Úplné znění 
Středa, 28. září 2005 - Štrasburk Revidované vydání

28. Obnovitelné zdroje energie v Unii

  Le Président. – L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur le rapport de Claude Turmes au nom de la commission de l'industrie, de la recherche et de l'énergie sur la part des sources d'énergie renouvelables dans l'Union européenne et les propositions d'actions concrètes [2004/2153(INI)] (A6-0227/2005).


  Claude Turmes (Verts/ALE), rapporteur. Mr President, the 21st century will be the century of renewable technologies. This Tuesday afternoon we organised a conference with major industry representatives and it was really impressive to see the wide diversity of renewables and new developments such as ocean energies, solar thermal electricity and second-generation biofuels.

When we speak about renewables we are not just talking just about security of supply, about the environment; it is also about the future industrial and economic policy of Europe. Because we have had a small number of dedicated countries, this sector is one of the sectors where Europe is leading the world. Last week I was in Denmark. Denmark has won the biggest-ever wind investment in the world, in the US, and it is a Danish company which will do it.

So we have an advance in this technology and we have to keep it. We therefore need a political approach. We also need a systemic approach to energy policy. The best renewable energy is the intelligent use of energy; it is energy efficiency.

A second important systemic approach – and this is something that we often forget – is appropriate energy densities. Taking electricity to heat or to cool a house is completely irrational and uneconomic. Via our energy policy we must give up today's inefficient uses of energy and move on to the use of low-temperature renewables or waste from electricity production.

Let us look at the sectors. In the building sector – we had a concrete example of this on Tuesday – with Commission money we are financing a project in Hungary. It was a Plattenbau – one of those very bad buildings. There was a monitored 80% reduction in energy. Then, what was a small 5% of solar heating, if you do an 80% reduction, immediately becomes a 25% of renewable share. That means more comfort for the people who live there and job creation in Europe. Especially in eastern Europe, refitting the building stock and then modernising the central district heating systems to bring biomass instead of coal, is a major part of that area.

Now to solar thermal cooling: yes, we can cool houses with solar energy, and this is a perfect combination because when the sun is there, buildings are getting hot, but then the sun is also there to help us produce energy to cool this building. Therefore in the building stock it is one of the huge opportunities and Mechtild Rothe will mention some policy instruments in that area.

In the electricity sector, ocean energy will be the next big development and we have to put money into solar thermal electricity development. For the southern part of Europe, that is a big opportunity and in the sun belt of the world there is also a big industrial opportunity for our industries.

But we have to put the functioning of the electricity market right. Commissioner, we talk a lot about it. I think we have to act more fiercely. We need ownership unbundling. We need to stop subsidies for coal and nuclear energy and we need a stable framework for renewable electricity.

My final words go to the transport sector. Transport is the most inefficient sector. A car only has an efficiency of 10-12%, whereas in the electricity sector we are at 40%, and in the heating sector we are at 80-90%, so the first work in transport is efficiency through mandatory efficiency for cars, moving trucks from road to rail and so on, and only then do biofuel and second-generation biofuel make sense. There again we need a stable framework until 2020, otherwise investments in second-generation biofuels will not happen.

Lastly, I would like to thank all those colleagues who were with me. I think we did a good job and I hope that we will see a good vote tomorrow.



  Andris Piebalgs, Member of the Commission. I would like first to express my gratitude to Mr Turmes, the rapporteur on the Commission communication on the share of renewable energy in the EU, as well as to all of his colleagues who contributed to this report.

This issue has increasing importance not only with the current high oil prices but also for the medium- and long-term policies in the European Union. We have already had the chance to speak about this today. I would like to emphasise that even if in the renewable sector we have made quite substantial progress, still a great deal should be done, even with the target that is for overall consumption from renewable sources such as green electricity and biomass, we are still far from fulfilling the targets we have for 2010. The Commission is doing all it can to encourage and pursue the Member States to stick to those targets. It is clear that we need to and can do better.

I really enjoyed reading the report. It presents a cohesive and comprehensive overview of the possibilities that exist in the short and medium term as regards renewable energy.

I understand that there have been amendments to alter certain parts of the report. As this is an own-initiative report from Parliament, I will not comment on all elements in the report or the amendments, but take some of the key points of the report.

