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Сряда, 14 ноември 2007 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

14. Възстановяване на ресурсите от червен тон в източната част на Атлантическия океан и в Средиземно море (разискване)

  President. The next item is the report by Iles Braghetto, on behalf of the Committee on Fisheries, on the proposal for a Council regulation establishing a multi-annual recovery plan for bluefin tuna in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (COM(2007)0169 – C6-0110/2007 – 2007/0058(CNS)) (A6-0408/2007).


  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. Mr President, firstly I would like to express my thanks to the rapporteur, Mr Braghetto, and to the Committee on Fisheries for this report, which raises the issue of the recovery plan for bluefin tuna.

The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna is a key stock for the Community. As confirmed by scientific advice, this bluefin tuna stock is now at high risk of collapse. All the states involved in this fishery have agreed to the need for urgent measures to ensure the sustainability of the bluefin tuna stock and of the fishery.

I am convinced that the recovery plan adopted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas in 2006 represents a realistic chance for the gradual recovery of bluefin tuna if it is fully respected. Therefore, decisive and effective action is immediately necessary at Community level. The speed of the implementation of the ICCAT recovery plan is an absolute must, both for conservation reasons and to safeguard the common fisheries policy’s credibility and the credibility of the EU fishermen themselves. The objective is to have the proposal agreed at the November Council.

During discussions held in the context of the Council preparations, many changes were introduced to the original proposal, some of which go in the direction of your suggested amendments. I am sure that we are in agreement on the objectives of urgently taking measures to eliminate overfishing and to ensure strict compliance with ICCAT measures, in order to bring the bluefin tuna stock to sustainable levels. This will, at the same time, improve the profitability of the fishing industry in the long term. Apart from the benefits to industry, there is also an international political commitment that we are obliged to fulfil.

Turning now to the report, I appreciate and share the Fisheries Committee’s view that the Community needs to address the excess fishing effort of its fleet. The Commission also considers that the annual fishing plan is an effective instrument to avoid overfishing because of the overcapacity of the Community fleet.

In this context, the Commission can accept Amendments 1, 2, 7 and 8 concerning the establishment of annual fishing plans to ensure a balance between the fishing effort of the Community fleet and the quotas. A relevant provision on this issue has been introduced in the Presidency compromise.

In addition, the Commission asks the Member States concerned to include in their operational plans a reduction of their fishing capacity, either temporary cessation or scrapping, to ensure that their quotas for 2008 and the following years are fully respected. I recognise that we are asking the industry to make considerable sacrifices, but these are necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of the fisheries, fleets and coastal communities concerned. The choice is between short-term sacrifice and the collapse of the stock.

Moreover, I totally agree with you that, in order to alleviate the socio-economic impact that will be caused by the reduction in fishing activity, it is necessary to ensure financial compensation for the industry. A provision on the related financing measure in line with Amendment 5 has also been introduced in the Presidency compromise. I am aware that there are other concerns. I share many of those concerns and know that they too will need to be addressed.

With respect to Amendment 3, let me state first of all that I am well aware that the number of cages for tuna fattening has increased greatly since 1990 and that their capacity exceeds the total sum of the TAC available.

ICCAT has now adopted a strict regulation in order to ensure the sustainable development of farming activities for bluefin tuna. The next step will be to regulate the number of farms. The Commission fully supports the adoption of the recommendation made by the ICCAT Working Group on Capacity in July 2007.

This recommendation proposes the implementation of a freeze on boat fishing capacity and farming capacity for bluefin tuna. We need to wait for the final results of the ICCAT discussion being held in Antalya this week. That is the reason why the Commission cannot accept, at this stage, the amendment concerning the limitation of farming capacity.

On the derogations relating to fishing areas and minimum size, I would like to remind you of the context within which such derogations were accepted by ICCAT. All contracting parties have agreed these derogations as part of the package on the recovery plan. These derogations were granted for artisanal fleets and for some seasonal fleets because their impact on catches is insignificant. In addition, these derogations include a series of strict conditions, such as a limited number of vessels, limited catches and designated ports. Having said that, the recovery plan may be revised in 2008 on the basis of new scientific advice or weaknesses detected in its implementation.

