;

Intermediate targets

18. Stresses that in order to reach net-zero GHG emissions in 2050 in the most cost-efficient manner, the 2030 ambition level will need to be raised and aligned with net-zero 2050 scenarios; believes it to be of the utmost importance for the Union to send a clear message, during the UN Climate Summit in New York in September 2019 at the latest, that it stands ready to review its contribution to the Paris Agreement;

19. Supports an update of the Union’s NDC, with an economy-wide target of at least 55 % domestic GHG emission reductions by 2030 compared with 1990 levels; calls, therefore, on EU leaders to support an increase in the level of ambition of the Union’s NDC accordingly at the special EU Summit in Sibiu in May 2019, in view of the UN Climate Summit in September 2019;

20. Considers, therefore, that the Commission should, during the 2022-2024 reviews of the 2030 climate package and other relevant legislation at the latest, present legislative proposals that raise the level of ambition in line with the updated NDC and the net-zero emissions target; believes that insufficient 2030 ambition would limit future options, possibly including the availability of certain options for cost-efficient decarbonisation; considers these reviews to be an important milestone in securing the EU climate commitments;

21. Believes that, as a means to further ensure increased stability for markets, it will also be beneficial for the EU to establish a further interim emission reduction target by 2040 that can provide additional stability and ensure that the long-term 2050 target is met;

Sectoral contributions

22. Stresses the importance of adopting an integrated, cross-sectoral approach in order to facilitate decarbonisation efforts across the energy system and other associated sectors and benefit from increased efficiencies; recognises that energy system integration can provide higher flexibility, improved system efficiency, a higher uptake of renewable energy across all energy carriers, and ultimately a cost-effective energy transition;

23. Highlights that the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) has failed to achieve emissions reductions since its inception in 2005 and has delayed discussions on serious EU-level climate action; believes that the carbon market constitutes a flawed system that cannot be fixed through revisions, and that climate change cannot be halted through market forces; urges the Commission and the Member States to abandon the EU ETS and favour direct regulation targeting the fossil fuel industry and the biggest polluters;

24. Highlights the importance of, and encourages, innovation in a wide range of technologies with the aim of decarbonising the economy, such as zero-emissions transport, the circular economy and the bio-economy; urges that support for fossil fuels be stopped and the funding used instead for economic activities, focusing in particular on the micro and SME sectors, involving research and design relating to clean technology and (local) renewable energy production, as well as to local sustainable food production separate from intensive farming;

25. Recalls that 71 % of all energy is used for space heating alone and that energy-efficient homes will therefore become the norm in a climate neutral EU, delivering better health and comfort for all Europeans;

26. Highlights the central role of renewable energy sources in the transition towards a net-zero GHG economy, as energy is currently responsible for 75 % of Europe’s GHG emissions;

27. Considers that technology developments and solutions, energy efficiency in both supply and demand, sustainable renewable energy in the transport, buildings, heating and cooling, and power sectors, and circular economy principles will all be key in reducing GHG emissions;

28. Calls for a highly energy-efficient and renewable-based energy system; asks the Commission and the Member States to take all necessary action in that regard, as it will have spill-over effects across all economic sectors; urges that the Energy Efficiency Directive be declared binding so that its goals can be effectively reached; highlights that all pathways assume full decarbonisation of the power sector by 2050 at the latest, a drastic reduction of fossil fuels and a strong increase in renewable energies;

29. Stresses that the Energy Efficiency First principle must be taken into account throughout the entire energy chain, including for energy generation, transmission, distribution and end-use, and that energy efficiency must be considered whenever planning or financing decisions relevant to energy systems are taken;

30. Underlines that the Ecodesign Directive[5] has contributed significantly to the EU’s climate targets by reducing GHG emissions by 320 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents annually, and that it is estimated that by 2020 EU consumers will save a total of up to EUR 112 billion, or around EUR 490 per year per household as a result of the Directive; calls for additional products to be regulated under the Ecodesign Directive, including tablets and smartphones, and for existing standards to be kept up to date in order to reflect technological developments;