First of all I was impressed with the broad overview of the possibilities that renewable energy allows us. It goes to show that we can make changes in our energy mix in the future.

Furthermore, I was very pleased to see the complex and systemic way that Parliament is approaching energy. You rightly say that liberalisation is linked with fair conditions for renewable electricity. You also team energy efficiency with renewable energy. You have a vision for the use of research, market uptake and support schemes. Furthermore, you argue convincingly that renewable energy is part of the global solution to our global problems on energy. And finally, but also very importantly, you also link competitiveness, security of supply and environmental protection.

I want in particular to welcome the points devoted to biomass. This sector is very important in the draft. I can inform you that an action plan will be adopted by the Commission at the end of November. The energy potential of biomass in the Union is significant and needs to be developed. I share the view that biomass energy is intimately linked to other European policies. In the recent Commission proposal for a Council decision on rural development, the Commission proposed the integration of biomass and biofuels in rural development as an important new market in a sustainable agriculture.

It is obvious that direct support measures will remain essential in the future to ensure sufficient penetration of renewable energy in the market and to meet our agreed targets. As you know, the Commission aims to adopt a communication on support schemes on renewable energy sources at the end of November.

This communication will be a good opportunity to evaluate the many different support schemes which actually exist in Europe. It will also address the barriers which are hampering the development of renewable energies. These include complex licensing procedures and poor integration of renewable energy in local planning. We have to do a thorough analysis of the various national systems. On the basis of their impact we will have to decide on a larger-term perspective.

On heating and cooling, I welcome the own-initiative report from Mrs Rothe which will also contribute to bringing the appropriate initiatives forward. I have seen the amendments on heating and cooling, and the Commission will carefully consider what more can be done in this respect.

In the current context of high oil prices we have to react with determination and ambition. I outlined my five-point plan earlier today, a plan which has the support of the Commission.

I once again thank the rapporteur and the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy for taking the initiative to prepare the report that allows us to have the debate today, and will help the Commission to come up with appropriate initiatives.


  Δημήτριος Παπαδημούλης (GUE/NGL), Εισηγητής της γνωμοδότησης της Επιτροπής Περιβάλλοντος, Δημόσιας Υγείας και Ασφάλειας των Τροφίμων. Κύριε Πρόεδρε, θα ήθελα εκ μέρους της Επιτροπής Περιβάλλοντος, Δημόσιας Υγείας και Ασφάλειας των Τροφίμων, να ευχαριστήσω τον εισηγητή και να τον συγχαρώ για τη σημαντική έκθεσή του.

Με δεδομένα τα σημαντικά πλεονεκτήματα των ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας, το ερώτημα είναι πώς μπορούμε να προωθήσουμε περισσότερο την ανάπτυξή τους έτσι ώστε οι πολίτες στο μέλλον να γευθούν τα πλεονεκτήματά τους. Έχουν γίνει βήματα, αλλά είναι δεδομένη και η πρόσφατη έκθεση της Επιτροπής που σημειώνει μία σημαντική καθυστέρηση σε σχέση με τους στόχους που έθετε η οδηγία 2001/77/ΕΚ. Επομένως, πρέπει να κάνουμε περισσότερα και πιστεύω πως πρέπει να κάνουμε περισσότερα σε τέσσερις άξονες.

Ο πρώτος είναι να δημιουργήσουμε ένα ευνοϊκότερο πολιτικό περιβάλλον για τις ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας και εδώ ο ρόλος των κυβερνήσεων είναι καθοριστικός καθώς, δυστυχώς, οι μεγάλες πολυεθνικές συνεχίζουν να επενδύουν, πριν από όλα, στο πετρέλαιο. Χρειάζεται λοιπόν ένα πλέγμα κινήτρων ώστε να ενθαρρυνθούν εναλλακτικές ενεργειακές επενδύσεις και να διαμορφωθούν κερδοφόρες αγορές.

Ο δεύτερος άξονας είναι να δημιουργήσουμε ένα κατάλληλο νομικό πλαίσιο που θα στηρίζει τις ανανεώσιμες πηγές. Ένα πλαίσιο που θα ξεπερνά τις αγκυλώσεις ενός ενεργειακού συστήματος το οποίο, μαζί με τις νομικές του βάσεις, κτίστηκε σε μία εποχή που οι ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας ήταν περίπου άγνωστη λέξη.