At this stage, the Community has a responsibility to ensure that the recovery plan is incorporated in Community legislation to ensure its full implementation. In this context, I cannot accept Parliament’s amendments on the deletion of the derogations, that is Amendments 4 and 6, or Amendments 12 and 13 on the renaming of the plan, the modification of the EC quotas and the introduction of a new payback system. These amendments are not in line with the recovery plan adopted by ICCAT and the ICCAT rules on payback.

Similarly, I cannot accept Amendment 10 regarding traps, since the proposal does not include measures to address this issue. For the first time, the recovery plan regulates trap activity and this will, in future, enable an evaluation of the impact of this fishing activity on the stock.

Regarding Amendments 9 and 11 relating to the harmonisation of sanctions and the possible closure of a national fishery of a Member State where it fails to respect its reporting requirements, let me say that, whereas we fully understand and share the spirit behind this proposal, we cannot accept the amendment in this context, as the proposal does not include measures that address the issue. The issue is one of general policy and the Commission will examine it in the forthcoming 2008 reform of the control framework of the common fisheries policy.

We consider that documentation and transmission of information to the Commission at set times is a crucial element for the success of the bluefin tuna recovery plan, and it is also a prerequisite if we are to monitor the uptake of the EU quota in real time. The Commission has therefore opened infringement procedures against all seven Member States which take part in the bluefin tuna fishery for shortcomings in data transmission.

In conclusion, let me state that we are deeply concerned about the overshoot of the quota by some Member States, which undermines the credibility of the Community at international level and jeopardises the success of the bluefin tuna recovery plan.

At the meeting of the Compliance Committee, which took place in Antalya on 8 and 9 November, the contracting parties – notably the United States and Canada – criticised the lack of compliance with ICCAT rules. As expected, the European Community was severely criticised for overshooting the TAC in 2007.

At the same time, the contracting parties acknowledged the difficulties for the European Community fleet in adapting to the reality of the recovery plan, which entered into force in 2007, and welcomed the European Community proposal on a specific payback regime. The Compliance Committee has adopted a specific recommendation concerning a payback system for the overshoot of the EC quota in 2007, which comes to 4 440 tonnes, based on an EC proposal.

In accordance with this recommendation, the overharvesting of the European Community’s quota in 2007 will result in a yearly deduction of 1 480 tonnes from its annual quota for the period 2009-2011.

In addition, the Compliance Committee agreed that the figure for the European Community was provisional and may be subject to review and eventual adjustment as a result of ongoing investigations. This recommendation will be adopted by ICCAT during its plenary session on 18 November.

Nevertheless, we have to reassure the ICCAT parties that the European Community will do its utmost to ensure that quotas allocated to the vessels of our Member States are scrupulously monitored by those Member States and by the European Commission, in order to ensure respect for the quota set for 2008 and the forthcoming years.

Following the adoption of this regulation, the Commission is resolved to work closely with the Member States to ensure and closely monitor the full implementation of the bluefin tuna recovery plan. The Community Fisheries Control Agency will also play an active role. The agency has started the preparatory work for the coordination of control and inspection activities by Member States, with a view to having everything in place for the 2008 bluefin tuna season.


  Iles Braghetto (PPE-DE), relatore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, il piano della Commissione europea per la ricostituzione degli stock di tonno rosso varato dall'ICCAT si pone l'obiettivo di rispondere alle preoccupazioni degli ambienti scientifici in merito alla critica situazione degli stock dovuta ad un eccesso dello sforzo di pesca.

È stato un piano variamente giudicato per una diversa percezione, presente tra gli esperti scientifici e gli operatori di pesca, sulla necessità di tutelarne la risorsa. Si ritiene comunque che esso corrisponda sufficientemente alle esigenze evidenziate, in particolare laddove prevede una progressiva riduzione del contingente di cattura sino al 20% nel 2010 rispetto al 2006, l'aumento della taglia minima a 30 kg, la previsione di limitazione del periodo di pesca, il rafforzamento delle misure di controllo e di contrasto della pesca illegale.