31. Points out that the strategy confirms that GHG emissions from the transport sector are still on the rise and that current policies will not be sufficient to decarbonise the transport sector by 2050; underlines the importance of ensuring a modal shift from air to rail travel, and towards public transport and shared mobility; notes that road transport contributes about one fifth of the EU’s total CO2 emissions; calls on the Member States and the Commission, therefore, to take decisive steps to enable access to zero-and low-emission vehicles for consumers in all Member States, while avoiding an increased uptake of old, highly polluting vehicles in low-income Member States; further underlines the role of smart technologies, such as smart charging infrastructure, to establish synergies between the electrification of transport and the deployment of renewable energy sources;

32. Deplores the fact that subsidies set up by some Member States under the heading ‘conversion bonus’ actually make the acquisition of diesel and gasoline cars over 90 % more advantageous for consumers, and calls on the Member States in question to modify these bonuses in order to reach the effective acquisition target of at least 50 % of electric and zero-emission cars;

33. Underlines that in order to achieve climate neutrality for the EU economy as a whole, all sectors must contribute, including international aviation and shipping; notes that the Commission’s analysis shows that the current global targets and measures envisaged by the International Maritime Organisation and the International Civil Aviation Organisation respectively, even if fully implemented, fall short of the necessary emissions reductions, and that significant further action consistent with the economy-wide objective of net-zero emissions is needed; highlights the need for investments in zero- and low-carbon technologies and fuels in these sectors; calls on the Commission to put the ‘polluter pays’ principle into practice in these sectors, in particular with regard to kerosene taxation and aviation ticket prices; recalls that GHG emissions from international shipping are projected to increase by as much as 250 % by 2050; welcomes the fact that the international shipping sector has set itself an absolute reduction target for GHG emissions; notes with concern the lack of progress regarding the translation of this target into concrete action, such as declaring the Mediterranean Sea a sulphur emission control area (SECA) for ocean liners and large ship carriers, as is already the case for the North Sea and the Channel;

34. Highlights that the agricultural sector, in particular the livestock industry, accounts for roughly 10 % of the EU’s total GHG emissions, is the largest emitter of methane and has a serious negative impact on biodiversity worldwide; is deeply concerned that agricultural GHG emissions have risen in recent years and now account for up to 60 % of current global methane emissions; stresses that reducing emissions of the powerful but short-lived GHG methane is an indispensable strategy for maintaining global warming below 1.5°C;

35. Recalls that methane is a potent GHG with a 100-year warming potential 28 times greater than CO2[6] and that methane emission reductions can play an important role in reducing ground-level ozone concentrations and their negative impacts on air quality and human health; welcomes the Commission’s intention to reduce methane emissions in the sectors concerned, which could deliver a further reduction in ozone concentrations in the EU, and to promote methane reduction internationally;

36. Notes that the EU building sector currently accounts for 40 % of Europe’s final energy consumption and 36 % of its CO2 emissions[7]; calls for the sector’s potential for energy savings and carbon footprint reduction to be unlocked, in accordance with the objective set out in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive[8]of achieving a highly energy-efficient and decarbonised building stock by 2050; stresses that making the energy consumption of buildings more efficient holds substantial potential for further reducing Europe’s GHG emissions; considers, in addition, that the achievement of low-energy buildings, fully supplied by renewable energy, is a sine qua non for the Paris Agreement and for an EU agenda for growth, local jobs and improved living conditions for citizens across Europe;

37. Reiterates its call on the Commission to explore as soon as possible policy options for rapidly addressing methane emissions as part of a Union strategic plan for methane, and to present legislative proposals to Parliament and the Council to that effect; underlines that agriculture will be one of the main remaining sources of EU GHG emissions in 2050, owing in particular to methane and nitrous oxide emissions; underlines the potential of the agricultural sector in tackling the challenges of climate change, for example by reducing livestock numbers and through ecological and technological innovations, as well as carbon capture in soil;