Ο τρίτος είναι να αναπτύξουμε ραγδαία και τις δημόσιες και τις ιδιωτικές επενδύσεις στην έρευνα για την ανάπτυξη καλύτερων και φθηνότερων τεχνολογιών που θα σχετίζονται με τις ανανεώσιμες πηγές, και

ο τέταρτος άξονας είναι να βάλουμε δεσμευτικούς ποσοτικούς στόχους έως το 2020 και για τη συνολική παραγωγή από ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας και για τον ηλεκτρισμό, για την ψύξη και τη θέρμανση.

Διακόσιες πενήντα χιλιάδες θέσεις απασχόλησης μπορούν να στηριχθούν αν επενδύσουμε με σχέδιο στο μέλλον για την ανάπτυξη των πηγών ενέργειας.


  Mairead McGuinness (PPE-DE), Draftsman of the opinion of the Committee on Agriculture. Mr President, I thank the rapporteur for his work and his consideration of the views of the Agriculture Committee on this important report. I suppose there has never been a better time for a report on renewable energy. As I came down to this debate the price of oil is at USD 67 a barrel, and as we know its supply is finite. And all the while, if you look at rural areas of the European Union, where much of the renewable energies will come from, they are screaming out for sustainable alternative enterprises.

It is deplorable, in my view, that the EU is unlikely to meet its 12% renewable energy consumption target by 2010. It is obvious that in some Member States there is neither the will nor the inclination to take seriously the need to generate renewable energy, while others are forging ahead. The Biofuels Directive sets targets of 2% market penetration for biofuels by the end of this year, but in Ireland a target of only 0.03% for biofuels has been set.

As for the whole area of biomass production – this so-called sleeping giant of renewable energies – which the Commissioner has just mentioned, I am pleased to see that we will have an action plan in this area. It is very much to be welcomed.

The contribution of the common agricultural policy towards renewable energy production must be recognised in both biofuels and biomass. Renewable energy can assist rural areas by providing diversification options, securing farm income and generating jobs. But incentives are required to make sure that the many renewable options reach their full potential. Specifically, taxation policy must not hinder the expansion of renewable energy.

While we are keen to encourage diversification by our farmers, I want to add a word of caution. There is a concern that there may be a conflict in time between the production of crops for food and for non-food usage, and that would be regrettable. Both must be sustainable and provide incomes. I agree that the rural development policy in the future must have as its priority the promotion of renewable energy.

I will finish by saying that yesterday in Ireland, 60 000 people were at a ploughing championship, many of whom were talking about this whole area of renewable energies, and one researcher, who has worked tirelessly for 20 years, said to me: 'At last, I think, our time has come'.



  Peter Liese, im Namen der PPE-DE-Fraktion. Herr Präsident, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Auch ich schließe mich dem Dank an den Berichterstatter Claude Turmes an.

Die EVP-ED-Fraktion ist für erneuerbare Energien, aber wir mussten an einigen Stellen Claude Turmes darauf hinweisen, dass wir mit mehr Realismus an die Sache herangehen müssen. In diesem Sinne waren wir in der Abstimmung im Ausschuss schon teilweise erfolgreich. Der Bericht enthält viele positive Punkte. Das Thema Biomasse war uns sehr wichtig, und ich bin froh, dass es uns gelungen ist, ein ganzes Kapitel hineinzustimmen. Wir wollen langfristig im Strombereich eine Angleichung der europäischen Fördersysteme. Wir wissen, dass das nicht von heute auf morgen geht. Aber langfristig müssen wir auch hier einen europäischen Binnenmarkt mit all den Vorteilen kreieren, unter anderem – und das ist uns ein weiterer wichtiger Punkt – um die Kosten zu reduzieren. Das Geld ist begrenzt, und wir müssen mit dem vorhandenen Geld so viel wie möglich erreichen. Deswegen müssen wir die Fördersysteme so ausrichten, dass die Kosten reduziert werden.

