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Motion for a resolution - B9-0559/2021Motion for a resolution

MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION on The situation in Somalia

23.11.2021 - (2021/2981(RSP))

with request for inclusion in the agenda for a debate on cases of breaches of human rights, democracy and the rule of law
pursuant to Rule 144 of the Rules of Procedure

Alviina Alametsä, Ignazio Corrao, Francisco Guerreiro, Mounir Satouri, Katrin Langensiepen, Hannah Neumann, Bronis Ropė, Piernicola Pedicini, Rosa D'Amato
on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group

See also joint motion for a resolution RC-B9-0554/2021

Procedure : 2021/2981(RSP)
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European Parliament resolution on The situation in Somalia


The European Parliament,

 having regard to its previous resolutions on Somalia,

 having regard to the statements by High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy on 23 March 2021, 13 April 2021 and 18 September 2021,

 having regard to the UN Report, on the situation of human rights in Somalia,  on 14 July 2021 and related Statement on 25 October 2021,

 having regard to the statement by special representative of the UN Secretary General to the Security Council on the situation in Somalia, 17 November 2021,

 having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948,

 having regard to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 

 having regard to the Cotonou Agreement,

 having regard to the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR)

 having regard to the Global Europe - NDICI Regulation

 having regard to Rule 144 of its Rules of Procedure,

A. whereas despite the 2012 formation of the Federal Government of Somalia and progress made toward elections and governmental control of the country, populations remain at risk of attacks perpetrated by armed groups and the security forces combatting them; whereas Al-Shabaab remains the largest perpetrator of violence in Somalia;

B. whereas Parliamentary elections were due to start in December 2020 and Presidential elections in February 2021; whereas delays in the election timeline enhance further political instability and hamper progress on reforms of the justice and security sectors;

C. whereas Al-Shabaab have committed and continue grave abuses throughout the country, including extrajudicial killings, disappearances, cruel and unusual punishment, rape, restrictions on civil liberties and freedom of movement, restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and humanitarian assistance; whereas Somali investigative journalist Abdiaziz Mohamud Gulled was killed in a suicide bombing in Mogadishu on Saturday 20th November in an attack claimed by Al-Shabbab;

D. whereas the violent context in Somalia has disproportionately affected children, exposing them to grave violations during military operations, including killing, maiming and arrest and detention by Somali security forces; whereas according to the UN Secretary-General’s 2021 report on Children and Armed Conflict, grave abuses against children in Somalia continued, with at least 1,087 children killed and maimed in 2020; whereas Al-Shabaab is the main recruiter of children, while all together Al-Shabaab, government security forces, regional security forces and clan militias recruited 1,716 children last year;

E. whereas the UN recorded 406 cases of sexual violence in Somalia during 2020, and a 80% increase from 2019 to 2020;

F. whereas the African Union Forces in Somalia (AMISOM) have brought a certain degree of stability to parts of Somalia, while other parts still remain under control or threat from the Al-Shabaab or are controlled by separate regional authorities as is the case in Somaliland and Puntland; whereas AMISOM have been accused on several occasions of severe human rights abuses, including indiscriminate killings and cases of sexual exploitation and abuse; whereas in 2018 the Federal Government of Somalia, federal member states, AMISOM, and other stakeholders agreed on an updated Transition Plan to gradually turn over responsibility for security to the Somali government by 2021; whereas On 12 March the AMISOM’s mandate was renewed until 31 December 2021;

G. whereas instability in Somalia is also caused by tensions between the Federal Government of Somalia and federal member states as well as regular territorial disputes between communities in the border regions including Galmudug, Puntland and Somaliland which also pose a risk to vulnerable civilians; whereas civilian are often direct or indirect victims of the clashes between regional militias and government forces, leading to mass casualties, displacement and severe damage to public infrastructures and private properties;

H. whereas the UN reported that recruits of the Somalian national Army participated alongside the Eritrean forces in the conflict in the Tigray region, which could be termed as an illegal international military operation;

I. whereas an estimated 2.9 million Somalis are internally displaced; whereas from August to October 2021 55,000 people were forced to flee their homes, with 80% of them as a result of conflict and 20% due to climate-related events; whereas from January to April 2021 at least 50,000 people were displaced by fighting in Berdale in South West State, Galkayo in Mudug region and Abudwak in Galmudug State;

J. whereas several refugee camps exist in Kenya and welcome Somalian refugees and asylum seekers since the time of the civil war in Somalia in 1991, including the Kakuma and Dadaab camp with around 519,989 registered refugees and asylum seekers; whereas living conditions in the camps are unsafe, with women, children and LGBTQ people in particular facing recurrent abuse and violence; whereas on 29 April the UNHCR and the Kenyan government agreed on a roadmap towards a later closure of the Dadaab and Kakuma camps by 30 June 2022; whereas the roadmap includes voluntary return for refugees to their countries of origin in safety and dignity, departures to third countries under various arrangements, and alternative stay options in Kenya for certain refugees  from East African Community (EAC) countries;

K. whereas freedom of expression keeps being severely restricted, with journalists and human rights defenders being threatened, arbitrarily detained and denied due process and fair trial guarantees; whereas media outlets have been closed down by regional and federal level authorities;

L. whereas the humanitarian situation in Somalia remains alarming, compounded with recurrent conflicts, extreme weather conditions, desert locust threat to food security, displacement and the risk of disease outbreak, including the COVID-19 pandemic; whereas 7.7 million Somalis will require humanitarian assistance in 2022 according to humanitarian partners;