Nel dettaglio, il lavoro svolto in commissione ha inteso rafforzare alcune linee del piano proponendo di:

– prevedere e sollecitare la presentazione di piani di pesca da parte degli Stati membri nel quadro degli accordi di pesca, anche qualora si trattasse di stock in buono stato biologico, poiché uno dei problemi principali è rappresentato dalla sovracapacità della flotta rispetto alle quote disponibili;

– stabilire in ogni Stato membro un equilibrio tra la capacità delle sue aziende di ingrasso e le quote di cui dispone;

– eliminare le deroghe sia per le zone di pesca che per le taglie minime: esse contrastano con le indicazioni di tutti gli esperti scientifici e con il parere espresso dalla maggioranza degli Stati membri. Infatti, le deroghe non sono giustificate sotto il profilo biologico in quanto unico è lo stock del Mediterraneo e dell'Atlantico, introducono forti distorsioni nel meccanismo competitivo, inducono l'intensificarsi della pesca in quelle aree anche da parte della flotta tradizionalmente non interessata e riducono l'efficacia dei controlli;

– spingere poi gli Stati membri a rispettare i loro obblighi di presentazione dei dati e delle informazioni alla Commissione, ponendo fine alle attività di pesca nazionali quando gli Stati non forniscono dati relativi alle catture;

– elaborare un piano di riabilitazione delle tonnare dell'Atlantico e di recupero di quelle che hanno cessato la loro attività nel Mediterraneo al fine di preservare un modo sostenibile di pesca del tonno che si rivela altamente selettivo;

– prevedere compensazioni finanziarie a carico del Fondo europeo della pesca da corrispondere al personale marittimo nei periodi di fermo pesca al fine di salvaguardare e tutelare l'equilibrio socioeconomico delle imprese e dei lavoratori della pesca;

– armonizzare le misure sanzionatorie al fine di evitare difformità fra i diversi paesi membri nell'esecuzione del presente regolamento.

Infine, le procedure d'infrazione aperte nei mesi scorsi verso alcuni Stati membri per il mancato rispetto delle quote assegnate nel 2007 sono certamente un atto dovuto e necessario, ma va anche ricordato il termine ristretto dell'entrata in vigore per quest'anno delle attuali disposizioni.

Poi, consapevoli che la gestione della risorsa è particolarmente complessa, in particolare nelle aree in cui esiste una forte concorrenza di altre flotte non UE, in particolare nel Mediterraneo, si chiede un maggior rispetto del principio di reciprocità per assicurare il leale perseguimento degli scopi indicati dall'ICCAT. Queste misure infatti saranno efficaci solo se i loro principi e le loro disposizioni troveranno applicazione condivisa da tutti i paesi UE e non UE.

Per concludere Presidente, desidero rivolgere un grazie particolare a tutti i colleghi e colleghe per il lavoro comune svolto.


  Carmen Fraga Estévez, en nombre del Grupo PPE-DE. – Señor Presidente, aunque comparto las opiniones de que este plan de recuperación no es tan ambicioso como debería, lo cierto es que ha sido el fruto de un difícil compromiso en la CICAA y aprobándolo creo que damos un gran paso y enviamos un mensaje, por primera vez, muy claro a los responsables de la sobrepesca de esta especie.

De cualquier forma, en lo que a la Unión Europea se refiere, la grave situación del atún rojo ha sido responsabilidad de ciertos Estados miembros que han permitido e incluso, alentado, un desmesurado crecimiento de sus flotas en el Mediterráneo y de la Comisión que, perfectamente conocedora de este abuso y de las infradeclaraciones continuas de capturas, no ha movido un dedo para corregir hasta ahora la situación.

Esta irresponsabilidad es la que ha abocado a que la pesquería haya tenido que cerrarse para todos los Estados miembros por el escándalo de que, en el mes de agosto, dos países ya habían pescado la cuota de toda la Unión Europea.

Por eso, creo que es importante que el Pleno respalde el informe del señor Braghetto, que incluye mi enmienda para que, de ahora en adelante, los Estados miembros tengan que presentar previamente un plan de pesca que garantice un número máximo de buques y un esfuerzo pesquero acorde con la cuota de cada país. La Comisión se ha mostrado favorable a incluir este plan de pesca y esperemos que el Consejo lo apoye igualmente.

Lamento, sin embargo, que el informe no haya salvado algunas excepciones para las flotas que pescan en el Atlántico desde tiempo inmemorial, que pescan una parte ínfima de la cuota comunitaria con artes de pesca mucho más selectivas. Los que participan en estas pesquerías tradicionales se ven así obligados a pagar las culpas de la avaricia desenfrenada de las flotas de cerco de los dos Estados miembros ya aludidos, sin comerlo ni beberlo. Una injusticia que, también, confío que repararán tanto este Parlamento como el Consejo.