Wir haben noch einige Probleme mit dem jetzt vorgelegten Berichtsentwurf. Zum Beispiel finden wir das Ziel von 25 Prozent im Jahr 2020 problematisch und haben dazu Änderungsanträge vorgelegt. Wir glauben, dass die Windenergie nicht nur positiv erwähnt werden sollte, sondern dass man die Probleme der Netzstabilität und die Probleme der Bevölkerung berücksichtigen muss. Wir glauben, das man noch stärker, als der Bericht es schon tut, auf den Bereich Kühlung und Heizung eingehen muss, weil man hier mit wenig Geld sehr viel erreichen kann: sehr viel Reduktion fossiler Brennstoffe und sehr viel Reduktion von CO2. Das sind auch die Gründe, warum wir erneuerbare Energien fördern wollen: Wir wollen die Abhängigkeit von Öl und Gas reduzieren, und wir wollen das Problem des Klimaschutzes in den Griff bekommen.

Deshalb bitte ich um Unterstützung für die Änderungsanträge der EVP-ED-Fraktion. Aber ich lasse keinen Zweifel daran, dass wir gemeinsam für die erneuerbaren Energien in Europa arbeiten müssen.


  Mechtild Rothe, im Namen der PSE-Fraktion. Herr Präsident! Zunächst auch mein ganz herzlicher Dank an den Berichterstatter Claude Turmes. Danke für den hervorragenden Bericht und für die exzellente Zusammenarbeit. Trotz der wenigen kritischen Worte, die der Kollege Liese gesagt hat, bin ich sehr zuversichtlich, dass der Bericht morgen mit großer Mehrheit verabschiedet wird.

Gerade in der derzeitigen Ölkrise wird es immer klarer, dass endliche Energieträger durch sich ständig erneuernde zu ersetzen sind. Wir haben in den letzten Jahren in der EU eine erfolgreiche Strategie für den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien gestartet, auch mit gesetzlichen Vorgaben für Ziele zum Beispiel für Elektrizität durch Biotreibstoffe. Wir haben eine Marktdurchdringung erreicht und damit einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Klimaschutz geleistet. Mit 300 000 Arbeitsplätzen und einem jährlichen Umsatz von etwa 15 Milliarden Euro bedeutet dies auch einen wichtigen Beitrag für die Lissabon-Strategie. Aber die Anstrengungen reichen nicht.

Die Erfüllung der Biotreibstoffziele ist längst nicht ausreichend – darauf wurde auch schon hingewiesen – und eine Reihe von Mitgliedstaaten muss energisch durch die Kommission auf die Erfüllung der Elektrizitätsziele hingewiesen werden. Bürokratische Barrieren, Netzkapazitätsprobleme, unzureichende Fördersysteme sind unter anderen zu verändernde Hindernisse. Denn eines habe ich noch nicht aufgegeben, dass wir nämlich die Verdoppelung auf 12% 2010 schaffen können. Dazu ist aber eines noch ganz wichtig, dass wir nämlich die legislative Lücke für den Bereich Wärme und Kälte schließen. Das heißt, dass wir klare gesetzliche Vorgaben mit klaren Zielvorgaben brauchen, um in den Mitgliedstaaten Anreize für entsprechende Aktivitäten zu schaffen und diesen Bereich so auszuschöpfen, wie er bei dem sehr hohen Potenzial an Biomasse, Solarthermie und Geothermie ausgeschöpft werden kann. Dies ist also eine ganz wichtige Botschaft an die Kommission, in diesem Bereich tätig zu werden und uns entsprechende Vorlagen zu liefern.


  Vittorio Prodi, a nome del gruppo ALDE. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, volevo ringraziare anch'io il collega Turmes per il suo lavoro, per il lavoro che abbiamo fatto assieme. Il documento è molto importante perché riequilibra una situazione di presunzione favorevole alla produzione centralizzata e concentrata di energia.

C'è stata una notevole negligenza nei confronti delle energie rinnovabili, ora, finalmente, si può affrontare il problema del riequilibrio e quindi dedicare ad esse lo sforzo di ricerca che non hanno avuto e che invece meritano per il contributo indispensabile che possono dare al nostro fabbisogno energetico.

Si tratta di un contributo nella garanzia della sostenibilità, in quanto sono non CO2 emittenti e CO2 neutre, nell'indipendenza energetica, nella creazione di posti di lavoro nell'Unione, proprio in un momento così difficile, come abbiamo visto oggi nella discussione sul documento del petrolio e grazie a una tecnologia in cui siamo all'avanguardia nel mondo.