M. whereas the EU  provided through the 11th European Development Fund (EDF)  286 million € (2014-2020)  focusing on state and peace building, food security, resilience and education; whereas EU support to Somalia is also channelled through the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace, the Africa Peace Facility and  Common Security and Defence Policy missions; whereas the EU, the AMISOM’s main donor, which provided nearly €2.3 billion to the mission since 2007 envisages to reduce contributions for 2022;

1. Calls on all parties to the various conflicts in Somalia, including Al-Shabaab, government forces, regional forces and clan militias, to immediately end abuses of human rights, and to take concrete steps to bring those responsible to justice in fair trials; strongly calls for a cessation of hostilities and whenever possible, the pursuit of comprehensive dialogue to address political differences;

2. Strongly condemns all human rights violations and acts of violence committed against civilians; calls on the government to increase efforts in addressing violations against children, women and girls and promoting gender equality and to strengthen access to justice;

3. Calls for independent investigation into all alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Somalia  and the perpetrators held accountable, regardless of rank or affiliation;

4. Calls on the Somali government and all parties to the different conflicts to end recruitment and use of children in security forces as soldiers and as informants, including use of captured or deserting child soldiers; calls on the full implementation of the Government’s 2012 action plans on ending and preventing the recruitment and use and the killing and maiming of children, as well as the implementation of the 2019 road map to accelerate the implementation of the action plans;

5. Urges international partners, to continue to support efforts aimed at defeating Al-Shabaab and enhancing national governance, as well as protecting and promoting human rights in Somalia; calls on The Federal Government of Somalia, AMISOM and allied forces, to ensure that their military campaigns against Al-Shabaab are carried out in strict adherence with international Humanitarian Law and International Human Right Law; calls on a coordinated political strategy aimed at countering violent extremism to be implemented in order to prevent recruitment to Al-Shabaab and other armed groups;

6. Recalls its strong support for all human rights and environmental defenders in Somalia and their work; calls on the EU delegation and Member States’ representations in the country to strengthen their support for civil society in their engagement with  authorities in Somalia, and to use all available instruments to increase their support for human rights and environmental defenders’ work, and, where appropriate, to facilitate the issuing of emergency visas, and provide temporary shelter in the EU Member States;

7. Calls on ensuring that a significant part of the programming through the Global Europe Instrument is earmarked for the improvement of human rights and international protection for refugees, notably those from Somalia; urges host countries of refugees from Somalia to remain realistic about the security situation in large parts of Somalia and to refrain from engaging in measures on refugees to return to Somalia;

8. Recalls that internally displaced persons, including the most vulnerable such as women, children, and persons belonging to minority groups, are most at risk of violence, abuse and violations; calls on the national and local authorities, international aid organisations and the international community, including the EU, to adopt assistance measures addressing the specific vulnerabilities of internally displaced women and children, such as persecution based on sex and gender, violence against women, sexual abuse and exploitation, extreme poverty and exclusion;

9. Urges the Somalian authorities to cease all arbitrary arrests and prolonged detention of human rights defenders and journalists or the political opposition, to combat harassment and intimidation of civilians by security forces, and to ensure those responsible are held accountable; urges the government of Somalia to establish a general protection program for the general safety of named groups of people, to strengthen its rule of law mechanism and to establish an independent and impartial judicial mechanisms to ensure the full protection of civilians and civic rights;

10. calls on the Somalian authorities to ensure the respect for freedom of expression; in this regard, calls upon Somalian authorities to repeal the provisions of the 2020 media law which severely restricts freedom of the media and freedom of expression and fails to comply with international standards on freedom of expression;

11. Urges Somali authorities to stop executions issued by military courts and to adopt a moratorium on death penalty which could pave the way towards supporting the UN Resolution on establishing a universal moratorium on application of the death penalty;

12. Urges Somali authorities to undertake an independent investigations in the involvement of Somali recruits in Tigray and to refrain from any activities that potentially put Somali citizens at risk of losing their own fundamental rights or are likely to involve them in foreign conflicts;

13. Expresses deep concern over the continued delays in the electoral process; calls for timely, inclusive and credible election process, with full respect of fundamental rights during the campaign and electoral periods, including the right to peaceful assembly, freedom of movement, association, and expression; condemns harassment and violence against politically active women; calls on the Somali authorities to guarantee the safety of women candidates; encourages the use of Electoral Observation Missions to help national authorities monitor the electoral process and prevent potential irregularities;

14. Underlines the importance of the full inclusion and representation of women in political life; calls on the Somali authorities  to respect the agreed-upon 30% minimum quote for women in the parliament and establish a clear mechanism to implement it properly in both houses of Parliament as stipulated in the 17 September 2020 and 27 May 2021 Electoral agreements; condemns harassment and violence against politically active women and calls on the Somali authorities to guarantee their safety;

15. Calls on all parties to the conflict to allow for unrestricted access for humanitarian aid organisations in conflict areas; strongly condemns any targeted attacks against aid workers;

16. Acknowledges the severity of climate-related hazards in Somalia and particularly the current drought and recurrent desert locust threat to food production; calls on urgent action and proper implementation of action plans to prevent or mitigate climate related disasters, such as the FAO Desert Locust Crisis Action Plan to prevent current situation developing into full blown famine and humanitarian disaster;

17. Calls on The UN Security Council to re-evaluate AMISOM’s drawdown date and envisage a short extension of its mandate, to ensure the end of the mission does not endanger Somalia’s fragile security and stability, and also give donors, including the European Union, troop contributors and the Somali government the possibility to discuss on the mission’s potential future reconfiguration, objectives and funding;

18. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the Vice-President of the European Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the African Union, the President, the Prime Minister and the Parliament of Somalia, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly.



Last updated: 23 November 2021
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