Finalmente, sólo me queda pedir y exigir a la Comisión que tome todas las medidas necesarias para que en el reparto de la cuota comunitaria del próximo año los Estados miembros que se han visto obligados a dejar de pescar porque otros han consumido las cuotas a las que ellos tenían derecho sean debidamente compensados y que se detraigan de las cuotas de los culpables todas las toneladas necesarias, para que ésta sea una compensación real y efectiva.




  Rosa Miguélez Ramos, en nombre del Grupo PSE. – Señor Presidente, considero muy positiva la propuesta que nos formula la Comisión de transponer al ordenamiento comunitario el plan de recuperación para el atún rojo acordado en la CICAA, y coincido con el Comisario en que las medidas que contiene, de ser aplicadas correctamente, permitirán una recuperación progresiva de los stocks tanto del Atlántico como del Mediterráneo.

El plan —y esto es muy importante para mí— ha tenido en cuenta las características específicas de las pesquerías artesanales, concediéndoles condiciones para no penalizar su actividad y tratando de compaginar la conservación del recurso con los aspectos socioeconómicos.

Con respecto a este asunto, quisiera manifestarle al Comisario que mi país solicitó desde el primer momento cierta flexibilidad en la talla mínima a aplicar a la flota de tipo artesanal, por lo que pidió que se incluyese un porcentaje determinado de la cuota con una talla inferior a los 30 kg destinado a esta flota de anzuelo.

La Comisión entendió esta petición y entendió que en una situación provocada por las grandes flotas industriales no podían ser «los paganos» los pequeños pescadores artesanales, y aceptó incluir esta medida, aunque la rebajó al 2 % en el plan.

Pero, señor Comisario, el lugar en que la situó, el punto 6 del anexo I, suscita dudas sobre el ámbito geográfico de aplicación.

Limitar esta medida a las pesquerías atlánticas supondría condenar a la flota artesanal del Mediterráneo, que no tiene ni siquiera capacidad para desplazarse a los caladeros atlánticos, a la desaparición pura y dura. Y, precisamente, estamos hablando de una flota histórica que, durante siglos, ha venido operando sin provocar problemas en el stock y que si empezó a declinar fue justamente por culpa de la sobrecapacidad de la flota de cerco del Mediterráneo.

La medida, señor Comisario, debería aplicarse a las flotas de todos los países que participan en las pesquerías, no sólo a las que disponen de flotas atlánticas. Argelia, Túnez o Turquía tienen derecho también a usar una parte de su cuota para defender a sus flotas artesanales frente a la competencia de las flotas industriales y no creo que esta excepción —mínima, como usted bien sabe— vaya a suponer merma alguna en la efectividad del plan de recuperación.

Es por eso que le pido que la Comisión tenga en cuenta las dudas creadas por la inclusión de esta medida en el punto 6 del anexo I y que los representantes de la Comisión se esfuercen, durante la reunión de la CICAA que se está celebrando, en aclarar que ese 2 % de capturas pueden llevarlo a cabo las flotas artesanales tanto en el Atlántico como en el Mediterráneo.

Respecto al informe que hoy debatimos, quisiera decirle al ponente que mi grupo se opone, una vez más, a que se supriman las excepciones a la talla mínima y a las zonas de veda, excepciones que, como ha dicho el Comisario, son las acordadas en la CICAA. Por la misma razón también, nos oponemos y nos opondremos mañana en la votación, a las enmiendas nuevas presentadas por el Grupo de los Verdes.


  Alfonso Andria, a nome del gruppo ALDE. – Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, innanzitutto mi congratulo con il relatore, onorevole Braghetto, per l'ottimo lavoro svolto in commissione pesca, che ci ha permesso di presentare al voto di domani un testo equilibrato e che, anche sulla base delle pregresse esperienze, apporta dei correttivi sicuramente migliorativi al regolamento per la ricostituzione del tonno rosso.