Sarà uno sforzo che prima di tutto dovrà darci informazioni precise sul contributo che ciascuna fonte può dare. Sono sicuro che tale contributo sarà molto importante in senso assoluto, oltre le più ardite aspettative e anche nella modalità di produzione diffusa, la quale andrà nel senso di una grande responsabilizzazione e di un salto in avanti nell'efficienza energetica, tramite l'adozione generalizzata della generazione di elettricità e contemporaneamente riscaldamento e raffreddamento. Tale ottica dovrà essere prioritaria perché in essa si concretizza il nostro impegno.

In particolare vorrei ricordare il contributo delle biomasse che nei processi di conversione in gas potranno direttamente produrre idrogeno, sappiamo quanto questo sia importante. Altre fonti come l'eolico hanno già dato un contributo considerevole, altre sono estremamente promettenti. Questo deve essere il nostro impegno e credo che con il gruppo Turmes riusciremo a fare ancora molto lavoro.


  Umberto Guidoni, a nome del gruppo GUE/NGL. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, mi associo al ringraziamento al relatore Turmes per l'ottimo lavoro che abbiamo svolto insieme.

Non ci siano dubbi: la grande maggioranza della comunità scientifica è ormai convinta che le emissioni di gas a effetto serra siano i principali responsabili dell'aumento di temperatura del pianeta e sussiste il ragionevole dubbio che la sempre maggiore frequenza e violenza delle recenti catastrofi naturali siano correlate con questo riscaldamento.

Per ridurre i gas a effetto serra occorre puntare sul superamento dell'era del petrolio e sulle fonti energetiche alternative, a partire dalla prima fonte alternativa costituita dal risparmio energetico. Da una politica volta ad aumentare l'efficienza e a diminuire gli sprechi può infatti essere ricavato in pochi anni oltre il 20% del risparmio nel consumo di petrolio, una quota comperabile potrebbe risultare da un massiccio ricorso alle fonti rinnovabili come l'eolico, il solare e le biomasse.

Il Libro verde dell'energia della Commissione europea è un buon punto di partenza, ma affinché risulti efficace occorre approntare programmi di ricerca capaci di simulare lo sviluppo di sistemi energetici sostenibili e competitivi, anche attraverso progetti dimostrativi pluriennali, per esempio qui al Parlamento europeo, e politiche di sostegno alle piccole e medie imprese che investono nel settore.

Agli investimenti massicci si dovranno aggiungere incentivi finanziari e fiscali a favore delle energie alternative per la realizzazione delle necessarie infrastrutture, per esempio dell'idrogeno, e per una mobilità sostenibile.

Il ruolo dell'Unione europea è determinante, anche per stimolare le politiche nazionali e realizzare concretamente le direttive comunitarie: solo con uno sforzo coordinato a livello continentale l'Europa può diventare un interlocutore credibile per le politiche energetiche planetarie.


  Mieczysław Edmund Janowski, w imieniu grupy UEN. Panie Przewodniczący! Z uznaniem odnoszę się do bardzo merytorycznej pracy sprawozdawcy. Kryzysy energetyczne oraz perspektywa wyczerpania się nieodnawialnych paliw organicznych wobec wzrostu zapotrzebowania, a także wobec konieczności ochrony środowiska wywołują rosnące zainteresowanie źródłami energii odnawialnej. Dobrze więc, że Parlament podejmuje debatę na ten temat.

Pan Turmes wspomniał o słońcu, warto wiedzieć, że gdyby udało się ze stu procentową sprawnością spalić cały zasób paliw typu: ropa, gaz, węgiel, drewno to i tak ilość uzyskanej energii byłaby równa energii słonecznej dostarczonej ziemi w ciągu zaledwie 4 dni.

Problem należy do fundamentalnych, szkoda zatem, że debatujemy o tak późnej porze i przy niskiej frekwencji. Zagadnienie to ma wieloraki wymiar: techniczno-naukowy, ekologiczny, klimatyczny, ekonomiczny, społeczny, obronny. Musimy w tej sprawie konkretnie działać w całej Unii, uwzględniając współpracę ogólnoświatową. Musimy to robić w poszczególnych krajach...