38. Highlights the responsibility of EU policies on the common agricultural policy over the years, which have led to an increase in the concentration of production, the levels of intensive farming and animal abuse, with huge doses of chemicals (pesticides and fertilisers) being used, therefore increasing regional asymmetries and the EU’s dependence on foreign agricultural goods; calls for a genuine biodiversity tradition to be the starting point for each country in a position to reduce GHG emissions in line with the transition to a climate neutral economy, instead of a major blow being inflicted on the environment, causing more land, water and air pollution, notably in Europe, and for a sustainable agricultural policy to be restored in all Member States;

39. Regrets that the possibility of strengthening EU action on fluorinated GHGs has not been taken up in the Commission’s strategy; stresses that preventing illegal hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) trade through the adoption of an HFC licensing system, prohibiting the use of HFCs in sectors that no longer need them, allocating HFC quotas via an auctioning system, and fully implementing the F-Gas Regulation[9] by banning all unnecessary uses of SF6, are clear opportunities to help the EU meet its Paris Agreement objectives;

40. Is concerned about the discrepancy between free trade ambitions and climate action, and the negative impact that future trade agreements such as TTIP, CETA and TiSA will have on the SDGs; calls on the Commission, therefore, to include binding provisions on human rights and the SDGs in all trade policies and to effectively respect the democratic sovereign policy space of governments to regulate and take decisions in favour of their populations;

41. Calls for the implementation, in full respect of the national competences, of a wider European legal framework, under which the Court of Justice of the European Union could rule on climate and environmental crimes;

42. Highlights the need for sustainable forest management practices that maintain a balance between the three main pillars of sustainable development, namely ecological, economic and socio-cultural, in order to support management measures with significant carbon storage and sequestration effects, such as using timber as building material in both cities and rural areas, as a replacement for fossil fuels and as a tool for better water retention;

43. Recognises the significant, but ultimately limited, potential for afforestation in Europe; believes, therefore, that afforestation initiatives must be complemented by concrete initiatives and incentives aiming to enhance sequestration potential, while ensuring and enhancing the health of existing forest lands in order to reap the benefits for the climate, the sustainable bioeconomy and biodiversity; supports, therefore, the afforestation of abandoned and marginally productive agricultural land, agroforestry and the minimisation of conversion of forest areas to other land, as well as enhanced protection and restoration of woodlands and wetlands as natural carbon removals;

44. Points out that EU action and policies also have an impact on natural sinks, land and forests outside of Europe, and that the EU net-zero emission strategy should prevent EU action having harmful effects on the climate in third countries; calls on the Commission and the Member States, in this regard, to advocate robust international rules in the framework of the Paris Rulebook, especially relating to Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, in order to prevent loopholes in accounting and double counting of afforestation measures that could dilute global climate efforts;

45. Calls for the introduction of a dissuasive tax on paper to minimise its use at all levels, especially in advertising and overpackaging, and of a ban on cutting wood for use in paper and furniture outside cultivated forests; urges that alternative practices be developed, which is made possible owing to the very high level of development of digital support in our contemporary societies;

46. Points to the urgent need to reduce the footprint of the EU’s consumption and production patterns, not only within but also outside the EU, where the production of feed and biofuels in particular places enormous pressure on the climate and on ecosystems with high carbon stocks, such as rainforests and peatlands; calls for strong support for the protein and energy transitions that can significantly reduce the European footprint; embraces the additional benefits for biodiversity, food security, human health and animal welfare that succeeding in these transitions will bring;

47. Highlights the role of long-life harvested wood products and their role in the land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector up to 2030; stresses that the future framework should consider the contribution of these products, including those from categories of agricultural land, and not only managed forest and afforested land;

48. Stresses the importance of streamlining agricultural models that support agricultural systems resilient to weather extremes and pest infestation and that deliver improvements in soil carbon sequestration, water retention and agrobiodiversity;