L'eliminazione delle deroghe alle quote fisse per le catture del tonno, prima mantenute in alcuni casi, e per le catture avvenute nell'Atlantico orientale o nell'Adriatico, rappresenta a mio giudizio uno dei maggiori successi di questo passaggio parlamentare. Tali deroghe non solo non troverebbero adeguata giustificazione sotto il profilo biologico in quanto unico è lo stock del Mediterraneo e dell'Atlantico, ma rischierebbero addirittura di introdurre forti distorsioni nel meccanismo competitivo inducendo a intensificare la pesca in quelle determinate aree non soggette a restrizioni. Ne conseguirebbe oltretutto un aggravio per i controlli che sarebbero certamente meno efficaci.

Concordo poi con il relatore sulla necessità di garantire ai pescatori delle compensazioni finanziarie durante il periodo di ferma forzoso ed accolgo anche con favore l'ipotesi di un piano di riabilitazione delle tonnare.

Occorre inoltre combattere strenuamente la pesca illegale ritenuta una delle maggiori piaghe nella tutela degli stock di tonno rosso. Sebbene la proposta di regolamento affronti il problema dei controlli in maniera più incisiva che in passato, tuttavia persiste una difforme applicazione del dispositivo legislativo nei diversi Stati membri che andrebbe a mio giudizio corretta. Trovo necessaria una maggiore collaborazione tra Stati al fine di armonizzare le legislazioni nazionali in materia di misure di esecuzione ed è in questa direzione che si muove il mio emendamento.

Rimane però a mio avviso ancora un nodo da sciogliere: la gestione della risorsa "tonno rosso" nell'area mediterranea andrebbe affrontata con una strategia globale e concordata con gli altri paesi non membri dell'ICCAT, ma che pure pescano nel Mediterraneo. Penso, ad esempio, alle flotte giapponesi, pena la vanificazione degli obiettivi perseguiti dal regolamento.

Pertanto auspico, e concludo, un voto di conferma del testo così come licenziato dalla commissione pesca.


  Raül Romeva i Rueda, en nombre del Grupo Verts/ALE. – Señor Presidente, yo también quiero empezar por reconocer el trabajo del colega Braghetto en este informe. Sin embargo, tal y como ya mencioné en su momento, durante la discusión en la Comisión de Pesca, y basándome en los informes que numerosos científicos, organizaciones ambientales e incluso partes del sector están elaborando, creo que el título del informe debería modificarse.

En lugar de referirnos a una supuesta regulación del plan de recuperación del atún rojo, a este plan lo deberíamos llamar plan de no recuperación o, mejor aún, plan de aniquilación del atún. Porque seamos claros, cuando el mal llamado plan de recuperación fue adoptado en la CICAA, hace un año en Dubrovnik, ya entonces el Comité Científico alertó —y cito—: «En general, los resultados preliminares indican que no es probable que las medidas adoptadas, aunque son un paso en la dirección correcta, cumplan plenamente el objetivo del plan». Y añadía: «Si la implementación es perfecta y si el reclutamiento futuro se encuentra en aproximadamente el nivel de los 90 y no se ve afectado por el nivel reciente de biomasa reproductora, existe un 50 % de probabilidad de recuperación en 2023 con las regulaciones actuales».

Es decir, con estos supuestos, bien una implementación imperfecta o bien un reclutamiento que descienda respecto a los niveles recientes a medida que la biomasa reproductora desciende, o bien por ambos, los objetivos del plan de recuperación difícilmente se podrán cumplir.

E insisto en que me baso ni más ni menos que en los informes científicos. Y por si esto fuera poco, resulta que este plan, que, de forma provisional, ya ha sido puesto en práctica este 2007, ha funcionado tan mal que la Unión Europea ha superado la cuota que le correspondía en un 26 %, lo cual ha obligado, en una medida que no tiene precedentes, a iniciar procedimientos legales contra todos aquellos países que no han respetado las reglas, sobre todo, Francia e Italia.

Por cierto, que aprovecho también para interesarme sobre cómo es que otro país, España, ha exportado en 2006 casi 9 000 toneladas de atún cuando sólo declaró haber capturado 4 700, según han señalado organizaciones como Greenpeace o Adena.

Por último, también sería interesante saber qué medidas piensa tomar la Comisión, así como los Gobiernos, para controlar e incluso reducir el tamaño de la flota pesquera dado que parece cuando menos difícil pensar que es posible reducir las capturas si cada vez tenemos más y mejores barcos que, en la mayoría de los casos, viven precisamente de las subvenciones europeas. Quizás, en la reunión de la CICAA que está teniendo lugar estos días en Antalia, en Turquía, a la que asistirán mis colegas Marie-Hélène Aubert y Michael Earle se nos den algunas respuestas.