(Przewodniczący odebrał głos mówcy)


  Sergej Kozlík (NI). Krajiny Európskej únie žiaľ nedisponujú významnými prírodnými energetickými zdrojmi. Pred pár mesiacmi sa inštitúcie Európskej únie zapodievali otázkami energetickej bezpečnosti Európy. Platonicky bolo konštatované, že v priebehu dvadsiatich rokov sa závislosť európskych krajín od vonkajších energetických zdrojov zvýši z 50 na 70 percent.

Ak si uvedomíme tieto fakty, pripadá mi energetická politika Európskej únie značne naivná, najmä z pohľadu zabezpečenia primeranej energetickej sebestačnosti. Určite podporujem opatrenia na zvyšovanie energetickej účinnosti, na vytváranie predpokladu na zvyšovanie podielu alternatívnych a obnoviteľných zdrojov energií a tiež opatrenia na zabezpečenie energetických úspor. Na druhej strane, v mene reálneho pokrytia energetickej spotreby je však potrebné prekonať európsku fóbiu k jadrovej energetike a ku klasickým formám výroby energie samozrejme na báze prísnych ekologických a prevádzkových pravidiel. Podobne je potrebné uplatniť aj prezieravejšie prístupy inštitúcií Európskej únie k odstávkam existujúcich energetických zariadení. V tejto súvislosti musím kriticky spomenúť skôr politicky motivované predčasné odstavenie jadrovej elektrárne Jaslovské Bohunice na Slovensku napriek tomu, že spĺňala kritériá pre bezpečnú prevádzku. To oslabí energetický potenciál nielen Slovenska, ale celej Európskej únie a odčerpá zdroje, ktoré mohli slúžiť okrem iného aj na financovanie programov zameraných na podporu alternatívnych druhov energie.


  Νικόλαος Βακάλης (PPE-DE). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, κυρίες και κύριοι συνάδελφοι, μας είναι γνωστό ότι το θέμα της προώθησης των ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας είναι καίριας σημασίας.

Η τελευταία κρίση, απλώς το υπογραμμίζει. Το τελευταίο σχέδιο δράσης των 5 σημείων του κ. Piebalgs, νομίζω ότι κινείται σ' αυτήν την κατεύθυνση.

Επιτρέψτε μου τώρα να εστιάσω την προσοχή μας σε δύο θέματα.

Πρώτο θέμα: απαιτείται προώθηση της αυτονομίας των νησιωτικών συστημάτων στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Στη χώρα μου, για παράδειγμα, έχουμε πολλά νησιά που είναι αποκομμένα από το εθνικό δίκτυο μεταφοράς ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας. Στα αυτόνομα συστήματα ενέργειας θα πρέπει να εφαρμόζονται, κατά προτεραιότητα, προηγμένες τεχνολογίες υβριδικών μονάδων ηλεκτροπαραγωγής, που να συνδυάζουν ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας και τεχνολογίες αποθήκευσης. Με αυτόν τον τρόπο θα μπορούμε να έχουμε αυτόνομες και αποκεντρωμένες μονάδες ενέργειας, αλλά και συνεχή παραγωγή και προσφορά ενέργειας στον καταναλωτή.

Το δεύτερο θέμα αφορά κυρίως την ηλιακή και αιολική ενέργεια. Η διασύνδεσή τους με τα υπάρχοντα ενεργειακά δίκτυα παρουσιάζει προβλήματα. Είναι αναγκαίο να μελετήσει η Επιτροπή τις βέλτιστες πρακτικές στη διαχείριση των δικτύων, ώστε να επιλυθούν τέτοια προβλήματα. Αυτό πρέπει να είναι το πρώτο μέλημά μας, αν θέλουμε να έχουμε διείσδυση των ΑΠΕ στο ενεργειακό σύστημα κάθε χώρας.


  Adam Gierek (PSE). Panie Przewodniczący! Energia uzyskiwana z odnawialnych źródeł winna być wykorzystywana zgodnie z priorytetami technologicznymi dla danego kraju. W Polsce warunki klimatyczne i agrarne sprawiają, że priorytetem wymagającym szybkiego wsparcia winny być biopaliwa, a na drugim miejscu energia geotermalna. Natomiast dotychczasowe doświadczenia wytwarzania elektryczności z biomasy stałej nie są nazbyt optymistyczne. Wynika to między innymi z małej sprawności konwersji energii cieplnej w elektryczną, a także z problemów logistycznych i ekologicznych. Ponadto biomasy w wypadku produktów drzewnych należy wysuszyć odparowując około 20% wody, a to pochłania dodatkową energię.