Financing and research

49. Considers that the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework should, before its adoption, be evaluated in the light of the objective to reach a climate neutral economy by 2050, and that a standard test to ensure that expenditure under the EU budget is climate-proof must be established; underlines that climate mainstreaming must be fully integrated in research and innovation content and applied at all stages of the research cycle as one of the principles of EU funding;

50. Stresses the importance of creating a just transition fund, especially for the regions most affected by decarbonisation, such as coal mining regions, taking into due account the social impacts of existing climate funding;

51. Calls on the ECB, as an EU institution and, as such, bound by the Paris Agreement, to increase ambitiously the loans granted to support sustainable development and ecological transition, and to aim for a substantial increase in these loans from one year to the next, at the expense of loans to the fossil fuel sectors;

52. Regrets the fact that both direct and indirect fossil fuel subsidies are still increasing and amount to around EUR 55 billion per year; calls for the EU and the Member States[10] to immediately proceed with the phasing out of all European and national fossil fuel subsidies, to stop any new exploration or exploitation permits for oil or gas, and to cease the exploitation of the existing concessions by 2030;

The role of consumers and the circular economy

53. Notes that, despite the FAO statistics indicating a decrease in the total meat and animal product consumption per capita in the EU-28 since the 1990s, total meat production has increased over the same period, owing to expanding overseas markets, which are even more carbon-intensive, and to the EU’s trade agenda; notes that the EU’s limited capacity to produce meat and animal products means that its trade policies must encourage short supply chains for these products;

54. Calls for additional measures to support this trend, inter alia in the form of fiscal reform to make healthy and environmentally friendly food choices more attractive, support for innovations in sustainable food, public information campaigns on the climate impact of food and an end to financial support for the marketing of animal proteins;

55. Calls for a reduced rate of VAT for restaurateurs using products from short supply circuits and organic foods and products;

56. Stresses the importance of the EU achieving not only energy substitution but also product/material substitution, i.e. substituting products and materials that are fossil-based or that create high emissions during production with products based on renewable resources;

The EU and global climate action

57. Underlines the importance of increased initiatives and sustained dialogue in relevant international fora, and of effective climate diplomacy with the aim of spurring on similar policy decisions that ramp up climate ambition in other regions and third countries; calls for the EU to increase its own climate financing and to work actively to encourage Member States to increase their climate aid (development aid rather than loans) to third countries, which should come in addition to overseas development assistance and should not be double counted as both development and climate finance aid;

58. Regrets the fact that many other major economies are not yet working on 2050 strategies and that there is almost no debate in other major economies about increasing the NDCs to bring them into line with the global target under the Paris Agreement; asks the Council and the Commission, therefore, to increase climate diplomacy and to take other appropriate measures to encourage other major economies to comply with common frameworks and action within UN formats, so that together we can achieve the long-term Paris Agreement targets;

59. Emphasises that the UN Climate Change Summit of September 2019 would be the ideal moment for leaders to announce an increased ambition in terms of NDCs; considers that the EU should adopt a position on updating its NDC well in advance, so as to arrive at the summit well-prepared and in close cooperation with an international coalition of Parties in support of enhanced climate ambition;



° °

60. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.

[1] Texts adopted, P8_TA(2018)0430.

[2] UN Environment Programme, ‘Emissions Gap Report 2018’, p.10.

[3] Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 1).


[5] Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products (OJ L 285, 31.10.2009, p. 10).

[6] Van Dingenen, R., Crippa, M., Maenhout, G., Guizzardi, D., Dentener, F., Global trends of methane emissions and their impacts on ozone concentrations, EUR 29394 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018, ISBN 978-92-79-96550-0, doi:10.2760/820175, JRC113210.


[8] Directive (EU) 2018/844 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (OJ L 156, 19.6.2018, p. 75).

[9] Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 (OJ L 150, 20.5.2014, p. 195).

[10] Energy Prices and Costs in Europe, COM(2019)0001, p. 10.

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