Pero para mí la conclusión inmediata es simple y alarmante a la vez: todos los indicios apuntan a que la situación del stock está muy por debajo de las previsiones más optimistas. Hay incluso quien afirma que ya hemos superado el punto de no retorno. Es decir, en estas condiciones se me hace difícil pensar que el actual plan se pueda llamar plan de recuperación y no de otro modo.


  James Nicholson (PPE-DE). – Mr President, can I, first of all, also add my congratulations to the rapporteur on this report. To achieve recovery in any recovery plan is always difficult. This is no different from many of the others establishing a multiannual recovery plan, but this time it is for bluefin tuna. I, like everyone else, sincerely hope that the programme will be successful.

I have only had one experience and that was with the cod recovery plan in the Irish Sea. During those years the fishermen in that area did not receive any compensation for not being allowed to fish during that period. I believe two wrongs never make a right: if you have conservation then I believe you must also be prepared to pay compensation – I do not believe there is any alternative. It is fine to ask for sacrifice but sacrifice also comes at a price.

I recognise that this report is extremely sensitive for fishermen who come from the Mediterranean and those who fish in the Atlantic. So, from an economic and social perspective, it is going to be extremely difficult for them. In such circumstances, this will also be a very painful regulation for the fishermen on the ground in this region. However, the preservation and the protection of species of bluefin tuna are paramount.


  Paulo Casaca (PSE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, também eu quero saudar o nosso relator, o nosso colega Braghetto pelo excelente trabalho que aqui nos está a apresentar e queria começar por dizer que a incapacidade da actual política comum das pescas para assegurar a sustentabilidade desta actividade tem como exemplo mais claro a situação que hoje enfrentamos com o atum rabilho no Atlântico Oriental e, em particular, no Mediterrâneo. E isso mesmo foi recentemente reconhecido por um estudo muito interessante encomendado pela Direcção-Geral das Pescas e que o Senhor Comissário Joe Borg teve a atenção de tornar público e pelo qual eu quero aqui agradecer esse seu gesto.

O facto é que as medidas duras a que agora assistimos neste domínio com o encerramento total da pesca antes do final do ano, tentativa de abate de uma parte substancial da frota, perspectiva de total paralisia da actividade, mesmo se porventura não conseguir atingir os seus objectivos, se é uma consequência directa de uma concepção da política comum das pescas em que as decisões sobre a gestão foram dissociadas da sua aplicação e do seu controlo e em que as comunidades piscatórias e as autoridades foram desresponsabilizadas por uma competência exclusiva europeia que, no entanto, não foi exercida por quem a reclama.

Técnicas tradicionais de pesca como a arte do salto e vara, ambientalmente sustentáveis, mas economicamente menos rentáveis foram obrigadas a confrontar-se com modernas tecnologias e meios sofisticadíssimos, incomparavelmente mais rentáveis no curto prazo, mas ambientalmente não sustentáveis, só agora surgindo finalmente algumas medidas discriminatórias deste último tipo de embarcações que eu gostaria aqui de apoiar e realçar o meu total apoio àquilo que foi aqui dito pela minha camarada Rosa Miguélez, que é fundamental privilegiar os métodos artesanais de pesca.

A situação de ameaça iminente da extinção comercial da pesca do rabilho deve servir-nos a todos de matéria de reflexão sobre aquilo que urge fazer na globalidade da Política Comum das Pescas.


  Ιωάννης Γκλαβάκης (PPE-DE). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, κύριε Επίτροπε, συμφωνώ με τις περισσότερες θέσεις του κυρίου Braghetto για την αποκατάσταση των αποθεμάτων του τόνου. Νομίζω ότι όλοι θέλουμε θάλασσες με ικανοποιητικά ιχθυοαποθέματα.

Θα ήθελα όμως να εκφράσω δύο προβληματισμούς μου. Πρώτον, προβλέπεται η καθιέρωση υποβολής ενός λεπτομερούς σχεδίου αλιείας τόνου από τα αλιευτικά σκάφη, θέλοντας να εξασφαλίσουμε μεγαλύτερο έλεγχο. Εκτιμώ ότι η κατάσταση αυτού του σχεδίου αλιείας είναι εφικτή μόνο από τα μεγάλα θυναλιευτικά σκάφη που αλιεύουν αποκλειστικά τόνο, και όχι από μικρά σκάφη που εκτός των άλλων ειδών, ψαρεύουν και τόνο.