Kolejnym priorytetem dla Polski może być energia zawarta w odpadach komunalnych, której źródła nie tylko się odtwarzają, ale gwałtownie i niepokojąco rosną. Jest to więc z definicji odnawialne źródło energii. Istniejące technologie, w tym pirolityczne, umożliwiają otrzymywanie węglowodorów z odpadów oraz ich wysokosprawną konwersję w energię elektryczną. Uzyskuje się podwójny efekt: energię i swoisty recycling wtórny oraz likwidację składowisk śmieci. Komisja powinna uznać ten rodzaj energii za energię odnawialną.


  Esko Seppänen (GUE/NGL). Arvoisa puhemies, arvoisa komissaari, esittelijä Turmes on laatinut hänelle ominaiseen tapaan perusteellisen mietinnön, tällä kerralla uusiutuvien energialähteiden käytön strategiasta. Mietintö on ansiokas ja puhuu puolestaan.

Ennustetaan, että sekä maapallon väkiluvun että energiankäytön kasvu jatkuu. Kun puhutaan uusiutuvista biopolttoaineista ja energiakasvien viljelystä, on huomattava, että energiantuotanto kilpailee samasta maa-alasta ruoantuotannon kanssa. Jo nykyisillä öljyn ja viljan hinnoilla saattaa olla edullisempaa käyttää lämmityksen polttoaineena viljaa kuin öljyä. Samaan aikaan suuri osa maapallon väestöstä näkee nälkää. Niin toimivat markkinamekanismit.

Kun olen seurannut vihreiden energiastrategiaa, esittelijä Turmeshan on vihreä, olen pannut merkille vihamielisen suhtautumisen fuusioenergian käytön tutkimiseen. Kannatamme Turmesin tapaan uusiutuvien energialähteiden ja energiatehokkuuden tutkimisen rahoittamista tutkimuksen ja kehityksen seitsemännessä puiteohjelmassa. Se ei kuitenkaan saa tapahtua ydinfuusiotutkimuksen kustannuksella. Ihmiskunnan on selvitettävä tämä energiantuotantomahdollisuus perusteellisesti. Kyseessä on energiavara, joka on uusiutuvan ja uusiutumattoman energialähteen välimuoto. Edessämme on ongelmia, joiden ratkaisu edellyttää maapallon väkiluvun, ruoantuotannon ja uusiutuvan energiantuotannon yhteensovittamista.


  Avril Doyle (PPE-DE). Mr President, I wish to congratulate the rapporteur on a highly informative report on the 21 types of renewable energy, which will play an ever-increasing role in the 21st century, whether from a climate-change perspective or that of the security of supply of fossil fuels and increasing prices.

My own country, Ireland, is uniquely placed for the development of green energy and green fuel: we have the technological base, the climate and amongst the strongest wind and waves in Europe off our Atlantic coast. Just yesterday our minister announced a new scheme to support another 400 megawatts of renewable capacity. However, despite all of that, the ambition of our renewables sector is completely frustrated. Again the minister has got it wrong: his proposal is an attempt to defy economic gravity. He is proposing the only scheme in Europe to cap prices and quantities. This will totally distort competition in a market that is already stacked against independent renewable generators.

We do not have de facto liberalisation of the electricity market in Ireland. The investigation into anti-competiveness practices in the electricity market announced six months ago by Commissioner Kroes will no doubt show that the ESB – our Electricity Supply Board – like its French counterpart EDF, still holds an effective monopoly and abuses its dominant position as the gatekeeper of the national grid, instead of ring-fencing generation from grid operation with cross-subsidisation of uneconomic fossil fuel generation with the national grid profits. The fear that the ESB could switch off the lights at any time causes the regulators to take a softly, softly approach to the opening up of the market. There is nothing the government can do! It has relinquished all power to form policy in this particular area. The 1999 Act, which set up the Irish Commission for Energy Regulation, had an in-built provision for ministerial policy directions to be cut off in 2002. Conveniently the author of that act is now head of the Irish Commission for Energy Regulation, which has carte blanche to regulate without any government input or supervision. Necessary independent arbitration should not preclude ministerial policy directions.

We have what is effectively a marginal grid policy, where each project requires an upgrade of the grid and has to fight for access on an ad hoc basis. The bureaucracy and financial uncertainty this causes for renewables is considerable. It is high time the Irish Government took back control over shaping a progressive renewables policy in Ireland.


  Andres Tarand (PSE). Ma esindan siin sellist liikmesriiki, mis taastuvenergia kasutamisel on Euroopa Liidus kindlalt eelviimane. Selle põhjus on olnud raskelt saastav ja väga ebaefektiivne, aga monopoolne põlevkivienergeetika. Ainus osaliselt paratamatu põhjus selliseks energeetikaks on olnud asjaolu, et põlevkivil ei ole maailmaturu hinda. Seda on määranud majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi juures olev komitee. Niisiis majade kütmisel oleme olnud sõltumatud hindade kõikumisest maailmaturul.

Nüüd on aga põlevkiviõli tootvad ettevõtted ilmselt kartellikokkuleppega hinda tublisti tõstnud. Kuna taastuvenergiaga ei ole Eestis tõsiselt tegeletud, pole paljudel tarbijatel valikuvõimalusi. Teatavasti kannatavad hinnatõusust enam vaesemad inimesed.

Euroopa Parlament on täna hommikust õhtuni arutanud võimalikke abinõusid nii sotsiaalsete kui majanduslike tagajärgede leevendamiseks. Meil on aga majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister kehitanud abitult õlgu ning väitnud, et ta ei saa midagi teha, kui põlevkiviõliettevõtted on sidunud selle hinna naftahinnaga. Põlevkivi enda hind ei ole seejuures tõusnud.

Moraal on see, et Euroopa Liit peab suurendama oma survet selliste pimedusega löödud liikmesriikide valitsuste vastu. Soovin selleks jõudu volinik Andris Piebalgsile ja tänan parlamendiliiget Claude Turmest õiges suunas astutud pika sammu eest.


  Andris Piebalgs, Member of the Commission. Mr President, I should like to make some brief remarks.

First, I can assure you that the Commission will do everything within its legal powers to implement the existing directives. Second, there has been enough evidence given today about the necessity for a directive using renewables in heating and cooling. The arguments in favour of that are very strong.

I would also like to mention that it is extremely important that the Committees on the Environment and Agriculture were consulted but, if the objective of renewables is to be successful, then other committees should also take these questions on board. As long as it is just the Committee on Energy, the goals will not be achieved. It is a much broader issue – the committee responsible for taxation questions and other committees, especially those that are concerned with economic development, should deal with these issues.

The report on the situation of the internal market will be ready in November. Then I will be glad to discuss with you the situation and challenges in different Member States. Definitely the situation of market liberalisation differs from one Member State to another.

I thank the rapporteur and everyone else who contributed to this very good report.



  Le Président. – Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu jeudi, à midi.

Déclaration écrite (article 142)


  Edit Herczog (PSE). Tisztelt Elnök Úr, Tisztelt Képviselők,

Üdvözlöm Turmes képviselő úr jelentését, amelyik a Lisszaboni Stratégia nagy irányvonalai mentén rajzolja meg a megújuló energiák jövőképét. Egyetértek azzal, hogy az elkövetkezendő évtizedek alatt a megújuló energiák egy következetes európai energiapolitika keretében pozitív hatással lehetnek a munkahelyteremtésre, a környezetvédelemre, a piacintegrációra, a kutatás-fejlesztésre, az innovációra és a fenntartható gazdasági fejlődésre.

Szeretném azonban jelezni, hogy a megújuló energiákat alkalmazó technológiák egyelőre mind abszolút értékben, mint hatékonyságukhoz mérten nagyon költségesek. Ehhez képest - különösen a jelenlegi körülmények között - sok tagállamban az energiaár olyan érzékeny kérdés, amely adott esetben még a szociális kohéziót is fenyegetheti. Éppen ezért szerintem nagyon fontos, hogy mielőtt belevágnánk egy túlságosan ambiciózus megújuló energiapolitika kidolgozásába, egy észszerű egyensúlyra alapozott, átfogó energia-politikával segítsük a régiók, tagállamok és kistérségek közötti kohéziót és az európai energiapiac integrálását.

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