Θέλουμε όλοι να ελέγξουμε την αλιεία τόνου αλλά να μην αποκλείσουμε και τα κράτη που έχουν μικρά σκάφη. Εξάλλου, εδώ υπάρχει μεγάλη αλιευτική παράδοση.

Δεύτερον, το σημείο αυτό αναφέρεται στην τροπολογία 3 που συνδέει τη δυναμικότητα των μονάδων πάχυνσης με την εθνική ποσόστωση. Η εκτροφή του κόκκινου τόνου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση διενεργείται σε χώρες διαφορετικές από αυτές που έχουν τις μεγάλες ποσοστώσεις.

Η χώρα μου, για παράδειγμα, δεν είναι από τις ευνοημένες χώρες στο θέμα των ποσοστώσεων. Από την άλλη μεριά όμως έχουμε συγκριτικά πλεονεκτήματα όσον αφορά την εκτροφή του. Γιατί θα πρέπει να μειώσουμε τη δυναμικότητα των μονάδων μας στο επίπεδο της ποσόστωσής μας;

Τελειώνοντας, στο σημείο αυτό θα ήθελα να αναφερθώ στο απαράδεκτο γεγονός να απαγορευθεί η αλιεία τόνου το Σεπτέμβριο, επειδή δύο χώρες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης αλίευσαν ποσότητες όσες έπρεπε να αλιεύσουν όλα τα κράτη μαζί. Οι χώρες αυτές πρέπει να υποστούν τις πρέπουσες κυρώσεις. Αντιθέτως, οι χώρες που στερήθηκαν τα αλιευτικά δικαιώματα για φέτος, πρέπει τη νέα χρονιά πρώτες να πάρουν το ποσοστό που στερήθηκαν, ενώ ταυτόχρονα πρέπει να βρούμε τρόπους έγκαιρου ελέγχου των αλιευμάτων.


  Robert Navarro (PSE). – Monsieur le Président, qu'il me soit tout d'abord permis de féliciter le rapporteur, M. Braghetto, pour son excellent travail. Les négociations de la CICTA étant toujours en cours, nous ne savons pas encore à quelle sauce nos pêcheurs vont être mangés l'an prochain. Ce qui est sûr, c'est que ce qui s'est passé cet été est grave et qu'il va falloir sérieusement revoir le mécanisme de contrôle de la pêche. La Commission est en train de s'y atteler et je m'en félicite, même si je crains que certaines des mesures proposées le mois dernier pour éradiquer la pêche illégale seront difficiles à faire avaler au Conseil.

J'espère en tout cas que l'Agence communautaire de contrôle des pêches réussira à mettre en place une véritable coordination des moyens européens pour effectuer les contrôles nécessaires, car les contrôles nationaux ne fonctionnent pas. Nos amis espagnols, portugais et grecs ont beau jeu de s'indigner du comportement des pêcheurs français et italiens et de l'échec des contrôles mis en place par ces deux États. Personne n'est dupe! Nous savons tous que chaque pays a trop longtemps couvert les agissements illicites de ses propres pêcheurs. C'est pour cela – n'en déplaise à certains – qu'il faut des contrôles européens renforcés, et c'est pour cela que je suis convaincu qu'un corps de garde-côtes européen est nécessaire.

Il faut aussi parler de sanctions pour cette surpêche. La CICTA va probablement décider de pénaliser la Communauté, qui elle-même devrait pénaliser les États membres fautifs. Le gouvernement français a claironné qu'il serait intraitable et que des têtes tomberaient. J'espère, pour ma part, que ces sanctions, qui n'auraient pas été nécessaires si les contrôles avaient été effectifs, seront fermes, mais justes et équitables. Et je souhaite que ceux qui pratiquent une pêche du thon traditionnelle, dont l'impact sur la ressource est moindre, ne seront pas pénalisés pour les errements des autres.

Enfin, les scientifiques ayant clairement établi que les capacités des flotilles européennes étaient, dans le cas du thon rouge, disproportionnées par rapport à la ressource, je profite de cette intervention pour demander au commissaire quels sont les moyens prévus pour accompagner la reconversion des pêcheurs qui seront amenés à cesser leur activité.


  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. Mr President, first of all I would like to thank the honourable Members of Parliament for the interesting points they have made.

What has emerged from this debate is recognition of the fact that we share a common objective, which is that of effectively addressing the precarious situation of bluefin tuna. The best way of addressing the poor stock status is to implement the ICCAT recovery plan. I thus thank Parliament for its proposal regarding national fishing plans, which is an effective tool for addressing compliance on overcapacity.

On the issue of derogations, the Commission cannot modify the contents of the plan adopted by ICCAT. All the contracting parties have agreed to those derogations. Let me remind you that the derogations were granted for artisanal fleets and for some seasonal fleets because their impact on catches is insignificant. Furthermore, those derogations include a series of strict conditions, such as a limited number of vessels, limited catches and designated ports. Having said that, the recovery plan may be revised in 2010 on the basis of new scientific advice or weaknesses detected in its implementation.

As regards the point made by Mrs Miguélez Ramos, who wanted a further extension to the two specific instances in the Atlantic and in the Adriatic, these are specific, small and inconsequential cases. To extend them to cover other areas necessitates a change to the ICCAT recovery plan agreement. That certainly cannot take place this year. We do not want to reopen the ICCAT plan. A revision is scheduled for 2008 but, given the criticism of the two derogations, I believe it will be extremely difficult to extend them even further.

Overcapacity will be addressed through the national plans to be submitted by the Member States, which will have to balance capacity with catch. In addition, in our discussions in the Council, we have managed to introduce enhanced control measures to allow for better compliance. Furthermore, in 2008 we will be concentrating our efforts on the reinforcement of controls in general.

We are also insisting that, under the European Fisheries Fund, funds are committed for the decommissioning of vessels in those Member States where there is overcapacity, in particular with regard to bluefin tuna fisheries.

On the question of ensuring that other fishing vessels comply with ICCAT regulations, which is to say fishing vessels belonging to third countries, the ICCAT provisions apply to all ICCAT partners, and we expect all of them to adhere to the terms and conditions of the bluefin tuna recovery plan. If they do not, we will take this up with them within ICCAT and bilaterally. If they refuse to honour their commitments, then we will consider other measures that can be taken.

Regarding the question of overfishing by two countries, I have already said that we support the national fishing plans, and this features in the Presidency compromise, which I hope will be endorsed by all Member States at the November Council.

The amounts overfished have to be repaid, and this was agreed to in Antalya. The result will be a yearly deduction of 1 480 tonnes for the period 2009-2011. Compensation with regard to states underfishing will take place with effect from 2008.


  Presidente. La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà giovedì, alle 12.00.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 142)


  Francesco Musotto (PPE-DE), per iscritto. – La relazione Braghetto contiene spunti fondamentali per l'attuazione del piano di recupero del tonno rosso. Tale piano impone pesanti restrizioni alla pesca, motivate dall'esigenza di tutelare gli stock di una specie in pericolo. L' iniziativa rischia però di risultare inefficace, se l'Unione Europea non adotta misure volte a compensarne l'impatto socioeconomico. La relazione ha il merito di evidenziare tale lacuna, proponendo strumenti adeguati ad attuare efficacemente le raccomandazioni della Commissione e dell'ICCAT.

In merito agli aspetti socioeconomici, la pesca di tonno rappresenta un'attività tradizionale, fonte di reddito esclusiva per migliaia di famiglie: il fermo totale deve essere accompagnato da compensazioni finanziarie dal FEP a favore degli operatori.

Inoltre é indispensabile che gli Stati membri applichino sanzioni contro la pesca illegale, vera causa dell'impoverimento degli stock. Inutile colpire i pescatori onesti, senza avere gli strumenti per bloccare i predatori del mare.

Infine, è essenziale esigere reciprocità dagli Stati terzi: a poco serve sacrificare i nostri operatori per tutelare la specie, se gli altri Stati, e mi riferisco per esempio alla Libia, alla Turchia, ma anche a Cina e Giappone, non applicano restrizioni altrettanto severe nei loro mari. Godrebbero di un vantaggio competitivo rispetto agli operatori europei, ma il problema del depauperamento del tonno non troverebbe soluzione.

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